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12345 Eubacteria and archaebacteria differ in 1.the presence of a nucleus. 2.the makeup of their cell walls. 3.size. 4.the presence of a cell wall.

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Presentation on theme: "12345 Eubacteria and archaebacteria differ in 1.the presence of a nucleus. 2.the makeup of their cell walls. 3.size. 4.the presence of a cell wall."— Presentation transcript:

1 12345 Eubacteria and archaebacteria differ in 1.the presence of a nucleus. 2.the makeup of their cell walls. 3.size. 4.the presence of a cell wall.

2 12345 Unlike eubacteria, archaebacteria 1.have cell walls. 2.are prokaryotes. 3.have two cell membranes. 4.are thought to be the ancestors of eukaryotes.

3 12345 Which of the following is NOT a way in which archaebacteria and eubacteria differ? 1.Archaebacteria lack an important carbohydrate found in the cell walls of eubacteria. 2.The two groups have very different membrane lipids. 3.Archaebacteria have gene sequences that are similar to those of eukaryotes. 4.Archaebacteria follow the lytic cycle, while eubacteria follow the lysogenic cycle.

4 12345 Which of the following are members of the kingdom Archaebacteria? 1.methanogens 2.eubacteria 3.eukaryotes 4.E. coli

5 Figure 19–1

6 12345 The structure in Figure 19–1 represents a(an) 1.virus. 2.archaebacterium. 3.methanogen. 4.eubacterium.

7 12345 Which structure or structures shown in Figure 19–1 have key differences in eubacteria and archaebacteria? 1.A, B, C 2.A, B, E 3.D only 4.A only

8 12345 Figure 19–2 shows how prokaryotes can be identified by 1.the composition of their cell walls. 2.their reaction to the Gram stain. 3.their cell shapes. 4.their methods for obtaining energy.

9 12345 Which cell shape in Figure 19–2 is called a coccus? 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.none of the above

10 12345 When treated with Gram stain, Gram-positive eubacteria appear 1.violet. 2.pink. 3.yellow. 4.orange.

11 12345 Bacilli, cocci, and spirilla are 1.Gram stains. 2.shapes of prokaryotes. 3.methods of prokaryotic movement. 4.ways that prokaryotes obtain energy.

12 12345 Which of the following is(are) used to identify prokaryotes? 1.cell shape 2.the way prokaryotes move 3.the way prokaryotes obtain energy 4.all of the above

13 12345 Where are you likely to find a photoautotroph? 1.in your refrigerator 2.in the darkness of the ocean 3.in your digestive system 4.near the surfaces of lakes, streams, and oceans

14 12345 Unlike photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs obtain energy 1.directly from the sun. 2.directly from inorganic molecules. 3.indirectly from organic molecules. 4.indirectly from other organisms.

15 12345 Most prokaryotes are 1.heterotrophs. 2.photoautotrophs. 3.chemoautotrophs. 4.photoheterotrophs.

16 12345 A method called Gram staining is used to tell 1.what shape a prokaryote has. 2.how a prokaryote obtains energy. 3.what kind of cell wall a prokaryote has. 4.whether a prokaryote has flagella.

17 12345 Which of the following describes a role of bacteria in the environment? 1.carrying out photosynthesis 2.recycling nutrients 3.fixing nitrogen 4.all of the above

18 12345 Bacteria are sometimes called nature’s recyclers because they 1.undergo conjugation. 2.break down nutrients in dead matter. 3.can switch between respiration and fermentation. 4.carry out photosynthesis.

19 12345 Bacteria that break down the nutrients in dead matter into simpler substances that are taken up by plant roots are called 1.endospores. 2.flagella. 3.photoautotrophs. 4.decomposers.

20 12345 Nitrogen fixation involves each of the following EXCEPT 1.soybeans. 2.Rhizobium. 3.fertilizer. 4.nodules on roots.

21 12345 Which of the following is produced when bacteria break down complex compounds in sewage? 1.carbon dioxide gas 2.purified water 3.nitrogen 4.all of the above

22 12345 Humans use bacteria to 1.clean up small oil spills. 2.mine minerals from the ground. 3.synthesize drugs. 4.all of the above

23 12345 Bacteria living in extreme environments may be a good source of 1.antibiotics. 2.heat-stable enzymes. 3.nitrogen-fixing bacteria. 4.Gram stains.

24 12345 The outer protein coat of a virus is called a 1.DNA core. 2.capsid. 3.bacteriophage. 4.tail sheath.

25 12345 All viruses are made of proteins and 1.nucleic acids. 2.prophages. 3.bacteriophages. 4.endospores.

26 12345 A viral capsid functions to 1.bind the virus to the surface of a host cell. 2.transcribe viral genes. 3.force a host cell to make copies of the virus. 4.destroy a host cell.

