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Managingmultilingualism in theclassroom: Experiences, strategies and challenges Emilee Moore Grup de Recerca en Ensenyament i Interacció Plurilingües Departament.

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Presentation on theme: "Managingmultilingualism in theclassroom: Experiences, strategies and challenges Emilee Moore Grup de Recerca en Ensenyament i Interacció Plurilingües Departament."— Presentation transcript:

1 Managingmultilingualism in theclassroom: Experiences, strategies and challenges Emilee Moore Grup de Recerca en Ensenyament i Interacció Plurilingües Departament de Didàctica de la Llengua, la Literatura i de les CiènciesSocials UniversitatAutònoma de Barcelona Serveid’Idiomes Universitat Internacional de Catalunya

2 DALE-APECS Discurso Académico en Lengua Extranjera: Aprendizaje y Evaluacion de Contenidos Científicos en el Aula Multilingüe PROJECTE DE MILLORA DE LA QÜALIAT DOCENT Desenvolupament de material didàctic en anglèsper a la integració de les competèncieslingüístiquesicientífique s en assignaturesdels Graus d'Educació Infantil iPrimària

3 Task 1 In pairsorgroups of 3, discussthequestions. Summarisetheconvergenc es and divergencesforyourpeers.

4 Summary Introduction to the notion of plurilingual competence 9.00 – am Conceptualising the multilingual university classroom Challenges, planning and management of multilingualismin lectures Pause11.15 – pm Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in lectures – 2.00 pm Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in group activities

5 Summary Introduction to the notion of plurilingual competence 9.00 – am Conceptualising the multilingual university classroom Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in lectures Pause11.15 – pm Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in lectures – 2.00 pm Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in group activities

6 Task 2 In pairsorgroups of 3, completethetexts. 6 (M. Bernaus et al p. 44)

7 « Ces dernières années, le concept de plurilinguisme a pris de l’importance dans l’approche qu’a le Conseil de l’Europe de l’apprentissage des langues. On distingue le «plurilinguisme» du «multilinguisme» qui est la connaissance d’un certain nombre de langues ou la coexistence de langues différentes dans une société donnée. On peut arriver au multilinguisme simplement en diversifiant l’offre de langues dans une école ou un système éducatif donnés, ou en encourageant les élèves à étudier plus d’une langue étrangère, ou en réduisant la place dominante de l’anglais dans la communication internationale. Bien au-delà, l’approcheplurilingue met l’accent sur le fait que, au fur et à mesure que l’expérience langagière d’un individu dans son contexte culturel s’étend de la langue familiale à celle du groupe social puis à celle d’autres groupes […], il/elle ne classe pas ces langues et ces cultures dans des compartiments séparés mais construit plutôt une compétence communicative à laquelle contribuent toute connaissance et toute expérience des langues et dans laquelle les langues sont en corrélation et interagissent. » (Conseil de l’Europe, 2001, p. 11)

8 “[…] attempts to create truly multilingual teaching by introducing the teaching of a new language are insufficient. At first, one must stop considering the languages practised by a sole plurilingual speaker as the simple addition of languages learnt on their own terms, from a monolingual perspective, and replace the classical notion of competence with that of linguistic repertoire […] or even verbal resources. This term […] presupposes the existence of a free and active subject who has amassed a repertoire of resources and who activates this repertoire according to his/her need, knowledge or whims, modifying or combining them where necessary.” (Lüdi&Py, 2009, p. 157).

9 « […] nous définirons provisoirement la compétence plurilingue comme l'ensemble des connaissances et des capacités qui permettent de mobiliser les ressources d'un répertoire plurilingue et qui contribuent en outre à la construction, à l'évolution et à la reconfiguration éventuelle dudit répertoire. » (Coste, 2001)

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11 Task 3 In pairs or groups of 3, argue whether the speakers are competent or not. Summarise your convergences and divergences for your peers. 11

12 12 Procedures in the face of an obstacle Abandonment:r eduction of communicative goals and message topics Substitution:recou rse to other languages and semiotic systems Execution: recourse to approximate solutions, creation, interactive solutions More favourable for communication and learning Adaptedfrom: Bange, P. (1992). À propos de la communication et de l’apprentissage de L2. AILE, 1, pp. 53 – 85.

13 STAGE 1. Learners basically use L1 or other shared languages, inserting (some) utterances in the target language; they manage the activity in L1 or other languages shared by participants and overcome communicative obstacles by asking for help or using code- switching and hybrid forms. STAGE 2. Similar to Stage 1, learners manage the activity in L1 or other shared languages and overcome communicative obstacles by asking for help or using code- switching and hybrid forms. However, learners use a considerable number of utterances in the target language. STAGE 3. Learners use target language all the time; they manage the activity in the target language; they overcome communicative obstacles through reformulations or looking for other ways to construct utterances, always in the target language. PlurilingualmodeUnilingualmode Objective of secondlanguageeducation Adapted from: Borràs, E., Canals, L., Dooly, M., Moore, E. & Nussbaum, L. (2010). Deliverable 4.3: Working Paper 4. DYLAN Project, pp. 9 – 21. p. 19.

