2Ancient ChinaBy 5000 B.C.E. rice became a staple in the diet in the Chang Jiang River Valley;Later people further north (Huang He River Valley) domesticated wheat, barley, and milletBy 1700 B.C.E. they had cities and complex political, cultural, and social systems that were the foundation in ChinaHuang He, AKA, the Yellow River: Wheat, Barley and milletChang Jiang AKA the Yangzi River: Rice
3Ancient China: Geography Away from other areas; they did trade but distance and geographic features separated the area; China developed independentlyAgriculture and metalworking were independently inventedRivers of Huang He and Chang Jiang were great for farming (silt)Other areas such as Gobi Desert, Himalayan Mts., and the Tarim Basin less inhabitableMost people, even today, live in the East along the rivers and the coastlineIn other words, most people live in the green area on the map.
4Ancient China: Geography The rivers absorbed a yellowish-brown dust from central Asia called loess which is very fertile and could be worked with digging sticksLike the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, the East Asian rivers were prone to irregular floodingPeople built dikes, channels, and basins to store water
5Ancient China: Economics Farmers and leaders had to control floodingIrrigation systemsDikes to manage flow of riverInvented the hoe and four pronged hoe which was a vast improvement over the digging stick; could feed large urban population
6Ancient China: Economics China’s growth spurred by mastery of metallurgy esp. bronze weapons & toolsRuling elites controlled copper and tin ores and employed the craftsmenProduced weapons such as spears but also fittings for horse drawn chariots diffused to China from MesopotamiaHigh level of craftsmanship found in vessels created for religious ritual & household use by elitesPioneer in silk manufacturing; raising silk worms
7Ancient China: Economic Cities were centers of political control and religion; surrounded by great walls of earthPublic building: palaces, political centers, storehouses, royal tombs, shrines, etcOrdinary people lived in villages outside city wallsCities laid out on a grid plan aligned with north polar star, gate opened in cardinal direction, building faced SouthReflects the concern for orderCalled Fengshui
8Ancient China: Political According to legend, a dynasty, (family-based kingdom), called Xia but NO evidence of existence1st known dynasty was the Shang Dynasty emerged between B.C.E.Nomadic group skilled horsemen with army of subject peoples and other warrior leaders who swore allegiance
9Ancient China: Political King is a intermediary between Supreme Being, Shandi, had a lot of powerPeople were governed by vassals, lords that served the king and bound by personal tiesWarrior aristocrats collected tribute (farm produce) which supported the monarchy
10Ancient China: Political 12th century B.C.E. Shang is overthrown by the Zhou DynastyKept written records, tax rolls, lists of imports & exports, & historical infoDynasty falls into 2 phases: Western Zhou (11th-8th centuries B.C.E.) and Eastern Zhou (8th-5th centuries B.C.E.)Extended territory: decentralized, local leaders had a good deal of autonomyGrowing bureaucrats (Shi) best educated men served as scribes, clerks, advisors and overseersKept records , ran public works, was, organized rituals
11Ancient China: Social 3 Main Social Groups The elite: royal family, landowning aristocracy, educated bureaucratsHouses were lavishMonopolized use of bronze weapons & toolsConsumed much of the meatEmphasis on proper behavior, table manners, etc.
12Ancient China: SocialNext level are the peasants, free artisans and craftsmenPeasants didn’t own land but worked land that belonged to nobilityLived in earth housesUsed iron tools in the late ZhouHad to also build roads, buildings and irrigation projectsArtisans and craftsmen worked exclusively for the eliteLived in the cities in better houses than peasants
13Ancient China: SocialAt the very bottom are the unskilled workers and slavesPerformed hard labor like building walls for cities, foundations, and clearing new fieldsChina did not use slaves for productionMerchants & traders did exist but little is written about themLong distance trade appeared during the Shang: jade, tin, silkConfucian emphasis on learning and political service led to low status for merchants and traders who devoted lives to make money
14Ancient China: SocialLike other ancient civilizations, women lost statusMilitary success is highly valued & men dominated politicsRituals honoring ancestors venerated men as important guides to the familyThe matrilineal characteristics disappeared during the Shang eraDuring Zhou, women lost more status due to the fact that there were no temples erected to honor queens
15Marker Event: The Mandate of Heaven Idea occurred when the Zhou overthrew the Shang in 12th C BCE to justify a forceful removalZhou rulers claimed they were given the “right” to rule from heavenAs long as the rulers were just & fair they would have confidence of heaven, but if they were not, the mandate would be lostProsperity was a “sign from heaven” that the rulers still had the mandate, but misfortunes meant that the ruler were not living up to expectationsIf a ruler lost the mandate, subjects had the responsibility to replace him.
