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BELL WORK HOMEWORK: Design a DO NOT TRESPASS sign for one of the physical features of China. Need a title, a picture, and 3 reasons to NOT live there.

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Presentation on theme: "BELL WORK HOMEWORK: Design a DO NOT TRESPASS sign for one of the physical features of China. Need a title, a picture, and 3 reasons to NOT live there."— Presentation transcript:

1 BELL WORK HOMEWORK: Design a DO NOT TRESPASS sign for one of the physical features of China. Need a title, a picture, and 3 reasons to NOT live there. TODAY’S TITLE: # Geography of China WAR: Answer the following question: “What kind of realistic geographic features would make you NOT want to live in a certain place and why?”

2 EARLY CHINA CHAPTER 7

3 O VERVIEW OF CHINA ’ S GEOGRAPHY Modern China is the world’s 3 rd largest country at 3.7 million square miles It has the highest population of 1.2 billion people We will divide China into 2 main areas: Outer China and Inner China to better understand the geography

4 O UTER C HINA Includes the western and northern parts An area of great extremes Contains the following: Tibet-Qinghai Plateau, the Northwestern Deserts, and the Northeastern Plain

5 I NNER C HINA Includes the southeastern part of China Contains rolling hills, river valleys, and plains Includes the North China Plain and the Chang Jiang Basins

6 T HE T IBET -Q INGHAI P LATEAU Called the “Roof of the World” Rocky land with high mountains (the Himalayas are part of it) The climate is very cold because the elevation is so high It is also very dry here Some vegetation like scrubs and grasses Two major rivers begin in the area: Huang He River and Chang Jiang River ( aka the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers)

7 T IBET -Q INGHAI P LATEAU

8 T AKLIMAKAN G OBI

9 N ORTHWESTERN D ESERTS : T AKLIMAKAN D ESERT One of the most dangerous deserts in the world Filled with large sand dunes Sandstorms are common Very dry and hot GOBI DESERT One of the world’s largest deserts Has few sand dunes Very stony and little vegetation

10 N ORTHEASTERN P LAIN Located east of present-day Mongolia Low hills and plains Mostly filled with prairie grass 2 major rivers flow through here: the Liao and Sungari Rivers Has short, warm summers and dry, cold winters In the south, a coastal plain links this area to the rest of China and invaders used this route to invade China

11 N ORTHEASTERN P LAIN

12 T HE N ORTH C HINA P LAIN A flat region of grassland Temperatures range from very hot to very cold Called the “Land of the Yellow Earth” because it’s covered with yellow silt, which blows in from the Gobi Desert This where the Huang He River gets its nickname (Yellow River). It is also the world’s muddiest river! Ick! The silt fertilizes the land making it very fertile But the river floods A LOT!

13 N ORTH C HINA P LAIN

14 M IDDLE AND L OWER C HANG J IANG B ASINS Low, wet coastal plains located along the Chang Jiang River The river has hundreds of tributaries (small streams) Flows through 3 plains and then a rich, fertile delta Floods less often than Huang He Climate is warm and wet At one time, there may have been rainforests here Limited space for farming, but good for rice!

15 M IDDLE AND LOWER C HANG J IANG B ASINS

16 R ATE THE P HYSICAL FEATURES ! Let’s now rate these places on the following: Most likely to produce a dependable food supply, Most likely to contribute to Outstanding Trade, and Most likely to be the site of China’s earliest settlement. Where do YOU think the first Chinese civilization arose?

17 E ARLY S ETTLEMENT OF A NCIENT C HINA Settled mostly on the North China Plain because it had plenty of water, fertile soil, and a moderate climate. Tibetan Plateau and Northeastern Plain were too cold and dry Northwestern Deserts were too dry The Chang Jiang Basins were wet and fertile, but heavy rains made farming difficult. Out of all of China’s land, only 1/10 is farmable. The rest is covered by mountains and deserts.

