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Dealing with Dementia: Clients, Clinicians, and Caregivers.

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Presentation on theme: "Dealing with Dementia: Clients, Clinicians, and Caregivers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dealing with Dementia: Clients, Clinicians, and Caregivers

2 Presented by: Dr. Kim McCullough, P.H.D., CCC- SLP Walt Greenslade, B.A., Graduate Clinician *Information and slides adapted from materials collected by Cindy Woodson and Suzanne Sprague

3 True or False: 1. Memory loss is a natural part of aging. 2. Alzheimers disease is not fatal. 3. Vitamin E is a possible treatment for slowing the progression of Alzheimers disease. 4. Drinking out of aluminum cans or cooking in aluminum pots and pans can lead to Alzheimers disease. 5. Aspartame (Nutrasweet) causes memory loss.

4 True or False (Cont.): 6.Flu shots increase risk of Alzheimers disease. 7. There are therapies available to stop the progression of Alzheimer's disease. 8. Approximately 5% of the population is likely to inherit Alzheimers disease from their family. 9. For the majority (95%) of cases of Alzheimers disease, there is no known cause. 10. Alzheimers disease was first discovered in 1906 by Dr. Alois Alzheimer.

5 Alzheimers Incidence

6 Dementia Defined: DSM-IV (1994) Diagnostic Criteria for Dementia A. Impairment in short-term memory and long-term memory B. At least 1 of the following: 1. Impairment in abstract thinking 2. Impaired judgment 3. Other disturbances of higher cortical function 4. Personality change C. Memory impairment and intellectual impairment causing significant social and occupational impairments.

7 D. Absence of occurrence exclusively during the course of Delirium E. Either of the following: 1. Evidence of an organic factor causing this impaired memory and intellect. 2. Impaired memory and intellect cannot be accounted for by any non-organic mental disorder. Definition Continued

8 Dementia vs. Delirium Delirium Usually a transient condition Rapid Onset (a few hours to a few days) Characterized by confusion, disordered thinking, disorientation, agitation, hyperactivity, distractibility, and sometimes delusions and hallucinations

9 A senile plaque as seen by an electron microscope

10 Types of dementia – reversible and irreversible Irreversible: Alzheimers Picks Disease Lewy Body Disease Vascular dementia Huntingtons Chorea Reversible: Brain Tumor Depression Hypothyroidism Drug Interactions Nutrition Deficits

11 Huntingtons Chorea Video Clip

12 Diagnosis and Assessment of Dementia

13 How is Dementia Diagnosed? Patient History Physical Examination Neurological Evaluations Cognitive and Neuropsychological Tests Brain Scans Rating Scales

14 Diagnosis and Assessment of Dementia Tests and Rating Scales (to name a few): Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) Arizona Battery for Communication Disorders of Dementia (ABCD) Functional Assessment of Communication Skills (ASHA FACS)

15 Pet Scan Images

16 Tools for Diagnosing Dementia

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20 Pharmacological Treatment of Dementia Cognex, Aricept, Exelon, Razadyne, & Namenda Q: What do they do? A: With the exception of Namenda, they all block an enzyme in the brain that helps to remove Acetylcholine - a chemical messenger in the brain. People with AD typically have low levels of this helpful chemical messenger, so keeping this at higher levels helps to slow the progression of AD. Q: What are the side effects? A: Generally, cholinesterase inhibitors are well tolerated. Symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea, sleeplessness, and abnormal dreams are the most commonly reported side effects.

21 Pharmacological Treatment of Dementia Q: What about Namenda? A: Namenda essentially works to keep the neurons in the brain firing smoothly. It targets specific types of neurons and keeps them from over firing. When these neurons fire too often, the chemical result is an increase in free radicals that contribute to damage of surrounding brain tissue. Q: What are the side effects? The most commonly reported side effects are: constipation, dizziness, headache, and general pain.

