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1 Splash Screen

2 Section 1: Nationalism in the Middle East
Chapter Introduction Section 1: Nationalism in the Middle East Section 2: Nationalism in Africa and Asia Section 3: Revolutionary Chaos in China Section 4: Nationalism in Latin America Visual Summary Chapter Menu

3 How can nationalism affect a country?
Mexican president Lázaro Cárdenas sparked an era of change with policies promoting land reforms and workers’ rights and limiting foreign investment—all goals of the Mexican Revolution. Known as the president who stood up to the United States, Cárdenas seized the property of foreign oil companies in Mexico. In this chapter you will learn how nationalist movements affected individual nations. • How did nationalism influence the historical path of the world’s nations? • How does patriotism influence the behavior of Americans today? Chapter Intro

4 Chapter Intro

5 Chapter Intro

6 Nationalism in the Middle East
How did World War I change the Middle East? Chapter Intro 1

7 Nationalism in Africa and Asia
How did many Africans react to colonial powers after World War I? Chapter Intro 2

8 Revolutionary Chaos in China
What was the result of internal conflicts within the nationalist movements in China? Chapter Intro 3

9 Nationalism in Latin America
How did worldwide economic conditions affect Latin America? Chapter Intro 4

10 Chapter Preview-End

11 The BIG Idea Self-Determination After World War I, the quest for national self-determination led to the creation of Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia. In the same period, the Balfour Declaration supported the creation of a national Jewish homeland in Palestine. Section 1-Main Idea

12 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary genocide ethnic cleansing
legislature element Section 1-Key Terms

13 People and Places Abdülhamīd II T. E. Lawrence Atatürk Tehran
Reza Shah Pahlavi Iran Ibn Sa‘ūd Saudi Arabia Palestine Section 1-Key Terms

14 Section 1-Polling Question
All powerful empires eventually come to an end. A. Agree B. Disagree A B Section 1-Polling Question

15 Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire, which had been steadily declining since the late 1700s, finally ended after World War I. Section 1

16 Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire (cont.)
The Ottoman Empire began to decline in the 1800s, with Greece winning its independence. Many ethnic Turks wanted a Turkish state that would encompass all people of Turkish nationality. A group called Young Turks wanted to depose Abdülhamīd II. Section 1

17 Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire (cont.)
With the help of T.E. Lawrence and Great Britain, Arabia achieved its independence from Ottoman rule. When the Christian Armenians began pushing for independence, the Ottoman government responded by killing Armenian men and expelling women and children from the empire. Middle East, 1919–1935 Section 1

18 Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire (cont.)
The Ottoman Turks led a policy of ethnic cleansing, or genocide, against the Christian Armenians, killing an estimated 1 million people. The Ottoman Empire collapsed toward the end of World War I. Great Britain and France made plans to divide the Ottoman territories in the Middle East. Section 1

19 Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire (cont.)
Turkey remained under Ottoman control until Mustafa Kemal organized an elected government and a new Republic of Turkey. Section 1

20 Against which of the following groups did the Ottoman Turks adopt a policy of genocide?
A. Russians B. Armenians C. Muslims D. Jews A B C D Section 1

21 Middle East Changes Turkey’s president Kemal changed the political system and the Turkish culture to create a modern state, while government and economic reforms changed Persia into the modern country of Iran. Section 1

22 Middle East Changes (cont.)
President Kemal, known as Atatürk, tried to modernize Turkey and implemented a democratic system. Atatürk eliminated many Arab elements from Turkish culture in exchange for more Western customs. The Turkish language was now written in the Roman alphabet. Citizens had to adopt last names. Section 1

23 Middle East Changes (cont.)
The caliphate was abolished as Turkish society became more secular. Muslim men were forbidden to wear the fez and Muslim women were forbidden to wear the veil. All citizens were given the right to convert to any religion. Section 1

24 Middle East Changes (cont.)
Persian nationalists opposed to a foreign presence in Persia led a revolt and seized control of Tehran. In 1925 Reza Khan, leader of the nationalists, declared himself shah and became known as Reza Shah Pahlavi. Reza Shah Pahlavi followed Atatürk’s example and introduced reforms to modernize the government, military, and economic system, but he did not attempt to destroy the Islamic religion. Section 1

25 Middle East Changes (cont.)
In 1935 Persia became the modern state of Iran. After the Arabs broke free from Ottoman control, a single Arab nation was not created. Instead, Great Britain and France divided the Ottoman Empire and ruled its parts as mandates. Section 1

