6 What are the important physiological properties of muscles? ContractilityIrritabilityConductivity
7 Chapter 114/7/2017How do muscle contractions differ in the laboratory setting and in the human body?In the lab, all the nerve fibers of the whole muscle are stimulated simultaneously. The stimulation of normal muscle is asynchronous.In the lab, muscle twitch is in response to a single shock. In the body, muscle is stimulated by volleys of nerve impulses.
8 Does the summation of twitches increase or decrease force production? Tetanus occurs when:The excised muscle is stimulated too frequently and muscle tension becomes prolonged
9 What effect does temperature have on muscle contraction? Heating causesa muscle to contract and relax more rapidly.Cooling causesa muscle to contract and relax more slowly.
10 What is the relationship between muscle temperature and injury? When a muscle is cooled, the relaxation phase slows two to three times as much as the contraction phase, which can contribute to muscle injury.
11 Explain the all-or-none law of muscle contraction. Stimulation of a muscle fiber by impulses muchlarger than threshold value will change neitherthe amount of shortening nor the force of thecontraction.
12 How does the nervous system cause gradations in the force of contractions of whole muscles? Recruitment—varying the number of motor units activatedRate coding—increasing or decreasing the rate of firing for the motor units involved
13 What two factors contribute to the external force that a muscle can produce? How? Angle of pull—when a muscle pulls at right angles to the bone, all the muscle’s internal force is available to do external work. At all other angles, less force is available.Length of muscle—when a muscle is stretched too far, there is little overlap between the actin and myosin filaments and little tension can be produced. At resting length, the overlap is optimal and maximum tension can be produced.
14 How can the bilateral deficit be decreased? Training should use exercises that emphasizeconcurrent contractions of the same musclegroups on both sides of the body.
15 Why are isometric exercises not particularly well suited to sports training? Most sports are characterized by movement,but isometric exercises are static.
16 What are examples of exercises that involve DCER muscle actions? Free weightsResistance training machines
17 What is isokinetic training commonly used for? Physical therapists and trainers use isokinetictesting and training in rehabilitation
18 The biceps curl (forearm flexion) is an example of what type of muscle action? ConcentricLowering a barbell from full flexion to full extension is an example of what type of muscle action?Eccentric
19 Does concentric strength increase or decrease as velocity of movement increases? Does eccentric strength increase or decrease as the velocity of movement increases?Neither, it stays the same
20 What factors account for the increase in muscle strength that accompanies resistance training? HypertrophyNeural adaptation
21 What are the health implications for cross-education? In situations where one limb cannot beexercised, cross-education makes it possible tomaintain muscle integrity through resistancetraining of the contralateral limb. This canreduce the amount of time necessary forrehabilitation when the affected limb can againbe used.
22 Delayed onset muscle soreness is the result of lactic acid accumulation. True or False? False. Soreness probably originates fromtissue damage to the sarcomeres, theresulting swelling, and an inflammatoryresponse by white blood cells.
23 What are some benefits of strength training? Increased bone mineral densityFavorable changes in body compositionIncreased functional strength for daily livingImproved insulin sensitivityIncreased basal metabolic rateDecreased diastolic blood pressureReduced risk of low back painDecreased risk of injury during physical activityImproved blood lipid profiles
24 What would be a safe strength training regimen for a healthy adult What would be a safe strength training regimen for a healthy adult? A cardiac patient?Healthy adult1 set of 8 to 10 exercises, one exercise for each major muscle group8 to 12 repetitions2 to 3 days a weekCardiac patientSame program but reduce the resistance and increase the repetitions to a 10 to 15 RM load
25 Name five ways in which resistance training can improve athletic performance. Increases muscle power, muscle endurance, and the rate of force productionImproves flexibilityModifies body compositionReduces the risk of injuryStrengthens muscles following injury or surgery, aiding in return to practice and competition
26 What are the basic principles of resistance training for athletes? SpecificityOverloadProgressionPeriodization
27 Name the primary types of specificity and their application to resistance training. Metabolic:since resistance training involves predominantly anaerobic energy production, few adaptations will occur to the aerobic systemsMovement patterns:resistance training exercises should mimic the movement patterns of the athlete’s sportVelocity:resistance training exercises should be performed at velocities similar to those of the athlete’s sport
28 What does it mean to overload the muscle? Why is it necessary? To overload the muscle is to demand more of itthan it normally performs. Unless it is taxed, itwill not adapt with increases in strength and size.
29 Why is progression necessary to a resistance training program? The volume of training must be increasedperiodically to maintain an overload andcontinue to see adaptations.
30 What are the benefits of periodization? Minimizes boredom and encourages the athlete to stick with the programResults in greater and more consistent strength gains than non-periodized programs
31 What are some of the NSCA guidelines for the resistance training of athletes? Schedule training at least three days a week, with a minimum of 24 hours of rest between sessionsDesign programs so that all the major muscle groups are targetedTake into account appropriate muscle balance across joints, as well as both the upper- and lower-body muscle groups.Periodize training to vary volume and intensityPlan recovery periods to help avoid overtrainingRequire no more than two exercises per body part; however, different exercises per body part may be used throughout the week
32 What are some of the NSCA guidelines for the resistance training of athletes? (continued) Specific large-muscle group exercises should be limited to two times per weekUse warm-up sets that involve very light resistanceAllow adequate recovery for muscle groups during a training weekPerform large-muscle group exercises first in a workoutAllow rest between sets depending on the goals of the programUsing a four-day-per-week training protocol, divide the selected lifts into two groups: (a) chest and shoulders and (b) back and legsMake use of multijoint and Olympic-style lifts with free weights as well as isolated movements on resistance machines to promote targeted muscle hypertrophy
33 What is plyometric training most useful for? Plyometric training is beneficial for athletes whocompete in sports requiring a high level ofexplosive power, such as track and field,football, volleyball, basketball, and Olympicstyle weight lifting.
34 Name six factors that contribute to overtraining. Overly frequent competitionsPre-existing illnessesDietary inadequaciesPsychological stressHeavy time demandsInadequate sleep
35 Name some of the symptoms of overtraining. A plateau followed by a decrease in strength gainsIncreased resting diastolic blood pressureIncreased resting heart rateSleep disturbancesDecreased lean body weightDecreased appetitePersistent cold or flu-like symptomsLoss of interest in trainingFeelings of fatigue when risingExcessive muscle soreness
36 What is the most effective treatment to cure overtraining What is the most effective treatment to cure overtraining? How can it be prevented?RestPeriodizing the resistance training program is the best way to avoid overtraining