China China United States United States Size 3.7 million square miles 3.6 million square miles Main Physical Barrier HimalayasRockies Main River Yangtze / East - West Mississippi / North – South Largest Population East Coast Connectivity Problems North - South East - West China vs. United States
Small Group Activity Refer to your notes packet Identify the following: Countries: Russia Tibet South Korea Japan Taiwan Mongolia Indian Sub- Continent Southeast Asia Cities: Beijing Nanjing Harbin Guangzhou Taipei Xi’an Lhasa Hong Kong Macao Bodies of Water: Amur River Sea of Japan Yellow Sea Pacific Ocean Huang-He River Xi River Yangtze River South China Sea Land Features: Altai Mts. Gobi Desert Tibetan Plateau Himalayan Mts. Greater Khingan Kunlun Shan
Mongolia Russia Tibet Indian Subcontinent Southeast Asia Taiwan N. Korea S> Korea Japan
Cities of China BEIJING Harbin Nanjing Guangzhou Xi’an Shanghai Taipei Lhasa Hong Kong Macao
Bodies of Water Huang-He River Y e l l o w S e a Yangtze River Pacific Ocean Amur River Xi River South China Sea Sea of Japan
Early Civilizations, Dynasties, and Rulers of China Yu and Xia Rulers: approx 2000 B.C., however, little exists to confirm their existence. Thus, little is known about these rulers/dynasties TTYN: What is ancestor worshiping? Ancestor Worshiping Offering of respect, food, and wine to their ancestors Invite ancestors to a family feast, hopefully this would bring the family good luck Traditions still exists today – a primary reason why having children is so important in China – to have someone look after you after you die, to look after your spirit
Shang Dynasty The first Chinese Dynasty The Shang, arose around 1766 B.C. and lasted until 1122 B.C. The dynasty was organized by clans. Most members of Shang society were peasants who led grueling lives working the fields. The cities supported artisans skilled in bronze work. The Shang dynasty ended in 1122 B.C. in a rebellion led by two Zhou warriors
Shang Dynasty The first ‘real’ dynasty of China, but not the first Empire of China Typical gov’t during this era Cities with palaces, temples, and royal burial sites Well-organized armies of nobles, peasants, and slaves Shang rules supervised irrigation and flood control projects. Controlling these project benefited the people and strengthened the rulers
Religion Believed that heaven was the home of many gods If god was pleased he sent good harvests…if not…the floods came The kin was the link b/t heaven and earth Ancestral worshipping Oracles – a person or agency that communicates with the gods. Use of the oracle bone – interpret the cracks in the bones after heating to interpret the message(s) from God.
Other Developments and Facts Agriculture continued and developed Metalwork was popularized Feudal Society Components of a Feudal Society King Vassals Professional Priests During the Shang (1300 B.C.) – first clear evidence of writings Warfare was commonplace against external barbarians Achievements Writing system using pictographs and ideographs (symbols)
Zhou Dynasty The Shang dynasty ended in 1122 B.C. in a rebellion led by two Zhou warriors. The Zhou claimed a divine right to rule, calling it the Mandate of Heaven. Chinese argued that the dynastic cycle reflected heaven’s judgment of good and bad governments. Under the Zhou dynasty, China became a feudal state. Under the Zhou, the first books were made; One them, The Book of Songs, depicted both farm and royal life in poetry and song. Zhou Dynasty (1027 BC); pronounced Joe Zhou overthrows the Shang assumes Mandate of Heaven
Philosophies of the Zhou Dynasty Mandate of Heaven Emperor’s were only allowed to stay on the throne as long as they were doing a good job ruling the people, as long as the heavens believed they were doing a good job The Mandate of Heaven is based on four principles: The right to rule is granted by Heaven. There is only one Heaven therefore there can be only one ruler. The right to rule is based on the virtue of the ruler. The right to rule is not limited to one dynasty.