14 Task 4 Summarisethe key points until now for 2 minutes. Compare with a partner. Questions, comments?

15 Summary Introduction to the notion of plurilingual competence 9.00 – am Conceptualising the multilingual university classroom Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in lectures Pause11.15 – pm Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in lectures – 2.00 pm Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in group activities

16 Task 5 Read the text assigned to you (A page 6; B page 7; C page 12). Work with people with a different text. Explain what you have read.

17 Multilingualcurriculum Macro-alternation

18 Multilingualcurriculum Macro-alternation Plurilingual design 1 Meso-alternation

19 Multilingualcurriculum Macro-alternation Plurilingualdesign Meso-alternation or Unilingualdesign

20 Multilingualcurriculum Macro-alternation Plurilingualdesign Meso-alternation Plurilingualpractice Micro-alternation or Unilingualdesign

21 Multilingualcurriculum Macro-alternation Plurilingualdesign Meso-alternation Plurilingualpractice Micro-alternation or Unilingualdesign or Unilingualpractice ?

22 Task 6 In pairs or groups of 3, describe your own ‘multilingual’ classroom model based on the diagram. Summarise your convergences and divergences for your peers.

23 Summary Introduction to the notion of plurilingual competence 9.00 – am Conceptualising the multilingual university classroom Challenges, planning and management of multilingualismin lectures Pause11.15 – pm Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in lectures – 2.00 pm Challenges, planning and management ofmultilingualsm in group activities

24 Plurilingual Unilingual Exolingual (interaction with ‘challenges’ linked to the use of a second language; interaction involving users with asymmetrical competences) Endolingual (interaction without ‘challenges’ linked to the use of a second language; interaction involving users with symetrical competences) Adapted from: Alber, J.-L., & Py, B. (1985). Interlangue et conversation exolingue. Cahiers du Departement des Langues et des Sciences du Langage, 1. Lausanne: Université de Lausanne; Et al. 24

25 Plurilingual Unilingual Exolingual (interaction with ‘challenges’ linked to the use of a second language; interaction involving users with asymmetrical competences) Endolingual (interaction without ‘challenges’ linked to the use of a second language; interaction involving users with symetrical competences) Adapted from: Alber, J.-L., & Py, B. (1985). Interlangue et conversation exolingue. Cahiers du Departement des Langues et des Sciences du Langage, 1. Lausanne: Université de Lausanne; Et al. Multilingualeducation

26 Task 7 Look at the fragment assigned to you and identify the problem (A fragment 1; B fragment 2; C fragment 3). Work with people with a different fragment. Explain what you have identified.

27 The zone of proximal development helps to conceptualise the relationship between language users with asymmetrical competences: ZDP What the user can do alone: self- regulation, self-facilitation... What the user cannot do, even with the help of another What the user can do with the help of another: scaffolding,other-regulation, hetero-facilitation… Adapted from: Vygotsky, L. (1934/1986). Thought and Language. Massachusetts: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Wood, D., Bruner, J. & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Child Psychiatry, 17, pp ; Alber, J.-L., &Py, B. (1985). Interlangue et conversation exolingue. Cahiers du Departement des Langues et des Sciences du Langage, 1. Lausanne: Université de Lausanne. Et al.

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29 Task 8 Listen and take notes. Compare your notes with a partner. Together, define the two principles of interaction in your own words.

30 “On the one hand, interaction is governed by the principle of progressivity, which aims at advancingthe activity taking place. On the other, interaction obeys the principle of intersubjectivity, which aims at ensuring mutual comprehension. The first principle is oriented prospectively and tends towards the minimisation of the resourcesmobilised. The second is oriented retrospectivelyand tends, on the contrary, towards an expansion of the resources used” (Markaki, et al., p. 24). Translated from: Markaki, V., Merlino, S., Mondada, L., Oloff, F., Traverso, V. (2011) Les pratiquesplurilingues en contexteprofessionnel. Deliverable 1.6: Working Paper 6. DYLAN Project, pp. 16 – 51.

31 Task 9 In pairs or groups of 3, discuss the questions. Summarise the convergences and divergences for your peers.

32 Questions, comments?

33 Summary Introduction to the notion of plurilingual competence 9.00 – am Conceptualising the multilingual university classroom Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in lectures Pause11.15 – pm Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in lectures – 2.00 pm Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in group activities

34 Summary Introduction to the notion of plurilingual competence 9.00 – am Conceptualising the multilingual university classroom Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in lectures Pause11.15 – pm Challenges, planning and management of multilingualismin lectures – 2.00 pm Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in group activities

35 “[…] il ne consiste pas àconduire des coursentièrementen langue 2, par conséquent...Il n’est pas non plus, biensûr, unesomme de deuxenseignementsmonolingues. Il s’agit, selon nous, dans un dispositif bilingue, de conduire en DNL [discipline non-linguistique] des unités didactiques, des cours, des leçons oùles deux langues co - existent en permanence, très explicitement, où le professeur et les élèves disposent en permanence de ces deux langues, de deux outils de travail, pour le plus grand bénéfice de la discipline, au - delà bien sûr du profit pour la langue 2 (et d’ailleurs aussi pour la langue 1)”. Duverger, J. (2007). Didactiserl’alternance des langues en cours de DNL. Tréma, 28, p. 2.http://trema.revues.org/302

36 When are plurilingual resources useful or beneficial for teaching and learning in lectures?

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38 Participation Data collected by EulàliaBorràs.