22 Q: Are there any new drugs coming out soon? A: Its difficult to say what will actually make it to the market, but there are several promising new treatments on the later stages of clinical trials. One such drug attacks the formation of the plaques that form as a result of AD. However, there is still no miracle cure for AD coming out in the foreseeable future. *Vaccines!?!?!? WHERE DO I SIGN UP?? Pharmacological Treatment of Dementia

23 Therapy + Drugs A study done by Requena et al. looked at 86 individuals with dementia over the course of a year (2004). A study done by Requena et al. looked at 86 individuals with dementia over the course of a year (2004). Cahn-Weiner et al. found no statistically significant differences between a group receiving both ChEIs and cognitive stimulation and a control group (2003). Cahn-Weiner et al. found no statistically significant differences between a group receiving both ChEIs and cognitive stimulation and a control group (2003). Another study of interest that specifically looks at the combined effects of ChEIs and cognitive intervention was done by Chapman et al. in Another study of interest that specifically looks at the combined effects of ChEIs and cognitive intervention was done by Chapman et al. in 2004.

24 Identification/assessment Intervention Inter-professional collaboration Case management Education/advocacy The Role of the SLP for Persons with Cognitive-Communication Impairments

25 Treatment Goals A Model for Treatment (adapted from Tomoeda, 2001 Arksha) 1. Improve orientation, attention, and association 2. Reduce demands on episodic and working memory systems 3. Increase reliance on spared recognition and procedural/habit memory systems 4. Provide sensory stimulation to evoke positive fact memory, action, and emotion

26 Treatment Options for SLPs Spaced Retrieval Training (SRT) – focuses on strengths and existing memory function Small Group Therapy- includes compensatory strategies for enabling communication – no interruptions when theyre talking, etc. (Includes Reminiscence therapy and Breakfast Club) Memory notebooks – compensatory strategy for coping with memory loss. Validation Therapy

27 Available Evidence: Dementia Interventions Identified: Interventions Identified: 1. Validation Therapy 1. Validation Therapy 2. Reality Orientation Therapy 2. Reality Orientation Therapy 3. Reminiscence Therapy 3. Reminiscence Therapy 4. Sensory Stimulation 4. Sensory Stimulation 5. Spaced Retrieval Training 5. Spaced Retrieval Training

28 Dementia: Validation Therapy Results? Results? Qualitative descriptions of improved mood, communicative interactions from staff, family members (Brack, 1997; Touzinsky, 1998) Qualitative descriptions of improved mood, communicative interactions from staff, family members (Brack, 1997; Touzinsky, 1998) Changes in behavior: Changes in behavior: Reduced physically & verbally aggressive behavior (Toseland, 1997) Reduced physically & verbally aggressive behavior (Toseland, 1997) Increased smiling, eye contact, touching, talking, showing leadership and physical participation during VT sessions (Brack, 1997) Increased smiling, eye contact, touching, talking, showing leadership and physical participation during VT sessions (Brack, 1997) Increased initiation & verbal interaction after VT for 2/3 participants (Morton & Bleathman, 1991) Increased initiation & verbal interaction after VT for 2/3 participants (Morton & Bleathman, 1991)

29 Dementia: Validation Therapy Clinical Application: Clinical Application: Anecdotal evidence that VT has a generally positive effect on facilitating communication, increasing verbal interactions and decreasing some problem behaviors. Anecdotal evidence that VT has a generally positive effect on facilitating communication, increasing verbal interactions and decreasing some problem behaviors. Rationale/principles of VT could be taught to family members & caregivers to increase meaningful communication in individuals with AD. Rationale/principles of VT could be taught to family members & caregivers to increase meaningful communication in individuals with AD.