18 B ELL W ORK HOMEWORK: TODAY’S TITLE WAR:

19 S ECTION 1: H OW DID C IVILIZATION IN C HINA B EGIN ? Farming began along the Huang He and Chang Jiang rivers Grew rice, millet, and wheat Also fished and hunted Had domesticated pigs and sheep Small villages grew into walled towns that spread in both northern and southeastern China Burial sites indicate that early Chinese believed in an afterlife similar to Egyptian beliefs Graves contained jewelry and other objects made from jade, a hard gemstone

20 W HAT WAS THE X IA D YNASTY ? Kings ruled early China 2200 BC: Yu the Great founded the Xia Dynasty Yu dug channels to control widespread flooding and created major waterways of northern China Not much else is known about this dynasty Many stories are told about how the kings tried to help people solve problems by working together

21 W HAT WAS T HE S HANG D YNASTY ? Established in the 1500s BC Shang family emerged as most powerful and ruled northern China King was the center of political and religious life Nobles served him as advisors Organized Society: kings and their families  warlords and aristocrats  traders, artisans  farmers  slaves

22 W HAT WERE SOME S HANG A CHIEVEMENTS ? Created China’s first writing system, which used more than 2000 symbols. This is what Chinese writing is based on today! 1 st Shang writing was found on cattle bones and turtle shells Used these bones as oracles, or predictions of the future Made beautiful containers made of bronze for cooking and religious ceremonies Made jade axes, knives, and ornaments from jade Developed war chariots, bows, and bonze body armor Developed a calendar based on the cycles of the moon Pre-AP: hint, hint! You could use these as project artifact ideas!!

23 B ELL W ORK WAR: Write in agenda 1 st, 4 th, 6 th period: Answer #1b on p nd, 3 rd, 5 th period: Answer #1c on p. 171 Take out wkbk and Bronze Pot activity for GRADING! These are your first two grades for the THIRD NINE WEEKS! WOW: Topic #4, Zhou Dynasty

24 S ECTION 2: T HE Z HOU D YNASTY AND N EW I DEAS The Zhou overthrew the Shang in the 1100s BC. Shang kings were corrupt and selfish, governed badly, and lost the loyalty of their soldiers This dynasty lasted longer than any other in Chinese history Claimed to have a mandate of heaven, which means that heaven gives power to the king Expanded territory

25 W HAT WAS THE Z HOU P OLITICAL SYSTEM LIKE ? Granted land to people in return for loyalty, military support, other services. Lords, or people of high rank, received land in return for payment of taxes and providing soliders Peasants, or small farmers, would receive small plots of land and had to farm other land for the lords too These lords helped keep control of distant areas and ensure loyalty

26 W HAT CAUSED THE F ALL OF THE Z HOU D YNASTY ? Local rulers became too powerful, stopped obeying the kings even in times of invasion 481 BC: Fighting breaks out between the lords and continues for next 200 years. This is called the “Period of the Warring States”. Fighting was brutal and cruel

27 W HAT WERE INTERNAL PROBLEMS DURING THE Z HOU D YNASTY ? Bonds of loyalty within families began to weaken, especially in upper classes Sons would fight each other over inheritance of land Government lacked power to stop the fighting Chinese society fell into disorder

28 W HO WAS C ONFUCIUS ? Wanted to improve China during the decline of the Zhou Felt China was overrun by rude and dishonest people Said people had to return to their ethics, or moral values, and should know their role in society

29 W HAT WERE THE BASIC IDEAS OF C ONFUCIANISM ? Fathers should display high values to inspire families Children need to respect their parents and ancestors ( filial piety ) All family members should be loyal to each other Moral leadership brings order, not laws A king should lead by example Lower classes would learn by following superiors’ examples Confucius’ ideas were compiled into a book called Analects Confucianism has influenced philosophy and religion!

30 W HAT IS D AOISM ? Wanted people to live in harmony with the Dao, the guiding force of reality Unlike Confucianism, they believed government should stay out of people’s lives Should not interfere with nature (“be like water”) The universe is a balance of opposites Worshipped nature Give up desires and concerns People should not gain wealth or power Most important Daoist teacher: Laozi

31 W HAT IS L EGALISM ? Founded by Han Fei Zi Taught that humans were naturally evil and needed to be controlled No religious connection unlike Confucianism and Daoism Believed there needed to be harsh laws and punishments to force people to do their duty Relatives could be punished for another family member’s crimes Wanted strong and efficient leaders to keep order, not nobles Focused on expanded territory and always being ready for war

32 LeaderPhilosophy Main ideaInfluence on modern life Confucius Confucianism People should put the needs of their family and community first. Many Chinese today accept his idea of duty to family. His ideas helped open up government jobs to people with talent. Laozi Daoism People should give up worldly desires in favor of nature and the Dao. Daoism teaches the importance of nature and encourages people to treat nature with respect and reverence. Han Feizi Legalism Society needs a system of harsh laws and strict punishment. Legalists developed laws that became an important part of Chinese history.