Examples of the ways these principles converted into action and justification: It gives the ruler prestige and religious importance. It gives the ruler supreme power. It allows a new ruler to gain power quickly if the people believe he has the 'Mandate of Heaven'. A ruler's power must be kept in check by virtue. The Mandate of Heaven justifies rebellion as long as the rebellion is successful. Achievement During the Zhou Ironworking popularized
Confucianism …Review (refer to our unit on Beliefs Systems for additional information) Believed in a hierarchy in society (class structure), people were born into a specific class and stayed there, stressed the leaders should set a good example and the people will follow Confucius – 550 B.C. Challenge the rich and powerful to change their evil ways Championed peace and justice Came to prominence during the Feudal Wars Born out of wedlock (concubine) Believed that if people are educated the distinctions b/t class will disappear Education was the meaning of life People become better through education
Confucianism …Review Created a school – included all classes “Become Superior Men” In other words, aristocracy of noble character not noble birth One of his many decree’s – men and women walk on opposite sides of the street Welfare State?? The state should take care of the elderly and children Theory of society should be based upon the people
Confucianism …Review Confucius’s goal: to save China His radical ideas makes him dangerous Evaded several assassination attempts “An oppressive gov’t is much worse than a man-eating tiger” Influenza Theory of Virtue – first you get the rulers than the people will follow
The First Emperor and the Qin Dynasty Ended feudalism, unified China using a harsh system called Legalism to impose order. Standardized weights and measures Produced Qin coins Built roads One of Shi Huangdi’s greatest accomplishments was to link existing feudal walls into the Great Wall.
The First Emperor and the Qin Dynasty Reforms and Changes to China Edicts or decrees come from heaven Simplified the Chinese language Language the same as today Essential Question: How does this change help historians, archivists, and archeologists interpret the development of China Primary reason for a unified language was to promote laws
The First Emperor and the Qin Dynasty Reforms, Innovations, and Changes to China Weights and Measure system Built a road system New irrigation system Codified the monetary system His (Qin) law was the only law Outlawed other philosophies such as Confucianism and Daoism Burned the books of these philosophies which promoted freedom of thought Executed those Intellectuals) who continued to promote their philosophies
The First Emperor and the Qin Dynasty Quirks and Accomplishments of the First Emperor Feared invasion from his enemies Built the Great Wall 1400 miles long (by way of the crow) or total 3000 miles 300K plus slave labor, estimates of a total 700K worked on the wall Only manmade object that can be seen from the surface of the moon
The First Emperor and the Qin Dynasty Quirks of the First Emperor Believed in immortality His quest for immortality would actually be the cause of his death – mercury poisoning His Tomb Built because of his obsession with immortality The Terracotta Army – Army their to protect him from the armies he defeated during his reign Qin’s tomb discovered by farmers looking for a new water well in 1974
Qin (Ch’in) Dynasty – 221 and 206 BC… Achievements and Acts of the First Empire: Supported by Legalism China (or what we now of as China) is born Abolished the old Feudal system Ruled by an emperor (one leader) and a strong central gov’t, The First Emperor took the name Shi Huangdi or First Emperor
Legalism When the Chin gained imperial power after decades of civil war, they adopted the ideas of the Legalists as their political theory. In practice, under legalists (Chin dynasty 221-207) involved a uniform totalitarianism. People were conscripted to labor for long periods of time on state projects, such as irrigation projects or the series of defensive walls in northern China which we know as the Great Wall All disagreement with the government was made a capital crime All alternative ways of thinking, which the Legalists saw as encouraging the natural fractiousness of humanity, were banned.
Why did Legalism fail? The policies eventually led to the downfall of the dynasty itself after only fourteen years in power. Local peoples began to revolt and the government did nothing about it, for local officials feared to bring these revolts to the attention of the authorities since the reports themselves might be construed as a criticism of the government and so result in their executions. The emperor's court did not discover these revolts until it was far too late, and the Ch'in and the policies they pursued were discredited for the rest of Chinese history.
