Presentation on theme: "1 Design, Prototyping, and Evaluation in Developing Countries Jen Mankoff, Assistant Professor EECS."— Presentation transcript:
1 Design, Prototyping, and Evaluation in Developing Countries Jen Mankoff, Assistant Professor EECS
2 What is human computer interaction about? Creating applications that provide needed services to clients in acceptable ways Supporting specific goals – Efficiency – Fun – … A design process that leads to successful adoption of designs
3 What is human computer interaction about? Understanding interaction of – Tasks – Customers – Technology – Environment Techniques for cycle of – Design – Prototyping – Evaluation Tasks Customers Technology Environment
4 Case Study: Computers for Rural Healthcare Handheld support for rural healthcare providers Tasks supported – Rapid access to medical records – Addition of a new case – Specific modules for pregnant women, young children, etc. Employed a user-centered methodology (includes customers/technology/Tasks/environment and iterative design)
5 – Norman – Value Sensitive (informed by rural health example)
6 Design: Norman paper Even designing for engineers from MIT is difficult to get right Solution: Use a discoverable conceptual model – Familiar affordances – Visibility of functionality – Natural mappings – Include feedback – Avoid creeping featurism Solution: Need to iterate on designs (6-8 times!)
7 What does Norman’s model leave out? Differing context of developing countries – We don’t necessarily know what’s familiar – Conceptual Models may be different Affordances differ Natural mappings differ Other thoughts?…. – Iteration even more key Differing values in developing countries
8 Value Sensitive Design Values “depend on the interests and desires of humans within a cultural milieu” Explicitly considers both direct and indirect stakeholders (important for adoption) Tripartite methodology -- shared with usability – Conceptual investigations – Empirical investigations – Technological investigations … all support design
10 Prototyping Rapid prototyping is crucial Goal of prototyping is to support further evaluation and design (iteration)
11 Prototyping Techniques Paper Prototyping Build it Wizard of Oz None are perfect -- research lies in creating tools & techniques that will support rapid development and evaluation
12 Paper Prototyping Sketch it out on paper – Fast, simple, effective – Simulate “computer”, get feedback about real use Problems – Only really effective in well-constrained environments – Limited to desktop-like applications
13 Build it “sketch” it out on a computer – Existing prototyping tools & UI builders – Easy to create familiar look and feel Problems – Existing tools limited to the desktop Lack support for small, mobile devices Lack support for variety of input and output – Familiar look and feel limited to our culture
14 Wizard of Oz Fake it – Only “prototype” the surface – Use a human “behind the curtain” to fake the rest – Particularly good for recognition Problems – Easiest to do in a constrained environment – How does one “fake” rapid sensor input, etc? – Wizard must understand dialect, culture, etc.
15 – Conceptual – Empirical – Technological (informed by rural health example)
16 Many Different Evaluation Technqies Different strengths and weaknesses Appropriate at different stages of iteration Samples presented today categorized under tripartite methodology – Conceptual investigations – Empirical investigations – Technological investigations
17 Conceptual Investigations Usability: Task analysis: – What task? – Who are the stakeholders? – Where will it take place? (e.g. need for rugged design) – When will it take place? – Why is it being done? Values – Value identification; – Stakeholder analysis (who are they, benefits & harms for each group, connection to values); – Informed comparison of fundamental issues (are there conflicts, etc)
18 Empirical Investigations Usability & Values both incorporate – Ethnographic inquiries – Surveys – Interviews However, the questions asked differ
19 Empirical Investigations: Questions to Ask Usability – Who/Where/When/What/Why (task analysis) – What is the conceptual model work? – What are appropriate forms of feedback, mappings, etc? Values – How are different values prioritized by stakeholders? – How does what is said differ from what is done? – What is the impact of larger structures such as organizations and governments on what is possible?
20 Technical Investigations Usability & Values both incorporate: – Toolkits supporting good practice – “Probes” (technology, culture, value,…) – Experiments with prototypes – Field studies Again, the questions asked differ
21 Technical Investigations: Questions to Ask Usability – Does a system meet specific goals (such as usability, learnability, fun, etc) – Does the conceptual model work? Values – Does a given technology allow values to be expressed in certain ways? – Does a given technology imply values or impose values that were not the designer’s intent? – What benefits and harms does a technology imply? How does this map onto corresponding values?
22 As it happens… Major research goal for me is developing tools and techniques for evaluation – Ubiquitous computing (mobile devices, unconstrained environments) – Universal access (disability, literacy, etc) Applications in developing countries are a perfect testbed for these ideas
23 Contributions to date Tools & Techniques for simulating different user experiences – Motor impairments – Visual impairments (relates to literacy) Technique for handling different values (modified heuristic evaluation) Comparison of field & lab techniques for dealing with a subset of ubicomp applications
24 Plans for the future Tool for supporting combination of paper prototyping & Wizard of Oz in unconstrained, mobile applications Modifications to Ubicomp prototyping tools specific to supporting different evaluation techniques Additional modifications to evaluation techniques