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SYNONYMS.  Definition of Synonymy  Criteria of Synonymy  Types of Synonyms  Types of Connotations  Sources of Synonymy.

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Presentation on theme: "SYNONYMS.  Definition of Synonymy  Criteria of Synonymy  Types of Synonyms  Types of Connotations  Sources of Synonymy."— Presentation transcript:

1 SYNONYMS

2  Definition of Synonymy  Criteria of Synonymy  Types of Synonyms  Types of Connotations  Sources of Synonymy

3 Synonyms  words of the same language  belong to the same part of speech  possess one or more identical or nearly identical denotational meanings  interchangeable, at least in some contexts

4 Synonyms  differ in morphemic shape  differ in phonemic shape  differ in shades of meaning, connotations  differ in style, idiomatic use

5 Denotative meaning Connota- tive style Idiomatic usage hope having something in mind which is likely to happen A belief +desire that some event would happen neutral Lose hope, pin one’s hope on smth Expecta -tion May be of good or of evil literary Anticipa -tion pleasurable expectation of smth good

6 Criteria of Synonymy   conceptual criterion   the criterion of interchangeability   semantic criterion

7 Conceptual Criterion  convey the same concept  differ in shades of meaning  differ in stylistic characteristics BUT: Washington is the capital of the USA. (referent is the same, but there’s no linguistic relationship of synonymity)

8 Semantic Criterion   have the same denotation   differ in connotations

9 Semantic Criterion denotation connotations To stare To look Steadily, lastingly In surprise, curiosity To glare To look Steadily, lastingly In anger, rage, fury To gaze To look Steadily, lastingly In tenderness, admiration, wonder To glance To look Briefly, in passing

10 The Criterion of Interchangeability   interchangeable at least in some contexts without any considerable alteration in denotational meaning

11 The Criterion of Interchangeability e.g. e.g. pretty, good-looking, handsome, beautiful girl e.g. He glared at her (angrily) He glazed at her (with admiration or interest) He glanced at her (briefly)

12 Classification of Synonyms (by V.V. Vinogradov)   absolute – words coinciding in all their shades of meaning and in all their stylistic characteristics

13 Classification of Synonyms (by V.V. Vinogradov)   ideographic (denotational)– words conveying the same concept but differing in shades of meaning   e.g. to look – to see – to gaze – to glare

14 Classification of Synonyms (by V.V. Vinogradov)   stylistic – words differing in stylistic characteristics   e.g. father – Dad - Daddy

15 Types of Connotations   connotation of degree or intensity e.g. to like – to admire – to love – to adore – to worship   connotation of duration e.g. to shudder (brief) – to shiver (lasting)

16 Types of Connotations   emotive connotations e.g. to tremble – to shiver – to shudder (emotion of fear, horror, disgust) – to shake   evaluative connotation – attitude towards the referent, labeling it as good or bad e.g. well-known – famous - notorious (negative connotation) - celebrated

17 Types of Connotations   causative connotation e.g. to blush from modesty, shame or embarrassment to redden from anger or indignation   connotation of manner e.g. to stroll – to stride – to trot – to pace - to swagger – to stagger – to stumble

18 Types of Connotations   connotation of attendant circumstances e.g. to peep at smb/smth through a hole, a crack or opening, from a half-closed door, a curtain to peer at smb/smth in darkness, through the fog, from a great distance, through dimmed glasses or windows

19 Types of Connotations   stylistic connotation colloquial dialect slang poeticarchaic e.g. (girl) girlie (colloquial), lass, lassie (dialect), bird, birdie, jane, fluff, skirt (slang), maiden (poetic), damsel (archaic)

20 Dominant Synonym   high frequency of usage   broad combinability   broad general meaning   lack of connotations e.g. to look – to glare – to gaze to make – to produce – to create – to fabricate - to manufacture

21 Hyponymy   generic term –name for the notion of the genus as distinguished from the name of species – hyponyms e.g. animal-dog – wolf – mouse generic termnames of the species included into generic term

22 Sources of Synonyms Native English words - neutral French words - literary Greco-Latin words - learned To ask To question To interrogate bellystomachabdomen To gather To assemble To collect To end To finish To complete teachingguidanceinstruction

23 Synonymic Differentiation   the word survived with a meaning more or less removed from the original one and became an obsolete or archaic word   obsolete and modern words exist in the language but the obsolete word has a very specific meaning e.g. girl – OE wench

24 Sources of Synonyms  the  synonymic attraction - the referent which is very popular attracts a large number of synonymse.g.   variants and dialects of English e.g. lass (Scottish) - girl (English) long-distance call (USA) – trunk call (British)

25 Sources of Synonyms   word-building e.g. lablaboratory – e.g. lablaboratory – shortening cheery - cheerfulaffixation anxiety – anxiousness   phrasal verbs and set expressions e.g. to continue – to go on to smoke – to have a smoke

26 Sources of Synonyms   euphemisms – a shift of unpleasant meaning of a word to a more pleasant or milder one e.g. drunk – merry naked – in one’s birthday suit


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