30 Dementia: Reality Orientation Therapy Results? Results? Reduced depression and anxiety (Spector et al., 2001) Reduced depression and anxiety (Spector et al., 2001) Gains in orientation and language over control group, but same gains demonstrated by social interaction group (Gerber et al., 1991) Gains in orientation and language over control group, but same gains demonstrated by social interaction group (Gerber et al., 1991) 4/6 studies reported significant differences in MMSE scores between control & treatment groups after ROT 4/6 studies reported significant differences in MMSE scores between control & treatment groups after ROT

31 Dementia: Reality Orientation Therapy Clinical Application: Clinical Application: In general, formal ROT can have positive effects on cognitive functioning of individuals with very mild or mild- moderate AD In general, formal ROT can have positive effects on cognitive functioning of individuals with very mild or mild- moderate AD Positive relationship between duration of treatment and cognitive outcomes Positive relationship between duration of treatment and cognitive outcomes

32 Dementia: Reminiscence Therapy Results? Results? Generally positive results of group RT across all studies, on cognition, affect, behavior and functioning of moderate- severe patients Generally positive results of group RT across all studies, on cognition, affect, behavior and functioning of moderate- severe patients Group RT had a greater effect on patients in hospital setting vs. community day-care setting (Head et al., 1990) Group RT had a greater effect on patients in hospital setting vs. community day-care setting (Head et al., 1990) Individuals who attended day care (regardless if they received RT or not) improved on cognitive measures vs. control group who did not attend day care (Nomura, 2002) Individuals who attended day care (regardless if they received RT or not) improved on cognitive measures vs. control group who did not attend day care (Nomura, 2002)

33 Dementia: Reminiscence Therapy Clinical Application: Clinical Application: Fair amount of certainty that group RT has positive effects on mood, communication and cognition of individuals with dementia Fair amount of certainty that group RT has positive effects on mood, communication and cognition of individuals with dementia Difficult to tease apart what aspect of RT is contributing most to improvements: sensory stimulation, social interaction, positive interactions with trained facilitators, etc. Difficult to tease apart what aspect of RT is contributing most to improvements: sensory stimulation, social interaction, positive interactions with trained facilitators, etc.

34 Dementia: Sensory Stimulation: Memory Wallets & Notebooks Results? Results? Generally positive effects observed on meaningfulness of utterances during conversations between individuals with AD and caregivers, nurses assistants, other dementia patients Generally positive effects observed on meaningfulness of utterances during conversations between individuals with AD and caregivers, nurses assistants, other dementia patients More on-topic, factual statements produced; fewer ambiguous, nonsensical utterances More on-topic, factual statements produced; fewer ambiguous, nonsensical utterances Variability in performance as a function of severity level Variability in performance as a function of severity level Some subjects still showed wallet use at follow- up testing up to 30 months later (Bourgeois, 1990; Bourgeois, 1992) Some subjects still showed wallet use at follow- up testing up to 30 months later (Bourgeois, 1990; Bourgeois, 1992)

35 Dementia: Sensory Stimulation: Memory Wallets & Notebooks Clinical Application Clinical Application Use of memory wallets/notebooks contributed to improved conversations between AD patients and others, Use of memory wallets/notebooks contributed to improved conversations between AD patients and others, BUT conversation consisted of patient being asked a question, and having him/her read the statement in the notebook BUT conversation consisted of patient being asked a question, and having him/her read the statement in the notebook Need a sense of how individuals with AD would perform without printed material in front of them to refer to for answers Need a sense of how individuals with AD would perform without printed material in front of them to refer to for answers

36 Dementia: Spaced Retrieval Training What are the results? What are the results? Large majority of the participants learned some or all of the target information and/or behaviors Large majority of the participants learned some or all of the target information and/or behaviors Maintenance of learned information or behaviors reported in 12 studies Maintenance of learned information or behaviors reported in 12 studies Generalization reported in six studies Generalization reported in six studies Object-name associations Object-name associations Face-name associations Face-name associations Cue-behavior associations Cue-behavior associations

37 Dementia: Spaced Retrieval Training Clinical Application: Clinical Application: Individuals with mild to severe dementia who have the ability to engage in structured training tasks have been shown to benefit from SRT Individuals with mild to severe dementia who have the ability to engage in structured training tasks have been shown to benefit from SRT SRT sessions conducted weekly or more frequently SRT sessions conducted weekly or more frequently Improvement in the acquisition, retention and generalization of trained information and/or skills Improvement in the acquisition, retention and generalization of trained information and/or skills No change in global cognitive functioning or general memory function as a result of training No change in global cognitive functioning or general memory function as a result of training