Buddhism…Review Historians estimate that the founder of Buddhism, Siddhartha Gautama, lived from 566 to 480 B.C. Gautama wandered into the world in search of understanding. After encountering an old man, an ill man, a corpse and an ascetic, Gautama was convinced that suffering lay at the end of all existence. He renounced his princely title and became a monk Deprived himself of worldly possessions in the hope of comprehending the truth of the world around him. The culmination of his search came while meditating beneath a tree, where he finally understood how to be free from suffering, and ultimately, to achieve salvation.
Buddhism…Review Following this epiphany, Gautama was known as the Buddha, meaning the "Enlightened One." Buddha spent the remainder of his life journeying about India, teaching others what he had come to understand. The Four Noble Truths Karma
The fall of the Qin Dynasty and the Rise of the Han With the death of Shi Huangdi in 210 B.C., the Qin dynasty ended. Emperor Gao Zu rose to power and the Han dynasty began. The most famous Han emperor, Wudi, strengthened government and the economy. improved canals and roads and imposed a monopoly on iron and salt. Eased Legalist polices and lowered taxes Emperor Gao Zu appointed Confucian scholars as advisers.
The fall of the Qin Dynasty and the Rise of the Han linked China to the West with the creation of the Silk Road trade route. Han emperors made Confucianism the official belief system of the state. also held that civil servants should get their jobs by merit Under this system, a man would start in a clerical job He could then take tests to advance to higher levels in the civil service.
Han Dynasty (206 B.C. – 220 A.D.) Peasant Revolt advances in poetry and visual art legalism is gone and Confucianism is back along with the exam system, land expansion total population around 60M The Silk Road – trade with Rome by way of India and Persia, trade route extends 7K miles, begins in the Yellow River, because of the route – the spread of ideas and beliefs such as Buddhism, also another way to communicate with other cultures Buddhism – Pagoda, multi-story building, odd number of floors, yin and yang, Feng Shui
Pattern of life of the Chinese Social Hierarchy of China Essentially, there were two classes. Gentry – wealthy landlords who had been educated in the Confucian classics, they were the scholars, gov’t officials, and tax collectors. They kept the peace and advised the emperor Peasantry – majority of people; some owed and worked plots of land; others were tenant farmers who had to part of each harvest to the landowners; other were landless laborers Social Mobility – it was possible to move up the social ladder; through accumulated wealth, they would invest in the education of their children; through this education and possible acquisition of a gov’t position the family could move up in status.
Pattern of life of the Chinese Respect – Confucius stressed the importance of family and respect for elders to maintain harmony. Children respected their elders Women obeyed men Children respected their mother Extended and Joint Family – oldest male was the leader of the family Filial Piety – respect for parents and ancestors; obey them, take care of them as they age, advise parents, and of course to love them. Loving one’s parents and offering them respect is the spring from which other forms of filial piety flows. A relationship with parents must be centered on love and respect. Respect for Ancestors – review ancestor worshiping; part of filial piety The Role of Women - The Chinese believed that women were inferior to men; valued for their work and ability to produce children; birth of son equated to respect
After the fall of the Han Han Dynasty collapses in 220 AD Before the rise of the Sui and Tang Dynasties, China broke apart and remained divided for 400 years. Yet, China escaped the decay that disrupted Europe after the fall of Rome. Farm production expanded and technology slowly improved. Buddhism spread, while learning and the arts continued to flourish.
Sui Dynasty Lasted from 589-618 The Emperor reunited the north and the south China was not restored to its earlier glory until the rise of the Tang Dynasty Sui Dynasty Lasted from 589-618 The Emperor reunited the north and the south China was not restored to its earlier glory until the rise of the Tang Dynasty Tang Dynasty The Tang dynasty was forged in China in 618. Li Yuan crushed rivals with his son, Li Shimin, and became the first Tang emperor. Eight years later, Li Shimin took the throne as Tang Taizong. Tang rulers built a sizeable empire, forcing neighboring lands to become tributary states. Empress Wu Zhao and other Tang emperors restored uniform government throughout the empire and set up schools. Tang rulers instituted land reform to strengthen central government and weaken large landholders; broke up large land holdings and redistributed tracts to peasants. Tang Dynasty The Tang dynasty was forged in China in 618. Li Yuan crushed rivals with his son, Li Shimin, and became the first Tang emperor. Eight years later, Li Shimin took the throne as Tang Taizong. Tang rulers built a sizeable empire, forcing neighboring lands to become tributary states. Empress Wu Zhao and other Tang emperors restored uniform government throughout the empire and set up schools. Tang rulers instituted land reform to strengthen central government and weaken large landholders; broke up large land holdings and redistributed tracts to peasants.