33 B ELL W ORK HOMEWORK: TODAY’S TITLE:

34 S ECTION 3: W HY WAS THE Q IN E MPEROR ’ S GOVERNMENT STRONG ? Shi Huangdi became ruler of China in 221 BC and established the Qin dynasty Based his rule on the ideas of Legalism Made the central government stronger Unified China and conquered territory Created one currency for use of money Built roads and canals Began the building of the Great Wall to keep out the Xiongnu (nomads from the Gobi Desert)

35 W HAT WERE SOME EXAMPLES OF S HI H UANGDI ’ S CRUELTY ? Burned any books that did not support Legalism Buried 460 scholars alive who disapproved of the book burning After a city was conquered, he tore down its walls and took all the weapons Took land away from nobles and made them move Forced commoners to work on government projects where they faced danger and death

36 W HAT WAS C HINA L IKE UNDER THE Q IN ? Shi Huangdi claimed all power Divided China into districts each with its own governor Districts were subdivided into counties with an appointed official This helped to enforce his tax system and a strict chain of command

37 W HAT WERE SOME Q IN POLICIES ? Shi Huangdi set up a uniform law system (all rules and punishments are the same throughout the empire) Standardized the written language (had to write with the same exact system) Standardized money system Standardized weight and measure systems Trade became much easier with all this consistency Any disobedience against these systems would result in harsh punishments

38 W HAT WERE SOME Q IN A CHIEVEMENTS ? Built a network of roads that connected the capital to every part of the empire Helped the army move quickly and easily to put down revolts Built canals to connect the rivers, which made it easier to ship goods Improved irrigation system to aid farming Built the Great Wall to keep out northern invaders (Pieces of the wall were actually started in the 600s BC, but Qin connected smaller pieces to each other to form one long wall)

39 P ICTURES OF THE G REAT W ALL

40 H OW DID THE Q IN D YNASTY FALL ? Shi Huangdi kept China unified After his death, the government began to fall apart Rebel groups formed all over the country and each claimed to have a mandate from heaven to replace the emperor One group attacked the capital and overthrew the new emperor With no central government, China fell into another period of civil war

41 WIO ACTIVITY – SHI HUANGDI: HERO OR VILLAIN? Your poster must include: -A sketch of what the person probably looks like. -A reward amount listing the specific crime or heroic action the person did. -A made-up quote from a person living at the time showing what people might have said about this person. -The approximate date this poster would have been found. -A written description of what the person has done in their life.

42 H APPY T HURSDAY ! WAR: ALL CLASSES: GLUE IN THE ISN CHECKLIST – GRADING TOMORROW! 1 st, 4 th, 6 th period: Read ch. 6, Section 4 pp and answer the following question: What were the social classes in Han China? - Take out homework for grading - Turn in Filial Piety project (make sure your name is on it!) if you are finished – DUE TOMORROW!!! - 2 nd, 3 rd, 5 th period: Why were wealthy merchants in the lower class? - Take out homework for grading!

43 S ECTION 4: W HAT IS THE H AN D YNASTY ’ S G OVERNMENT LIKE U NDER L IU B ANG ? Founded in 202 BC by a peasant leader named Liu Bang Earned the loyalty and trust of soldiers and peasants Lowered taxes for farmers Made punishments less severe Gave land to supporters Relied on educated officials to advise him

44 W HAT WAS THE H AN D YNASTY ’ S G OVERNMENT L IKE U NDER W UDI ? 140 BC: Emperor Wudi takes the throne Created a stronger central government Took land from lords Raised taxes Took control of grain supply Confucianism became the official government philosophy Founded a Confucian university Government officials had to pass an exam and have a recommendation to earn their job (rich families were mostly in control because of this policy)

45 Name Period Date Fictional Character Contact Info Qualification (Experience & Characteristics that make eligible) (probably 5-10) Education (where and when and how much, or degrees received) Family Connection (References)