38 Caregiver Information Caregivers spend 40 to 100 hours weekly with each person suffering from AD Challenges include: Social isolation Feelings of guilt High emotions Coping skills Lack of knowledge about AD and its treatments Approximately 90% of caregivers report that they are affected emotinally, frustrated, and/or drained *(Adapted from Schluterman, K., Alzheimers Disease Overview)

39 Caregiver Information

40 Ten Communication Strategies frequently mentioned in the AD literature. 1. Eliminate distractions 2. Approach slowly, eye contact 3. Simple sentences 4. Slow speech rate 5. One question/instruction 6. Yes/no question 7. Repeat message with the same wording 8. Paraphrase repeated messages 9. Avoid interrupting the person 10. Encourage the person to describe the word he is searching for

41 Fewer communication breakdowns occurred with these strategies: More communication breakdowns occurred with these strategies: No clear difference in communication breakdown occurred with these strategies: Caregiver Information

42 *Give us time to speak, try not to finish our sentences, and dont let us feel embarrassed if we loose the thread of what we say *Dont rush into something, give us time to respond and let you know whether we really want to do it *Dont ask questions that will alarm us or make us feel uncomfortable *If we have forgotten something special, dont assume it wasnt special for us too, just give us a gentle prompt Communication Tips from Christine Bryden, diagnosed with dementia at age 46

43 *But dont try too hard to help us remember something that just happened. If it didnt register we are never going to be able to recall it *Avoid background noise if you can *If children are underfoot remember we will get tired very easily and find it hard to concentrate *Maybe earplugs for a visit to shopping centers or other noisy places

44 Environmental Factors: Positive and Negative Visual Auditory Tactile/Olfactory Space

45 References American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2005). The roles of speech-language pathologists working with individuals with dementia: Technical report. Rockville, MD: Author. Bottino, M. C., Carvalho, A. M., Alvarez, A. M., Avila, R., Zukauskas, P. R., Bustamante, E. Z., Adrade, F. C., Hototian, S. R., Saffi, F., & Camargo, H. P. (2005). Cognitive rehabilitation combined with drug treatment in Alzheimers disease patients: A pilot study. Clinical Rehabilitation, 19, Bourgeois, M. S., (1991). Communication Treatment for Adults with Dementia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, Bourgeois, M. S., (1992). Evaluating Memory Wallets in Conversations With Persons With Dementia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, Bourgeois, M. S., Camp, C., Rose, M., White, B., Malone, M., Carr, J., Rovine, M. (2003). A comparison of training strategies to enhance the use of external aids by persons with dementia. Journal of Communication Disorders, 36, Camp, C. J., & Stevens, A. B. (1990). Spaced-retrieval: A memory intervention for dementia of the Alzheimers type. Clinical Gerontologist, 10(11), Camp, C. J., Foss, J. W., OHanlon, A. M., & Stevens, A. B. (1996). Memory interventions for persons with dementia. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 10, Cahn-Weiner, D. A., Malloy, P. F., Rebok, G. W., & Ott, B. R. (2003). Results of a randomized placebo- controlled study of memory training for mildly impaired Alzheimers disease patients. Applied Neuropsychology, 10,

46 References Chapman, S. B., Weiner, M. F., Rackley, A., Hynan, L. S., & Zeintz, J. (2004). Effects of cognitive-communication stimulation for Alzheimers disease patients treated with donepezil. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47, Kimball, J. W. (2004, December 9). Enzymes. Retrieved November 16, 2006, from Reese, P. B. (2000). The Source for Alzheimers & Dementia. LinguiSystems, East Moline, IL. Small, J.A., Gutman, G., Makela, S. & Hillhouse, B. (2003). Effectiveness of communication strategies used by caregivers of persons with alzhimers disease during activities of daily living. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46,


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