Song Dynasty The Tang dynasty ended in 907. In 960, the Song dynasty was founded. It was forged by a general named Zhao Kuangyin. It lasted for 319 years, but controlled less territory than the Tang. It was a time of great wealth and cultural achievement for China. The economy grew under the Song dynasty for many reasons. Its emperors had an open border policy that encouraged foreign trade and imports. Farming methods improved and farmers produced two crops a year, creating a surplus. Use of the Grand Canal linking the Huang River to the Chang River reached its height during this time
An Ordered Society The two main classes were the gentry, or landholders, and the peasants. The gentry studied to pass the civil service exam. The peasants worked the land and produced handicraft items such as baskets.
An Ordered Society Some merchants became wealthy in the market towns of China. they had lower social status than peasants; This was due to Confucian tradition. Families in China valued boys more than girls, and women had a subordinate position in society. Women often managed a household’s servants and finances, but they could not keep their dowry. The painful custom of foot binding was widely practiced and greatly limited a woman’s ability to leave the home.
Foot Binding Foot binding was a way to construct femininity in this softer, weaker, more compliant vein. Ebrey also noted the Chinese reaction against the nomadic cultures on the northern and western borders as another possible factor in promoting the spread of foot binding that came to be seen as a marker of China ’ s unique civilization in contrast to its nomadic neighbors.
Mongols Take China The Mongols conquered the steppes first with a force of skilled horsemen. To attack walled cities in China, they used cannons. Though Genghis Khan did not finish the conquest of China, his heirs expanded the Mongol empire and dominated Asia for 150 years. Once Mongols conquered a territory, they ruled tolerantly and established peace and order. Khan respected scholars and artists and listened to their ideas. During the 1200s and 1300s, Mongols maintained order, a period now called the Pax Mongolica by historians. Political stability led to economic growth and flourishing trade. Cultures mixed as tools and inventions spread.
Kublai Khan Completed the task of conquering China when he toppled the Song dynasty in 1279. He ruled China, Korea, and Tibet from his capital at Khanbaliq, modern Beijing. He decreed that only Mongols could serve in the military. Kublai Khan adopted the Chinese name Yuan for his dynasty. Marco Polo He left Venice in 1271 and spent 17 years in the service of Kublai Kahn. Polo returned to Italy and wrote of his time in China, describing its wealth and efficient mail system. His writing sparked European interest in Asia.
Decline of the Yuan Dynasty When Kublai Kahn died in 1294, the Yuan dynasty declined. There were frequent uprisings due to heavy taxes and corruption. A peasant leader, Zhu Yuanzhang, created a rebel army and toppled the Mongols.
The Mongols and China eliminated one of the most basic of Chinese institutions — the civil service examinations. Societal hierarchy – The Mongols perceived China as just one section of their vast empire. And they classified the population of their domain in China into a hierarchy of four groups — with the native Chinese at the bottom. The Mongols, of course, were at the top; then came the non-Han, mostly Islamic population that was brought to China by the Mongols to help them rule; third were the northern Chinese; and at the very bottom of the rung were the southern Chinese.