46 H OW WAS S OCIETY ORGANIZED DURING THE H AN D YNASTY ? Based on the Confucian system and was more rigid 4 classes: - Emperor, his court, and scholars with government positions - Peasants (largest class) - Artisans - Merchants Why did merchants fall in the lower class? Soldiers were not part of the system, but being in the army could bring them an opportunity to rise up in class

47 L IVES OF THE R ICH Classes only divided people by rank, not wealth! Emperor lived in a palace and his officials had large houses and estates Filled homes with expensive decorations and loved to entertain Even their tombs were filled with luxury items

48 L IVES OF THE P OOR Consisted of 90% of the population Worked long hours on farming or building projects Had to pay heavy taxes, which may have forced them to give up their land to wealthy landowners Wore simple clothing and ate simple diets Lived in small villages and wood-framed houses

49 R EVIVAL OF F AMILY Strong Confucian influence Children MUST respect their parents…IT WAS THE LAW! Fathers had absolute power Women and children had to be obedient to the father Filial piety helped keep order because obedience had been instilled in people since birth Children were encourage to serve parents and had to honor dead relatives with ceremonies Boys were valued more highly than girls because they would continue the family line and took care of the parents later Older women could become the head of family if needed

50 HAPPY FRIDAY!!!! WAR: 1 st, 4 th, 6 th period – take out your Filial Piety project for grading! - Read Ch. 6, Section 4 and answer the following question, “How did Emperor Wudi create a strong central government? - 2 nd, 3 rd, 5 th period – Answer the following question, “Do you think that an exam system is the best way to make sure that people are fairly chosen for government jobs? Why/why not?

51 WIO – H AN A CHIEVEMENTS List and rank the Han achievements in order of importance, with 1 the most important and 11 being the least important Read p and choose one of the Han achievements and describe what it is, how it affected Han society and why it was important.

52 W HAT WERE SOME H AN A CHIEVEMENTS ? Figure painting Wrote poetry (the fu and shi styles) and histories Sundial Seismograph Waterwheels to grind grain Iron drill bits to mine more salt Steel Paper Medicine and disease prevention improved Acupuncture Rudders for ships and new kinds of sails allowed the Chinese to trade with far off places like Southeast Asia, the Indian Ocean, India, and the Mediterranean Sea.

53 WIO: W RITING R ESUMES Review Confucian beliefs – what’s important? What qualities did government officials have during the Han Dynasty? You will be writing a resume for an imaginary person seeking a job in the Han government. You must provide details in the resume regarding the person’s education, family connections, and other qualifications MAKE SURE YOU REVIEW WHAT QUALIFICATIONS WERE NEEDED TO OBTAIN A POSITION IN THE HAN GOVERNMENT When you are finished, exchange your resume with another student to determine whether they believe that resume would earn them a job in the Han government

54 S ECTION 5: H OW DID F ARMING AND M ANUFACTURING IMPROVE THE H AN D YNASTY ? Became master ironworkers Made iron swords and armor that made the army more powerful Made iron plows and the wheelbarrow to increase farming productivity Silk- the method for making it was very hush- hush and was expensive!

55 H OW DID T RADE IMPROVE ? People outside of China valued Chinese goods such as silk and pottery Gaining more territory in Central Asia helped trade because it presented more opportunities to trade items such as silk In return, the Chinese received better horses The creation of the Silk Road also improved trade

56 T HE S ILK R OAD Most silk trade went overland by the Silk Road- network of trade routes that stretched 4000 miles to the Mediterranean The Road began to be used b/w 200 and 100 BC China began to trade with the West and the Roman Empire Silk, spices, tea, and porcelain were carried over in return for gold, silver, precious stones, and horses Travel was difficult because of the heavy loads, geography, possibility of theft, and weather

57 M AP OF THE S ILK R OAD

58 H OW DID B UDDHISM COME TO C HINA ? Ideas were exchanged along with trade items Buddhist ideas came to China around 100 BC Han dynasty became unstable at this time and Buddhism offered hope (sound familiar?) Offered rebirth and relief from suffering Buddhists used Daoism to explain Buddhism By AD 200, the emperor’s own palace had a Buddhist altar Buddhism in China is an example of diffusion, the spread of ideas from one culture to another Some elements of Chinese culture changed as a result of Buddhist beliefs


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