17Ancient China: Cultural Developments Organized religion did not play as important a role as in other ancient civilizationsThere was a heaven, but no personal deities who controlled humans and no large priestly class; a few to help with royal ritualsAncestor worship was an important element of “heaven”Rulers and family patriarchs consulted ancestors using oracle bones (turtle shells are inscribed with a question asking ancestors for help)Shamans would have the ability to read & interpret the information from ancestors
18Ancient China: Cultural Developments As in Egypt & Mesopotamia, Chinese writing was pictographs and combined to communicate abstract ideas (today’s writing reflects Shang times)Complexity of the writing meant that only specialized people could read and write in China like Egypt & Mesopotamia, BUT writing was only associated with the King’s court NOT merchants and trade
19Ancient China: Cultural Developments Due to the early use of writing in China, philosophy and religion developedConfucianism is the most famousConfucian values are reflected in the Analects which are instructions for proper behavior
20Ancient China Comparisons SimilaritiesDifferencesLike other societies, China was a patriarchy based on agricultureCharacterized by large cities, specialized labor and massive public buildingsAdvanced political coordination and complex writing system for record keepingChinese emphasized families more than most due to the veneration of ancestors (ancestors guide the living)Main connection with the spiritual world is through ancestors and the emperor’s status as the “Son of Heaven” through the mandate of heavenDid not have an array of agricultural gods or a priestly casteEmphasis on learning & literacy; oracle bones was the primary way to communicate with ancestors, thus literacy is highly valued
21Comparing Divination in Mesopotamia and Ancient China: Divination is the method for communicating with the gods to determine the futureMesopotamiaAncient ChinaPriests inspected the organs of sacrificed animals to interpret the wishes of the godsRead the trails of smoke from incense; or patterns formed by mixing oil and waterSaw destiny in the stars and planets; movements in the heavens were communicated gods will: explains their success in astronomyDivination was controlled by shamans using oracle bones to read messages from the spiritual worldThe questions were answered by ancestors that passed onQuestions varied from everything about ritual performance, the weather, or the outcome of war
24Early Civilizations in the Americas Americas were completely cut off from the Eastern Hemisphere until 1492Agricultural revolution was independently invented and cultural diffusion was within the regionPrehistoric people reached the Western Hemisphere from AsiaCrossed a land bridge
25Early Civilizations in the Americas: Geography The tremendous distance north to south is important in the AmericasEnvironments vary greatly with frozen regions in the north and tropical rain forests in the south.Also, vast plains, heavy forests, and high mountain rangesThese features made farming impossible in some areasContact was difficultTwo places where farming was the basis for development of civilizations were Mesoamerica (now Mexico) and the Andean Mountains along the coast in NW South America
26Early Civilizations in the Americas The Olmec (1200-400 B.C.E.) Agricultural villages appeared in 3000 B.C.E. and spread over the regionBeans, peppers, avocados, squash, and maizeAll completely different from the Eastern HemisphereOnly domesticated a few animals (dogs and turkeys); No beasts of burdenHuman labor provided all the laborNo wheeled vehicles or animals to pull themThe Olmec established the first civilization 1200 B.C.E.
27Early Civilizations in the Americas: The Olmec Olmec, also known as the “rubber people”Based on agriculture, but no need for irrigation due to abundant rainfallNot on a river!!!Built drainage systems to control water; raised fields to grow in wetland areaCities grew as religious, and trade centersTraded salt, cacao, clay and limestoneNo competitive city states like Mesopotamia
28Early Civilizations in the Americas: Olmecs Olmec society was authoritarian and hierarchicalElite group of priests dominated society. conducted rituals, gave advice about rainfall, and directed city planning so they aligned with the starsAstronomical events were believed to influence human affairsOlmec calendar
29Early Civilizations in the Americas Olmec Ruler and family were another elite groupDirected labor for city building projects from the populationMost people lived in areas outside the citiesSkilled artisans created carvings and sculptures for buildings and jade figurines, jewelry, and ceremonial objectsA class of merchant traveled long distances trading in jade, obsidian rocks and pottery
30Early Civilizations in the Americas: The Olmec Little is known, but some sort of kingship combined with religious and secular responsibilities were in major citiesElite lived in elaborate houses; commoners simple houses of sticks and mudGiant heads were sculpted from basalt symbolize the power of the ruling families
31Early Civilizations in the Americas: The Olmec Great carvers of jade and conquered to get itDeveloped a number system based on 30 and a 365 day calendarAncestors of the great Mayan civilization that will followDecline is a puzzle; (between B.C.E.)Scholars believe it was an internal conflict
32Early Civilizations in the Americas: The Chavin (900-250 B.C.E.) At the same time as the Olmec, Chavin dominated a heavily populated region in the Peruvian coastal plain and the foothills of the AndesDid not develop in a river valley; relied on fish and sea life on the coastCombined a dry coast with high mountain valley with thick jungles
33Early Civilizations in the Americas: The Chavin The capital, Chavin de Huantar was in the mountains; the intersection of trade routesHelped them control trade and gain economic powerAgriculture was based on Maize which grown on the coast and potatoes and fruit grown in the mountains; Cotton was grown in the tropicsLabor was organized by communities that shared the responsibilityThey had the llama to help with choresDomesticated in the mountains to carry bundles of goods in caravans
34Early Civilizations in the Americas Independently invented metallurgical techniquesCrafts people worked n silver and gold for ceremonial items; served the eliteAdvance production used for pottery and textilesKings wore superior quality textiles and gold crowns
35Early Civilizations in the Americas Had to control the 3 ecological zones that abruptly began and endedPolitical organization needed for irrigation and protection of the land; politically well organizedInfluenced the religion of the regionJaguar god is depicted throughout the empireOther animals with human faces are also depicted
36Other Early Civilizations in the Middle East, 1700-1100 B.C.E. By 2nd Millennium B.C.E., agricultural communities developed in the Middle East (S.W. Asia), the Americas, and East AsiaAll developed trade routes; put them in contact with others..BUT the Middle East contact was more intenseThis period ( B.C.E.) is called the Late Bronze AgeIt’s Cosmopolitan which means people shared cultures and lifestyles because of increased contactCultural diffusion is more than just goods; it’s also ideas, values, standards of livingKey players were: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Hittites, Nubians, and Mycenaeans