26 Middle East Changes (cont.)
The Europeans determined the nations’ borders and divided the peoples. The people did not have a strong identification with their designated country, and a sense of Arab nationalism remained. Reform leader Ibn Sa‘ūd united Arabs in the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula and established the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. Section 1

27 Middle East Changes (cont.)
Western oil companies made Saudi Arabia wealthy after the Standard Oil Company struck oil on the Persian Gulf. Nationalism caused tensions between Jews and Muslim Arabs in Palestine. Palestine was home to the Jews in antiquity until they were forced into exile in the first century A.D. Muslim Arabs replaced the Jews and made up 80% of the region’s population. Section 1

28 Middle East Changes (cont.)
A Zionist movement encouraged Jews to return to Palestine to establish a Jewish state. During World War I, Great Britain issued the Balfour Declaration, which supported a Jewish homeland in Palestine, but it also added that this goal should not undermine the rights of the non-Jewish peoples living there. Section 1

29 Middle East Changes (cont.)
In 1933 Hitler’s policies led many Jews to seek refuge in Palestine, which resulted in violence between Jewish and Muslim inhabitants. In 1939 the British tried to end the violence by declaring that only 75,000 Jewish people would be allowed to immigrate to Palestine over the next five years. This resulted in deeper tensions and more bloodshed. Section 1

30 Which modern-day country did Persia become? A. Turkey B. Iran
C. Saudi-Arabia D. Palestine A B C D Section 1

31 Section 1-End

32 The BIG Idea Self-Determination Nationalism led the people of Africa and Asia to seek independence. Section 2-Main Idea

33 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary Pan-Africanism
civil disobedience zaibatsu Academic Vocabulary volunteer compensation Section 2-Key Terms

34 People and Places Kenya W.E.B. Du Bois Marcus Garvey Ho Chi Minh
Mohandas Gandhi Mahatma Jawaharlal Nehru Manchuria Section 2-Key Terms

35 Section 2-Polling Question
Do you think the exploitations of colonization still affect Africa, Asia, and India today? A. Yes B. No A B Section 2-Polling Question

36 African Independence Movements
After World War I, many Africans organized to end colonial rule in their countries. Section 2

37 African Independence Movements (cont.)
Opposition to colonial rule escalated and Africans became more politically active after World War I. In Nigeria, resistance was started by the king of Lagos and the educated Africans who wanted a democratic government. In Kenya, the British colonial government took land from the black Africans and gave it to white settlers. Africa, 1919–1939 Section 2

38 African Independence Movements (cont.)
Libya used guerrilla warfare against the Italians to gain more freedoms. W.E.B. Du Bois, an African American, led a movement to make all Africans aware of their heritage. Marcus Garvey, a Jamaican living in Harlem, wanted to unite all Africans under a movement called Pan-Africanism. Section 2

39 African Independence Movements (cont.)
Jomo Kenyatta was educated in Great Britain and argued that colonial rule was destroying the traditional cultures of the peoples of Africa. Léopold Senghor was educated in France, wrote poetry about African culture, and organized an independence movement in Senegal. Section 2

40 African Independence Movements (cont.)
Nnamdi Azikiwe of Nigeria started a newspaper that urged nonviolence as a method to gain independence. Section 2

41 A. They fought in World War I. B. They were educated abroad.
What did African leaders who wanted to become independent of colonial rule have in common? A. They fought in World War I. B. They were educated abroad. C. They spoke English. D. They were philosophers. A B C D Section 2

42 Revolution in Asia In the 1920s, the Comintern helped to spread communism throughout Asia. Section 2

43 Revolution in Asia (cont.)
By the end of 1920, almost every colonial society in Asia had a Communist Party. Lenin and the Bolsheviks proved that a revolutionary Marxist party could overturn an outdated system even in the mostly agricultural nations of Asia. Agents were trained in Moscow and returned to their own countries to form Marxist parties. Section 2

44 Revolution in Asia (cont.)
Ho Chi Minh trained in Moscow and returned to French Indochina to organize the Vietnamese Communists. In China, the Communist party worked together with the Nationalist Party to fight against foreign control. Most of the Communist parties in the 1930s failed to gain support among the majority of the population. Section 2

45 A. A worldwide organization of Communist parties
What was the Comintern? A. A worldwide organization of Communist parties B. A Communist revolution C. A Communist newspaper D. A secret Communist police force A B C D Section 2

46 Indian Independence Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru led India’s independence movement. Section 2

