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Presentation on theme: "SYNONYMS."— Presentation transcript:


2 Definition of Synonymy
Criteria of Synonymy Types of Synonyms Types of Connotations Sources of Synonymy

3 Synonyms words of the same language belong to the same part of speech
possess one or more identical or nearly identical denotational meanings interchangeable, at least in some contexts

4 Synonyms differ in morphemic shape differ in phonemic shape
differ in shades of meaning, connotations differ in style, idiomatic use

5 having something in mind which is likely to happen neutral
Denotative meaning Connota-tive style Idiomatic usage hope having something in mind which is likely to happen A belief +desire that some event would happen neutral Lose hope, pin one’s hope on smth Expecta-tion May be of good or of evil literary Anticipa-tion pleasurable expectation of smth good

6 Criteria of Synonymy conceptual criterion
the criterion of interchangeability semantic criterion

7 Conceptual Criterion convey the same concept
differ in shades of meaning differ in stylistic characteristics BUT: Washington is the capital of the USA. (referent is the same, but there’s no linguistic relationship of synonymity)

8 Semantic Criterion have the same denotation differ in connotations

9 Semantic Criterion connotations To stare To look Steadily, lastingly
denotation connotations To stare To look Steadily, lastingly In surprise, curiosity To glare In anger, rage, fury To gaze In tenderness, admiration, wonder To glance Briefly, in passing

10 The Criterion of Interchangeability
interchangeable at least in some contexts without any considerable alteration in denotational meaning

11 The Criterion of Interchangeability
e.g. pretty, good-looking, handsome, beautiful girl e.g. He glared at her (angrily) He glazed at her (with admiration or interest) He glanced at her (briefly)

12 Classification of Synonyms (by V.V. Vinogradov)
absolute – words coinciding in all their shades of meaning and in all their stylistic characteristics

13 Classification of Synonyms (by V.V. Vinogradov)
ideographic (denotational)– words conveying the same concept but differing in shades of meaning e.g. to look – to see – to gaze – to glare

14 Classification of Synonyms (by V.V. Vinogradov)
stylistic – words differing in stylistic characteristics e.g. father – Dad - Daddy

15 Types of Connotations connotation of degree or intensity
e.g. to like – to admire – to love – to adore – to worship connotation of duration e.g. to shudder (brief) – to shiver (lasting)

16 Types of Connotations emotive connotations
e.g. to tremble – to shiver – to shudder (emotion of fear, horror, disgust) – to shake evaluative connotation – attitude towards the referent, labeling it as good or bad e.g. well-known – famous - notorious (negative connotation) - celebrated

17 Types of Connotations causative connotation
e.g. to blush from modesty, shame or embarrassment to redden from anger or indignation connotation of manner e.g. to stroll – to stride – to trot – to pace - to swagger – to stagger – to stumble

18 Types of Connotations connotation of attendant circumstances
e.g. to peep at smb/smth through a hole, a crack or opening, from a half-closed door, a curtain to peer at smb/smth in darkness, through the fog, from a great distance, through dimmed glasses or windows

19 Types of Connotations stylistic connotation
e.g. (girl) girlie (colloquial), lass, lassie (dialect), bird, birdie, jane, fluff, skirt (slang), maiden (poetic), damsel (archaic)

20 Dominant Synonym high frequency of usage broad combinability
broad general meaning lack of connotations e.g. to look – to glare – to gaze to make – to produce – to create – to fabricate - to manufacture

21 Hyponymy generic term –name for the notion of the genus as distinguished from the name of species – hyponyms e.g. animal - dog – wolf – mouse generic term names of the species included into generic term

22 Sources of Synonyms Native English words - neutral
French words - literary Greco-Latin words - learned To ask To question To interrogate belly stomach abdomen To gather To assemble To collect To end To finish To complete teaching guidance instruction

23 Synonymic Differentiation
the word survived with a meaning more or less removed from the original one and became an obsolete or archaic word obsolete and modern words exist in the language but the obsolete word has a very specific meaning e.g. girl – OE wench

24 Sources of Synonyms synonymic attraction - the referent which is very popular attracts a large number of synonyms e.g. variants and dialects of English e.g. lass (Scottish) - girl (English) long-distance call (USA) – trunk call (British)

25 Sources of Synonyms word-building e.g. lab laboratory – shortening
cheery - cheerful affixation anxiety – anxiousness phrasal verbs and set expressions e.g. to continue – to go on to smoke – to have a smoke

26 Sources of Synonyms euphemisms – a shift of unpleasant meaning of a word to a more pleasant or milder one e.g. drunk – merry naked – in one’s birthday suit

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