27 12345 The instructions for making new copies of a virus are 1.a part of a virus’s capsid. 2.coded in surface proteins attached to the protein coat. 3.coded in either RNA or DNA. 4.found only in bacteriophages.

28 12345 What is the basic structure of a virus? 1.DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat 2.a capsid surrounded by a protein coat 3.a tail sheath surrounded by tail fibers 4.a tiny cell surrounded by a cell wall

29 12345 Viruses 1.are all about the same size. 2.vary greatly in size and structure. 3.rarely contain DNA or RNA. 4.can be seen with a basic compound light microscope.

30 12345 A lytic infection concludes with the 1.embedding of viral DNA into the host cell’s DNA. 2.production of a prophage. 3.bursting of the host cell. 4.production of messenger RNA.

31 12345 A prophage is made of 1.bacteriophages. 2.carbohydrates. 3.capsid proteins. 4.viral DNA.

32 12345 Bacteriophages infect 1.other viruses. 2.bacteria only. 3.any available host cell. 4.cells undergoing the lytic cycle.

33 12345 Unlike lytic viruses, lysogenic viruses do NOT 1.inject their genetic material into the host cell. 2.enter the lytic cycle. 3.lyse the host cell right away. 4.infect host cells.

34 12345 During a lytic infection, the host cell is 1.destroyed. 2.prepared for the lysogenic cycle. 3.copied many times over. 4.all of the above

35 12345 Which of the following is a way that bacteria cause disease? 1.by capsids 2.by nitrogen fixation 3.by conjugation 4.by releasing toxins

36 12345 Bacteria that cause disease are called 1.viruses. 2.pathogens. 3.endospores. 4.antibiotics.

37 12345 A bacterial infection results when bacteria 1.break down the body’s tissues. 2.lyse following the lytic cycle. 3.live as obligate aerobes in the absence of oxygen. 4.undergo conjugation inside the body.

38 12345 Which of the following diseases is NOT caused by a bacterium? 1.tooth decay 2.tuberculosis 3.AIDS 4.Lyme disease

39 12345 Food stored in a refrigerator will keep longer because the bacteria that spoil food 1.die at low temperatures. 2.take longer to multiply at low temperatures. 3.require light to live. 4.grow more slowly in the dark.

40 12345 Which of the following is a characteristic of bacteria that is key to keeping them under control? 1.Most bacteria cannot survive high temperatures for long periods. 2.Most bacteria are resistant to harmful chemicals. 3.Most bacteria form endospores when subjected to harsh conditions. 4.Most bacteria do not cause food to spoil.

41 12345 Which of the following will NOT kill bacteria? 1.refrigeration 2.boiling 3.chemical disinfection 4.frying

42 12345 Which of the following is a proper use of disinfectants? 1.as an antibiotic 2.to start conjugation 3.to sterilize a hospital 4.to preserve foods

43 12345 Which of the following is NOT a viral disease? 1.botulism 2.AIDS 3.measles 4.polio

44 12345 Viral diseases can be 1.treated with antibiotics and prevented with vaccines. 2.treated with vaccines and prevented with antibiotics. 3.prevented with antibiotics but not treated with vaccines. 4.prevented with vaccines but not treated with antibiotics.

45 12345 Plant viruses have a difficult time entering the cells they infect partly because 1.plant viruses are weaker than animal viruses. 2.plant cells have tough cell walls. 3.many plant viruses are spread by insects. 4.plant viruses do not have a protein coat.

46 12345 Viruses cause disease by 1.producing toxins that harm the body. 2.reproducing independently inside the body. 3.forming endospores in the body. 4.disrupting the body’s normal equilibrium.

47 12345 Scientists reason that archaebacteria may be the ancestors of eukaryotes. If this is true, then archaebacteria and eukaryotes share a common ancestor that is more recent than the common ancestor of archaebacteria and eubacteria. _________________________ 1.True 2.False

48 12345 Many archaebacteria live in extreme environments, such as in Utah’s Great Salt Lake. _________________________ 1.True 2.False

49 12345 Figure 19–2 shows the three shapes of viruses. _________________________ 1.True 2.False

50 12345 The spiral-shaped organism labeled B in Figure 19–2 is an example of a spirillum. _________________________ 1.True 2.False

51 12345 The Gram-staining method applies only to archaebacteria. _________________________ 1.True 2.False

52 12345 Plants and animals benefit from nitrogen- fixing bacteria. _________________________ 1.True 2.False

53 12345 Bacteria can be used to synthesize drugs through genetic-engineering techniques. _________________________ 1.True 2.False

