Presentation on theme: "BELL WORK HOMEWORK: Design a DO NOT TRESPASS sign for one of the physical features of China. Need a title, a picture, and 3 reasons to NOT live there."— Presentation transcript:
1 BELL WORKHOMEWORK: Design a DO NOT TRESPASS sign for one of the physical features of China. Need a title, a picture, and 3 reasons to NOT live there. TODAY’S TITLE: # Geography of China WAR: Answer the following question: “What kind of realistic geographic features would make you NOT want to live in a certain place and why?”
3 Overview of china’s geography Modern China is the world’s 3rd largest country at 3.7 million square milesIt has the highest population of 1.2 billion peopleWe will divide China into 2 main areas: Outer China and Inner China to better understand the geography
4 Outer China Includes the western and northern parts An area of great extremesContains the following: Tibet-Qinghai Plateau, the Northwestern Deserts, and the Northeastern Plain
5 Inner China Includes the southeastern part of China Contains rolling hills, river valleys, and plainsIncludes the North China Plain and the Chang Jiang Basins
6 The Tibet-Qinghai Plateau Called the “Roof of the World”Rocky land with high mountains (the Himalayas are part of it)The climate is very cold because the elevation is so highIt is also very dry hereSome vegetation like scrubs and grassesTwo major rivers begin in the area: Huang He River and Chang Jiang River ( aka the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers)
9 Northwestern Deserts: Taklimakan Desert One of the most dangerous deserts in the worldFilled with large sand dunesSandstorms are commonVery dry and hotGOBI DESERTOne of the world’s largest desertsHas few sand dunesVery stony and little vegetation
10 Northeastern Plain Located east of present-day Mongolia Low hills and plainsMostly filled with prairie grass2 major rivers flow through here: the Liao and Sungari RiversHas short, warm summers and dry, cold wintersIn the south, a coastal plain links this area to the rest of China and invaders used this route to invade China
12 The North China Plain A flat region of grassland Temperatures range from very hot to very coldCalled the “Land of the Yellow Earth” because it’s covered with yellow silt, which blows in from the Gobi DesertThis where the Huang He River gets its nickname (Yellow River). It is also the world’s muddiest river! Ick!The silt fertilizes the land making it very fertileBut the river floods A LOT!
14 Middle and Lower Chang Jiang Basins Low, wet coastal plains located along the Chang Jiang RiverThe river has hundreds of tributaries (small streams)Flows through 3 plains and then a rich, fertile deltaFloods less often than Huang HeClimate is warm and wetAt one time, there may have been rainforests hereLimited space for farming, but good for rice!
16 Rate the Physical features! Let’s now rate these places on the following: Most likely to produce a dependable food supply, Most likely to contribute to Outstanding Trade, and Most likely to be the site of China’s earliest settlement.Where do YOU think the first Chinese civilization arose?
17 Early Settlement of Ancient China Settled mostly on the North China Plain because it had plenty of water, fertile soil, and a moderate climate.Tibetan Plateau and Northeastern Plain were too cold and dryNorthwestern Deserts were too dryThe Chang Jiang Basins were wet and fertile, but heavy rains made farming difficult.Out of all of China’s land, only 1/10 is farmable. The rest is covered by mountains and deserts.
19 Section 1: How did Civilization in China Begin? Farming began along the Huang He and Chang Jiang riversGrew rice, millet, and wheatAlso fished and huntedHad domesticated pigs and sheepSmall villages grew into walled towns that spread in both northern and southeastern ChinaBurial sites indicate that early Chinese believed in an afterlife similar to Egyptian beliefsGraves contained jewelry and other objects made from jade, a hard gemstone
20 What was the Xia Dynasty? Kings ruled early China2200 BC: Yu the Great founded the Xia DynastyYu dug channels to control widespread flooding and created major waterways of northern ChinaNot much else is known about this dynastyMany stories are told about how the kings tried to help people solve problems by working together
21 What was The Shang Dynasty? Established in the 1500s BCShang family emerged as most powerful and ruled northern ChinaKing was the center of political and religious lifeNobles served him as advisorsOrganized Society: kings and their families warlords and aristocrats traders, artisans farmers slaves
22 What were some Shang Achievements? Created China’s first writing system, which used more than 2000 symbols. This is what Chinese writing is based on today!1st Shang writing was found on cattle bones and turtle shellsUsed these bones as oracles, or predictions of the futureMade beautiful containers made of bronze for cooking and religious ceremoniesMade jade axes, knives, and ornaments from jadeDeveloped war chariots, bows, and bonze body armorDeveloped a calendar based on the cycles of the moonPre-AP: hint, hint! You could use these as project artifact ideas!!