The Mongols and China Distrusted Confucian Scholars Mongols did initiate many policies — especially under the rule of Khubilai Khan — that supported and helped the Chinese economy, as well as social and political life in China. he Mongols gave strong support to the peasants and peasant economy of China, believing that the success of the peasant economy would bring in additional tax revenues and ultimately benefit the Mongols themselves. Traditionally, the Chinese prized the products produced by artisans — jades, bronzes, ceramics, porcelains — but did not accord the artisans themselves a high social status. The Mongols, on the other hand, valued crafts and artisanship immensely and implemented many policies that favored artisans….same with the merchants
Ming Dynasty The Ming dynasty was founded in 1368 by the rebel leader. Ming rulers worked to restore Chinese greatness. They restored the civil service exam, restored the primacy of Confucianism, and rooted out corruption. Under the Ming, the economy once again grew, thanks to improved farming methods and trade. Ming China fostered a revival of the arts. Ming blue and white porcelain vases became the most valuable Chinese products exported to the West. A new form of popular literature, the novel, emerged. One example, The Water Margin, was about ending injustice.
Exploration Ming emperors sent fleets of Chinese ships to distant places. Zheng He traveled as far as East Africa. One notable voyage included 262 vessels and 28,000 sailors. The goals of these expeditions were to promote trade, collect tribute, and show local rulers the power of the Chinese. In 1435, the Ming emperor banned the building of seagoing ships. Historians think he may have done so because fleets were expensive or because Confucian scholars wanted to preserve ancient Chinese culture without outside interaction. Fewer than 60 years after this decision, Christopher Columbus sailed and made Spain a major power.
Qing Dynasty (Pronounced: Ching) European interest in Asia grew, but the Ming emperors in China had no interest in foreigners. European textiles and metalwork were perceived as inferior to those of China. Because they had nothing the Chinese wanted, the Europeans had to pay for Chinese products in gold or silver. Dutch, English, and others were allowed to trade near Canton. Foreigners could only trade if supervised by imperial officials. At the end of the trading season, all foreigners had to leave. Portuguese missionaries arrived with the traders and merchants. They were followed by Jesuits, who were welcomed for their scholarship, but who made few converts.
In the early 1600s the Ming dynasty was in decay. Revolts erupted and Manchu invaders pushed through the Great Wall. The Manchu came from the northeast and Manchuria. In 1644, victorious Manchu forces took Beijing and made it their capital The Manchu established the Qing dynasty The Manchu won support of scholar-officials by adopting a Confucian form of government. Local government remained in the hands of local Chinese officials. Manchu soldiers were stationed across the empire to ensure loyalty. Each top government position had two officials, one Qing and one Manchu. Qing Dynasty
The most brilliant age of the Qing dynasty was under Emperor Kangxi (1661–1722) and his grandson Qianlong (1736–1796). Kangxi extended Chinese power into central Asia and expanded Chinese culture. Qianlong expanded the borders and ruled the largest area in the nation’s history. Qianlong retired after 60 years because he did not want to reign longer than his grandfather had. In 1793 British diplomat Lord MaCartney sought greater trading rights. The diplomat’s behavior offended the emperor, who saw British products as crude and outsiders such as Macartney as barbarians. Qing Dynasty
Emperor Qianglong’s attitude seemed justified by China’s accomplishments Under the Qing dynasty, China grew and prospered. New crops such as potatoes and corn boosted food production. The population grew to 300 million by 1800. The silk, cotton, and porcelain industries grew. Internal trade and demand for Chinese goods grew. **** However, in the late 1800s, China would pay a heavy price for ignoring Westerners and their technology. Qing Dynasty
European Imperialism: The Race to Divide China 1st Opium War 1839-1842 Taiping Rebellion 1850 - 1864 2nd Opium War 1856-1860 Boxer Movement 1898 - 1911 Sphere of Influence Throughout the nineteenth century, China's emperors had watched as foreigners encroached further and further upon their land. Time and again, foreigners forced China to make humiliating concessions. Foreign regiments, armed with modern weapons, consistently defeated entire imperial armies. Now, as a new century was about to begin, the Ching Dynasty searched for a way to rid her empire of foreign parasites.
