21. What is the main difference between de facto and de jure segregation? De facto segregation exists by practice and customDe jure segregation exists by law
32. How did the ideas of SNCC differ from those of the Nation of Islam? SNCC believed in nonviolent civil disobedience and racial harmonyThe Nation of Islam believed that Whites were evil and that African Americans should separate from White society- It also advocated the use of armed self-defense
43. How did the early views of Malcolm X differ from his later ideas? Early on Malcolm X was a Black Muslim who believed in the teachings of the Nation of IslamLater on his attitude toward Whites softened, and he advocated “ballots over “bullets” = African Americans should vote for African American representatives or for people who support civil rights.
54. What changes took place in Stokely Carmichael’s membership in civil rights organizations Carmichael was an organizer for SNCC, an organization that believed in peaceful protests, but he later became a Black Panther
65. How did the ideas of SNCC differ from those of the Black Panthers? SNCC believed in non-violent civil disobedience and racial harmony.The Black Panthers advocated black nationalism, black power, and armed revolt
76. What gains were made by the Civil Rights and Black Power movements? A. Increased pride and awareness of racial identity among many blacksB. New College programs in African-American history and literatureIntegration of educational facilitiesIncreased graduation rates of Blacks in high school and collegeC. Greater visibility of African Americans in movies and on TVGrowth of affirmative action programsD. End to de jure segregationThe passage of the civil rights lawsIncreased awareness ofde facto segregation
8TermsKerner Commisssion: A commission that reported on the state of race relations and urban violence in AmericaCommission named the one main cause for violence in the cities: white racismBlack Power: Movement that stressed African American pride and leadershipCivil Rights Act of 1968:Act that banned discrimination in housing