47 Indian Independence (cont.)
Even before World War I, Mohandas Gandhi was active in the Indian independence movement. The Indian people called him Mahatma, or India’s “Great Soul.” Gandhi organized mass protests against British law using methods of civil disobedience. Section 2

48 Indian Independence (cont.)
In 1935 Britain passed the Government of India Act, which created a two-house parliament and granted the right to vote to five million Indians. Two-thirds of the parliament’s Indian members were to be elected. The Indian National Congress (INC) originally fought for reforms but later pushed for full independence. Section 2

49 Indian Independence (cont.)
Gandhi began a nonviolent campaign against British laws by encouraging Indians to: Not pay their taxes Not send their children to English-supported schools Make their own cloth Harvest their own salt Boycott British-made goods Section 2

50 Indian Independence (cont.)
The Indian independence movement became divided and split into two paths: One group identified with Gandhi, religion, and tradition. The other group identified with Jawaharlal Nehru and his secular, Western, and modern approach. Another division began to separate India when Muslims became dissatisfied with the Hindu-dominated INC and created the Muslim League. Section 2

51 Which of the following was illegal in British-ruled India?
A. Preparing salt from seawater B. Making clothing C. Speaking English D. Selling traditional Indian jewelry A B C D Section 2

52 A Militarist Japan By the late 1920s, militant forces in Japan were campaigning for an end to peaceful policies. Section 2

53 A Militarist Japan (cont.)
During the Meiji Era, Japan developed a modern industrial and commercial sector. The four largest zaibatsu controlled large percentages of Japanese industries. Economic inequalities existed as a result of the zaibatsus’ concentration of wealth. Rapid population growth, food shortages, and the Great Depression led to a wish to return to traditional Japanese values. Section 2

54 A Militarist Japan (cont.)
Traditionalists opposed Western influence and wanted Japan to use its own strength to dominate Asia and meet its needs. In 1922 the United States held a conference with other Western nations and signed a treaty recognizing the territorial integrity of China and maintaining the Open Door policy. Japan agreed to the terms in return for acceptance of its control of southern Manchuria. Section 2

55 A Militarist Japan (cont.)
The Japanese government soon came under pressure to find new sources for raw materials abroad. Without government approval, an extremist group of army officers invaded and eventually conquered all of Manchuria. The government was soon dominated by the military and other supporters of Japanese expansionism. Section 2

56 A Militarist Japan (cont.)
Education and culture were purged of Western ideas, traditional values were stressed, and all political parties were merged into the Imperial Rule Assistance Association. Section 2

57 B. A group of samurai warriors C. Japanese nobility
What is a zaibatsu? A. A powerful shogun B. A group of samurai warriors C. Japanese nobility D. A large financial corporation A B C D Section 2

58 Section 2-End

59 The BIG Idea Order and Security During the 1920s, two men, Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong, struggled to lead a new Chinese state. Section 3-Main Idea

60 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary guerrilla tactics
redistribution of wealth Academic Vocabulary cease eventually Section 3-Key Terms

61 People, Places, and Events
Shanghai Sun Yat-sen Chang Jiang Chiang Kai-shek Shanghai Massacre Nanjing Mao Zedong People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Section 3-Key Terms

62 Section 3-Polling Question
Have you ever had to put aside your differences to play on a team or work in a group with someone you didn’t trust? A. Yes B. No A B Section 3-Polling Question

63 Nationalists and Communists
Cooperating to drive the imperialists from China, the Nationalists and Communists then fought one another fiercely for the right to rule China. Section 3

64 Nationalists and Communists (cont.)
The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was organized in Shanghai by a group of young radicals and several faculty members from Beijing University in 1921. The CCP and the Nationalist Party, led by Sun Yat-sen, put aside their mutual distrust and worked together to expel imperialists from China. Section 3

65 Nationalists and Communists (cont.)
The two parties formed a revolutionary army and took control of all of China south of the Chang Jiang. General Chiang Kai-shek succeeded Sun Yat-sen as leader of the Nationalist Party in 1925. Chiang turned against the Communists and killed thousands of them in what became known as the Shanghai Massacre. China, 1926–1937 Section 3

66 Nationalists and Communists (cont.)
In 1928 Chiang formed a new Chinese republic at Nanjing and spent the next three years trying to unify China. Mao Zedong believed that a Chinese Revolution could be successful with the support of the peasants in the rural areas. Mao used guerrilla tactics to combat the Nationalists. Section 3

67 Nationalists and Communists (cont.)
Mao’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) began the Long March to the only Communist base in northwest China. Only 9,000 of the 90,000 who left the base at Jiangxi survived the journey, and many believed the threat of Communism was over. Section 3