Open Door Policy China was in political and economic disarray as the end of the 19th century approached. The giant was not recognized as a sovereign nation by the major powers, who were busy elbowing one another for trading privileges and plotting how the country could be partitioned. The imperial nations sought spheres of influence and claimed extraterritorial rights in China. The United States took Far Eastern matters more seriously after the Spanish-American War, when they came into possession of the Philippines. In the fall of 1898, President McKinley stated his desire for the creation of an "open door" that would allow all trading nations access to the Chinese market. The following year, Secretary of State John Hay sought a formal endorsement of the concept by circulating diplomatic notes among the major powers, enabling the secretary to be credited with authoring the Open Door policy.
The Opium Wars Dispute between Great Britain and China
Growth of Opium Trade Europeans bought silk, tea, porcelain, and spices from China Chinese would only trade goods for silver Drain on European finances Opium manufactured in China since 15 th century for medical purposes Opium then mixed with tobacco so it could be smoked Dutch were first to begin trade of opium English soon followed Chinese government banned smoking and trade of opium in 1729 due to health and social issues
English East India Company Held monopoly on production and export of opium in India Peasant cultivators often coerced and paid in advance for cultivation of poppies Sold in Calcutta for a profit of 400% Buy tea on credit in Canton Sell opium at auctions in Calcutta, India Then it was smuggled into China through India and Bengal 1797 began direct trade of opium into China Chinese government had hard time controlling trade in South
Napier Affair Lord Napier tried to circumvent the Canton Trade laws to reinstitute East India’s monopoly Governor of Macao closed trade with Britain September 2, 1834 British resumed trade under old restrictions
First Opium War 1834 - 1843 1838 Chinese instituted death penalty for native traffickers of opium March 1839 – new commissioner to control opium trade – Lin Zexu Lin imposed embargo on Britain unless they permanently ended the trade trade March 27, 1839 – British Superintendent of Trade – Charles Elliot demanded all British subjects turn over opium to him Opium amounting to a year’s worth of trade was given to Commissioner Lin Trade resumed with Britain and no drugs were smuggled
Lin demanded British merchants to sign a bond promising not to deal opium under penalty of death Lin disposed of the opium – dissolving it in the ocean Did not realize the impact of this action! British merchants and government regarded this as destruction of private property Responded by sending warships, soldiers, and the British India Army into China June 1840 First Opium War 1834 - 1843
First Opium War 1834 – 1843 Had superior military force – attacked coastal cities, defeated Qing forces easily British took Canton and sailed up the Yangtze River Took Tax Barges, cut revenue of imperial court of Beijing 1842 Qing sued for peace Ended with Treaty of Nanjing Treaty of Nanjing Referred to as the Unequal Treaties – accepted 1843 China Ceded Hong Kong to the British Opened ports to British – Canton, Amoy, Fuzhou, Ningbo, Shanghai
Great Britain received 21 million ounces of silver Fixed tariffs Extraterritoriality for British citizens on Chinese soil Most favored nation status Allowed missionaries into interior of China Allowed British merchants sphere of influence in and around British ports Treaty of Nanjing
Unresolved Issues Status of opium trade with China Equivalent American treaty forbade opium trade with China However, both Americans and British were subject only to the legal trade of their consuls
Second Opium War 1856 - 1860 Also known as Arrow War Followed incident when Chinese bordered British registered, Chinese owned ship – the Arrow Crew was accused of piracy and smuggling Were arrested British claimed ship was flying British flag and was protected under the Treaty of Nanjing War delayed by Taiping Rebellion and Indian Mutiny British attacked Guangzhou one year later Aided by allies of United States, Russia, and France
Treaty of Tientsin was created in July 1858 – was not ratified by China until 2 years later Hostilities broke out in 1859 when China refused the establishment of British Embassy in Beijing Fighting erupted in Hong Kong and Beijing British burned the Summer and Old Summer Palace and looted the city Second Opium War 1856 - 1860
1860 ratified the treaty at the Convention of Peking Britain, France, Russia and the United States would have the right to station legations in Beijing (a closed city at the time) Ten more Chinese ports would be opened for foreign trade, including Niuzhuang, Danshui, Hankou and Nanjing The right of foreign vessels including warships to navigate freely on the Yangtze River The right of foreigners to travel in the internal regions of China for the purpose of travel, trade or missionary activities Treaty of Tientsin
China was to pay an indemnity to Britain and France in 2 million taels of silver respectively, and compensation to British merchants in 2 million taels of silver. The Chinese are to be banned from referring to Westerners by the character "yi" (barbarian). Legalized the import of Opium Treaty of Tientsin
Unrest and Revolution: Taiping Rebellion The Taiping Rebellion was the climax of a half-century of widespread social upheaval that blanketed every part of the Ch'ing Empire at a time when dynastic strength was on the decline The local feuds in Kwangsi were the seedbed for the uprising of the Taipings. The Taiping Rebellion added new dimension to this general picture because the rebellion challenged not only the Manchu Dynasty but the Confucian social order as well. The Taiping rebels were using an imported and heterodox brand of Christianity to reinforce their cohesion and morale, hence their connection with foreign influence was also important in our consideration.