54 12345 Bacteria are used in the production of a variety of foods and beverages. _________________________ 1.True 2.False

55 12345 T4 is the name of a bacteriophage. _________________________ 1.True 2.False

56 12345 The structure labeled D in Figure 19–3 is called a tail fiber. _________________________ 1.True 2.False

57 12345 Another name for the structure labeled A in Figure 19–3 is head. _________________________ 1.True 2.False

58 12345 The structure labeled A in Figure 19–3 helps attach this virus to a host cell during a lytic infection. _________________________ 1.True 2.False

59 12345 Bacteria can cause disease by releasing toxins into the body. _________________________ 1.True 2.False

60 12345 A disinfectant is a chemical solution that kills bacteria. _________________________ 1.True 2.False

61 12345 An antibiotic is a preparation of weakened or killed virus or viral proteins. _________________________ 1.True 2.False

62 Participant Scores 0Participant 1 0Participant 2 0Participant 3 0Participant 4 0Participant 5

63 0 of Based on DNA sequences of key archaebacterial genes, archaebacteria and ____________________ seem to share a more recent common ancestor than do archaebacteria and ____________________.

64 0 of Some bacteria carry out photosynthesis in a manner similar to that of plants and are called ____________________.

65 Figure 19–1

66 0 of According to Figure 19–1, the structure labeled ____________________ determines whether a eubacterium is Gram positive or Gram negative.

67 Figure 19–2

68 0 of The organism labeled A in Figure 19–2 is an example of a(an) ____________________.

69 0 of The process of converting nitrogen to a form plants can use is called _________________________.

70 0 of In human intestines, bacteria help the body make ____________________.

71 0 of The knoblike root nodules of soybean plants are the sites of ____________________.

72 Figure 19–3

73 0 of In Figure 19–3, the structure labeled D is a(an) ____________________.

74 0 of The structure labeled B in Figure 19–3 is the ____________________.

75 0 of In a lysogenic infection, the viral DNA that is embedded in a host cell’s DNA is called a(an) ____________________.

76 0 of The pathogenic bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi causes ____________________.

77 0 of Destroying bacteria by subjecting them to great heat or to chemical action is called ____________________.

78 0 of A chemical solution that is used in hospitals to kill bacteria is called a(an) ____________________.

79 0 of Scrapie, an infectious disease in sheep, is caused by a(an) ____________________.

80 0 of Certain viruses called ____________________ viruses cause cancer in animals.

81 Figure 19–1

82 0 of Identify structures A through F in Figure 19–1.

83 0 of Name the two kingdoms of bacteria. List one way that these two groups differ from each other.

84 0 of List four factors that are used to identify prokaryotes.

85 0 of Describe two roles that bacteria have in the environment.

86 0 of What would happen to other organisms if bacteria did not recycle nutrients?

87 0 of A container of yogurt from your local supermarket has the following information on its package: “Contains active cultures of Lactobacillus bulgaricus.” What does this information mean?

88 0 of Describe three ways in which humans use bacteria.

89 0 of What are three foods that have been made using bacteria?

90 0 of What is a virus? Describe the basic structure of a virus

91 0 of List two ways in which bacteria cause disease.

92 0 of What is a pathogen?

93 0 of How does the use of an antibiotic differ from the use of a disinfectant?

94 0 of Following a flood, people are often advised to boil their drinking water. Explain why this is necessary.

95 0 of Describe two methods of killing bacteria.

96 0 of Describe three ways in which bacteria can be controlled.

97 0 of Explain how the two groups of prokaryotes differ. How are these two groups classified?

98 0 of Compare and contrast the following kinds of bacteria: photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, heterotrophs, photoheterotrophs. Which method of obtaining energy is most like the way humans obtain energy?

99 0 of What is Gram staining? Describe how the results of Gram staining can help identify eubacteria

100 0 of A student heated 400 mL of milk to 81°C for 15 minutes. Then, he added a teaspoon of yogurt to the milk and incubated the mixture at 39°C for 24 hours. At the end of 24 hours, the milk had become thicker in consistency, and its pH had decreased. What do you think happened to the milk? Why was the milk heated before the yogurt was added?

101 0 of Compare and contrast a virus with a cell.

102 0 of How do viruses cause infection?

103 0 of Contrast a bacterial infection with a viral infection.

104 0 of Explain how bacteria cause disease. Give an example of each method.

105 0 of Design an experiment that would test the effectiveness of a disinfectant on bacteria.

106 0 of Shingles and chickenpox are both viral diseases caused by the varicella-zoster herpes virus. Shingles usually occurs years after a person has had the chickenpox. Based on this information, what kind of infection cycle do you think the varicella-zoster virus has? Link the infection cycle to the appearance of shingles years after initial infection with the virus


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