68 Which tactic did Mao Zedong use to compete with the superior forces of Chiang Kai-shek?
A. Civil disobedience B. Propaganda C. Trench warfare D. Guerrilla warfare A B C D Section 3

69 The New China Chiang Kai-shek was committed to building a new China with a republican government. Section 3

70 The New China (cont.) China was weakened economically, politically, and socially by civil war. The cultural and economic gap was widening between the Westernized middle class, who supported Chiang, and poverty-stricken peasants in the countryside. Chiang and his wife set up a “New Life Movement” to promote traditional Confucian social ethics and reject what they saw as the excessive individualism and material greed of Western capitalist values. Section 3

71 The New China (cont.) Chiang’s successes:
Massive road-building and railroad projects Built new Chinese-owned factories Established a national bank Improved the education system Westerners ended their leases and returned the customs service to China. Section 3

72 The New China (cont.) Chiang’s failures:
Land reform program had little effect No programs focused on a redistribution of wealth. The poor did not experience any improvements under Chiang’s rule. Government did not respect free expression and suppressed all opposition. Section 3

73 Chiang Kai-shek found most of his support from which of the following groups?
A. Peasants B. Urban middle class C. Intellectuals D. Political moderates A B C D Section 3

74 Section 3-End

75 The BIG Idea Order and Security In Latin America, the Great Depression made politics unstable, and in many cases, military dictatorships were the result. Section 4-Main Idea

76 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary oligarchy investor establish
Section 4-Key Terms

77 People, Places, and Events
Argentina Chile Brazil Peru Mexico Juan Vicente Gómez Good Neighbor policy Hipólito Irigoyen Getúlio Vargas Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) Lázaro Cárdenas PEMEX Diego Rivera Section 4-Key Terms

78 Section 4-Polling Question
Should a government get involved in the politics of another country to protect the interests of private businesses and foreign investments? A. Yes B. No A B Section 4-Polling Question

79 The Latin American Economy
During the 1920s and 1930s, foreign investments and the Great Depression led some Latin American nations to emphasize domestic industry to balance their economies. Section 4

80 The Latin American Economy (cont.)
Many Latin American nations focused on the export of one or two products. Argentina: beef and wheat Chile: nitrates and copper Brazil and Caribbean nations: sugar Central America: bananas Latin America, 1939 Section 4

81 The Latin American Economy (cont.)
By the 1920s, the United States became the largest investor in Latin America, replacing Great Britain. American firms gained control of copper-mining industries in Chile and Peru and the oil industry in Mexico, Peru, and Bolivia. U.S. businesses sometimes supported harsh dictators, such as Juan Vicente Gómez, to protect their investments. Section 4

82 The Latin American Economy (cont.)
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt created the Good Neighbor Policy, rejecting the use of U.S. military force in Latin America on principle. As a result of the Great Depression, U.S. and European countries imported fewer goods from Latin American nations, devastating their economies. Section 4

83 The Latin American Economy (cont.)
Latin Americans could not afford to import manufactured goods from abroad, so governments began to encourage new manufacturing businesses. Individuals did not have the money to start new businesses, leading many countries to set up government-run companies. Selected Nationalist Movements in the Early Twentieth Century Section 4

84 What did the United States do as a result of the Good Neighbor policy in Latin America?
A. Withdrew U.S. military forces B. Loaned governments large amounts of money C. Established free trade D. Supported democratic governments A B C D Section 4

85 Authoritarian Rule In most Latin American countries, a small group of church leaders, military leaders, and large landowners controlled politics. Section 4

86 Authoritarian Rule (cont.)
In the 1930s the Depression and domestic instability led many governments in Latin America to become militaristic or authoritarian. Argentina Argentina was controlled by an oligarchy of landowners who made large profits from cattle and wheat exports. Section 4

87 Authoritarian Rule (cont.)
The middle-class Radical Party, under Hipólito Irigoyen, became concerned with the increasing power of the industrial workers. Irigoyen eventually became corrupt and was overthrown by military officers who wanted to stop industrialization and return to the old export economy. During World War II, military officers formed a new government called the Group of United Officers and elected Juan Perón as president. Section 4

88 Authoritarian Rule (cont.)
Brazil Large landowners who became rich from coffee plantation revenues controlled the republican government in Brazil. In 1930 a military coup made Getúlio Vargas president of Brazil. In 1937 Vargas made himself a dictator and ruled as an authoritarian with some fascist like features. Section 4