Causes of Rebellions Causes vary and are often difficult to pin down Two important ideas supported rebellions “Guanbi minfan”, rebellion in response to officials’ suppression Change of the mandate of Heaven Normally Han people rebelled because of the following reasons Economic distress Destruction of traditional forms of handicraft employment by the competition of foreign manufactures?
Causes of Rebellions Destruction of traditional forms of handicraft employment by the competition of foreign manufactures? Famine Landlordism Population pressure Conflict between migrating Han farmers and the aboriginals minorities Nationalism Viewing the Manchus’ rule as representing a corrupt alien dynasty Religious affiliations
Unrest and Revolution: Taiping Rebellion Misgovernment and corruption-- The Ch'ing government had become increasingly corrupt and inefficient ever since the beginning of the 19th century. Local grievances of overtaxation, banditry, landlordism, rural indebtedness were largely ignored. The social functions of the local gentry also began to erode The local feuds in Kwangsi - The Origins of the Taiping Rebellion The Ethnic and Cultural Spark - The Taiping Rebellion originated in Kwangsi, a province complicated by ethnic, social, economic and political complexities. Most of the Chinese population in Kwangsi consisted of two groups, the Punti (the locals) and the Hakka (the guest people).
Hung Hsiu-chuan and Christianity The leader of the Hakka charcoal burners in Kwangsi was Hung Hsiu-chuan Hung and his followers had taken up a heterodox brand of Christianity as their religion and cohesive ideology. They had formed themselves in the God Worshippers Society. Hung had a firm belief of his own mission. He believed himself to be the second son of God. Through his egalitarian Christian preaching he had gathered the nucleus of his later day rebellion The Rebellion was one of many anti-Manchu movements in the middle-Qing period Unrest and Revolution: Taiping Rebellion
The God-Worshippers grew rapidly and its members rose from 10,000 to 30,000 Local and central governments found the growing God- Worshippers threatening and began to suppress them This resulted in mass killing and wars between them, which anticipated a large-scale rebellion Unrest and Revolution: Taiping Rebellion
Taiping’s Quick Success After several major battles with government troops, the Taipings took control of the ancient capital, Nanjing, which became its capital They also took control of important cities in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hubei, and Anhui and with this areas as their military bases, continued to launch military and cultural campaigns against the Manchu rulers The expansion of the Taiping and its forceful implementation of the Christian faith resulted in the Taipings’ conflict with the people Jintian where Hong started his “uprising”
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom After succeeding in taking control of Nanjing (Nanking), Hong built Taiping’s capital there Killing all Qing bureaucrats and Confucian scholars and burnt all Confucian texts, which Hong regarded as “evil” He proclaimed himself Heavenly King and five of his closest comrades Eastern, Western, Southern, Northern, and Wing Kings The fratricide among the Taipings resulted in the gradual collapse of the kingdom, even though it might have promise to overthrow the Qing regime A 100,000 Taipings died in Nanjing rather than surrender to the Qing. Death of Population during the rebellion: 50-70 million