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40 Comprehension and attention Data collected by EulàliaBorràs.

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42 Ensuring terminology in L1 Data collected by Alexandra Vraciu.

43 Ensuring terminology in L1

44 Learning activity in a second language Densityof the subject content Opacity of the second language Simplificationof the subject content Saturation of the subject content Simplificationof the subject content Saturation of the subject content Recourse to plurilingual mode can help achieve saturation. Adapted from: Gajo, L. (2007a). Linguistic knowledge and subject knowledge: How does bilingualism contribute to subject development? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10 (5), pp. 563–581; Gajo, L. & Grobet, A. (2008). Interagir en langue étrangère dans le cadre de disciplines scolaires: intégration et saturation des savoirs disciplinaires et linguistiques dans l’élaboration des definitions. In: Filliettaz, L. & Schubauer-Leoni, M.-L. (eds.), Processus interactionnels et situations éducatives. Brussels: De Boeck, pp

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46 Saturation Data collected by EulàliaBorràs.

47 Task 10a Work in groups of 3-4 with people from a similar discipline. Decide on one concept from your shared disciple. Plan an explanation for your ‘student’ peers. Rememberthatthesituationis exolingual. Try to encourage active participation.

48 Task 10b Make new groups of 3-4 with people from other disciplines. Explain the concept to your ‘student’ peers with the help of the ‘board’ (the blank sheet of paper). Reflect collectively on the strengths and weaknesses of the explanation.

49 Task 10c Return to your original group of 3-4. Discuss the feedback you have received. Perform the explanation for the whole group. Reflect collectively on the strengths and weaknesses of the explanation.

50 Summary Introduction to the notion of plurilingual competence 9.00 – am Conceptualising the multilingual university classroom Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in lectures Pause11.15 – pm Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in lectures – 2.00 pm Challenges, planning and management of multilingualism in group activities

51 Task 11 In pairs or groups of 3, discuss the questions. Summarise the convergences and divergences for your peers.

52 STAGE 1. Learners basically use L1 or other shared languages, inserting (some) utterances in the target language; they manage the activity in L1 or other languages shared by participants and overcome communicative obstacles by asking for help or using code- switching and hybrid forms. STAGE 2. Similar to Stage 1, learners manage the activity in L1 or other shared languages and overcome communicative obstacles by asking for help or using code- switching and hybrid forms. However, learners use a considerable number of utterances in the target language. STAGE 3. Learners use target language all the time; they manage the activity in the target language; they overcome communicative obstacles through reformulations or looking for other ways to construct utterances, always in the target language. PlurilingualmodeUnilingualmode Objective of secondlanguageeducation Adapted from: Borràs, E., Canals, L., Dooly, M., Moore, E. & Nussbaum, L. (2010). Deliverable 4.3: Working Paper 4. DYLAN Project, pp. 9 – 21. p. 19.

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61 aspirations = idealistic expectations = realistic

62 Adapted from: Gajo, L. (2007a). Linguistic knowledge and subject knowledge: How does bilingualism contribute to subject development? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10 (5), pp. 563–581; Gajo, L. & Grobet, A. (2008). Interagir en langue étrangère dans le cadre de disciplines scolaires: intégration et saturation des savoirs disciplinaires et linguistiques dans l’élaboration des definitions. In: Filliettaz, L. & Schubauer-Leoni, M.-L. (eds.), Processus interactionnels et situations éducatives. Brussels: De Boeck, pp Learningactivity in a second language Densityof the subject content Opacity of the second language Simplificationof the subject content Saturation of the subject content Simplificationof the subject content Saturation of the subject content Can create novel opportunities for work on…

63 aspirations = idealista / idealistic expectations = realista / realistic

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66 Task proposed in unilingual mode in a second language Plurilingualprocess in treating task opacity and density Plurilingualism = communicative and cognitive scaffold Plurilingualprocess in treating task opacity and density Plurilingualism = communicative and cognitive scaffold Expert product in unilingualmode in a second language Adapted from: Nussbaum, L., Moore, E., i Borràs, E. (en premsa). Accomplishing multilingualim through plurilingual activities. A: Berthoud, A-C., Grin, F., i Lüdi, G. (eds.), DYLAN Book (títol provisional). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

67 Task 12a Work in groups of 3-4 with people from a similar discipline. Decide on a typical group work activity in your discipline. Plan how you would design the activity to scaffold students’ eventual achievement of unilingual mode.

68 Task 12b Make new groups of 3-4 with people from other disciplines. Explain your plan. Reflect collectively on the strengths and weaknesses of the task design.

69 Task 12c Return to your original group of 3-4. Discuss the feedback you have received.

70 Task 13 Summarisewhatyou are taking away from this session by filling your baggage with the key ideas. Share with the group.

71 Questions, comments?

72 ¡Gracias! … Gràcies! … Merci! … Danke! … Thanks!


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