89 Authoritarian Rule (cont.)
Vargas focused on new industries which made Brazil Latin America’s chief industrial power. The military forced Vargas to resign in 1945. Section 4

90 Authoritarian Rule (cont.)
Mexico The Mexican Revolution reduced the power of landowners and created a relatively stable political order. The Institutional Revolutionary Party, or PRI, controlled the major groups within Mexican society and chose the party’s presidential candidate. Section 4

91 Authoritarian Rule (cont.)
In 1934 President Lázaro Cárdenas gained enormous support when he redistributed 44 million acres of land to landless Mexican peasants and took a strong stand with the United States over oil. Cardenas seized foreign-owned oil companies, infuriating the United States, which did not intervene because of the Good Neighbor Policy. Section 4

92 Authoritarian Rule (cont.)
The Mexican government paid the oil companies for their property and set up PEMEX, a national oil company, to run the oil industry. Section 4

93 Which Latin American country seized control of the oil fields that were owned by U.S. and British oil companies? A. Argentina B. Brazil C. Mexico D. Peru A B C D Section 4

94 Culture in Latin America
Latin American artists adapted the styles of European modern art to express themes relevant to their own culture. Section 4

95 Culture in Latin America (cont.)
New European art styles began to influence Latin American art when artists studying abroad brought back modern techniques. In major cities, wealthy elites became interested in the new styles, such as abstract art. Section 4

96 Culture in Latin America (cont.)
Many writers and artists, such as Diego Rivera, used their work to promote nationalism. Rivera wanted people to remember Mexico’s past, especially the Mexican Revolution. Section 4

97 Which of the following artists wanted people to remember Mexico’s past?
A. Carlos Merida B. Gunther Gerzso C. Roberto Matta D. Diego Rivera A B C D Section 4

98 Section 4-End

99 THE MIDDLE EAST AND CHINA Influenced by Nationalism and Revolution
The Ottoman Empire ended after World War I. Modernization and nationalist movements helped Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia become modern states. In China, the Nationalist and Communist Parties formed a brief alliance to drive out imperialists. After the alliance split in China, the Communists went into hiding, and Chiang Kai-shek tried to build a republic. VS 1

100 AFRICA AND ASIA Influenced by Nationalism
Nationalism led Africa and Asia to seek independence from colonial rule. Comintern spread Marxist ideas to Asia, resulting in Communist parties in all colonies. India’s independence movement split into two paths, led by Gandhi and Nehru. Japan moved from a democratic government to a militaristic state. VS 2

101 LATIN AMERICA Influenced by Nationalism
Latin American nationalists resented foreign investors and viewed them as imperialist powers. The Great Depression devastated Latin America’s economy and created instability. Turmoil led to military dictatorships and authoritarian rule by small groups. Artists combined European modern art with their native culture, often promoting a national spirit. VS 3

102 VS-End

103 Figure 1

104 Figure 2

105 Figure 3

106 Figure 4

107 Figure 5

108 Select a transparency to view.
Chapter Transparencies Menu Chapter Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Cause-and-Effect Transparency Select a transparency to view. Chapter Trans Menu

109 Chapter Trans

110 Unit Timeline Trans

111 CnETrans

112 DFS Trans 1

113 DFS Trans 2

114 DFS Trans 3

115 DFS Trans 4

116 genocide the deliberate mass murder or physical extinction of a particular racial, political, or cultural group Vocab1

117 ethnic cleansing a policy of killing or forcibly removing an ethnic group from its lands; used by the Serbs against the Muslim minority in Bosnia Vocab2

118 legislature an organized body that makes laws Vocab3

119 element a distinct group within a larger group Vocab4

120 Pan-Africanism the unity of all black Africans, regardless of national boundaries Vocab5

121 civil disobedience refusal to obey laws that are considered to be unjust Vocab6

122 zaibatsu in the Japanese economy, a large financial and industrial corporation Vocab7

123 volunteer in the military, one who serves of his own free will Vocab8

124 compensation payment Vocab9

125 guerrilla tactics the use of unexpected maneuvers like sabotage and subterfuge to fight an enemy Vocab10

126 redistribution of wealth
the shifting of wealth from a rich minority to a poor majority Vocab11

127 cease to come to an end Vocab12

128 eventually in the end Vocab13

129 oligarchy “the rule of the few,” a form of government in which a select group of people exercises control Vocab14

130 investor a person or entity that commits money to earn a financial return Vocab15

131 establish to set up permanently; to found Vocab16

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