23 Bell Work WAR: Write in agenda 1st, 4th, 6th period: Answer #1b on p. 1712nd, 3rd, 5th period: Answer #1c on p. 171Take out wkbk and Bronze Pot activity for GRADING! These are your first two grades for the THIRD NINE WEEKS! WOW: Topic #4, Zhou Dynasty
24 Section 2: The Zhou Dynasty and New Ideas The Zhou overthrew the Shang in the 1100s BC. Shang kings were corrupt and selfish, governed badly, and lost the loyalty of their soldiers This dynasty lasted longer than any other in Chinese historyClaimed to have a mandate of heaven, which means that heaven gives power to the kingExpanded territory
25 What was the Zhou Political system like? Granted land to people in return for loyalty, military support, other services.Lords, or people of high rank, received land in return for payment of taxes and providing solidersPeasants, or small farmers, would receive small plots of land and had to farm other land for the lords tooThese lords helped keep control of distant areas and ensure loyalty
26 What caused the Fall of the Zhou Dynasty? Local rulers became too powerful, stopped obeying the kings even in times of invasion481 BC: Fighting breaks out between the lords and continues for next 200 years. This is called the “Period of the Warring States”.Fighting was brutal and cruel
27 What were internal problems during the Zhou Dynasty? Bonds of loyalty within families began to weaken, especially in upper classesSons would fight each other over inheritance of landGovernment lacked power to stop the fightingChinese society fell into disorder
28 Who was Confucius?Wanted to improve China during the decline of the ZhouFelt China was overrun by rude and dishonest peopleSaid people had to return to their ethics, or moral values, and should know their role in society
29 What were the basic ideas of Confucianism? Fathers should display high values to inspire familiesChildren need to respect their parents and ancestors (filial piety)All family members should be loyal to each otherMoral leadership brings order, not lawsA king should lead by exampleLower classes would learn by following superiors’ examplesConfucius’ ideas were compiled into a book called AnalectsConfucianism has influenced philosophy and religion!
30 What is Daoism?Wanted people to live in harmony with the Dao, the guiding force of realityUnlike Confucianism, they believed government should stay out of people’s livesShould not interfere with nature (“be like water”)The universe is a balance of oppositesWorshipped natureGive up desires and concernsPeople should not gain wealth or powerMost important Daoist teacher: Laozi
31 What is Legalism? Founded by Han Fei Zi Taught that humans were naturally evil and needed to be controlledNo religious connection unlike Confucianism and DaoismBelieved there needed to be harsh laws and punishments to force people to do their dutyRelatives could be punished for another family member’s crimesWanted strong and efficient leaders to keep order, not noblesFocused on expanded territory and always being ready for war
32 Influence on modern life LeaderPhilosophyMain ideaInfluence on modern lifeConfuciusConfucianismPeople should put the needs of their family and community first.Many Chinese today accept his idea of duty to family. His ideas helped open up government jobs to people with talent.LaoziDaoismPeople should give up worldly desires in favor of nature and the Dao.Daoism teaches the importance of nature and encourages people to treat nature with respect and reverence.Han FeiziLegalismSociety needs a system of harsh laws and strict punishment.Legalists developed laws that became an important part of Chinese history.
34 Section 3: Why was the Qin Emperor’s government strong? Shi Huangdi became ruler of China in 221 BC and established the Qin dynastyBased his rule on the ideas of LegalismMade the central government strongerUnified China and conquered territoryCreated one currency for use of moneyBuilt roads and canalsBegan the building of the Great Wall to keep out the Xiongnu (nomads from the Gobi Desert)
35 What were some examples of Shi Huangdi’s cruelty? Burned any books that did not support LegalismBuried 460 scholars alive who disapproved of the book burningAfter a city was conquered, he tore down its walls and took all the weaponsTook land away from nobles and made them moveForced commoners to work on government projects where they faced danger and death
36 What was China Like under the Qin? Shi Huangdi claimed all powerDivided China into districts each with its own governorDistricts were subdivided into counties with an appointed officialThis helped to enforce his tax system and a strict chain of command
37 What were some Qin policies? Shi Huangdi set up a uniform law system (all rules and punishments are the same throughout the empire)Standardized the written language (had to write with the same exact system)Standardized money systemStandardized weight and measure systemsTrade became much easier with all this consistencyAny disobedience against these systems would result in harsh punishments
38 What were some Qin Achievements? Built a network of roads that connected the capital to every part of the empireHelped the army move quickly and easily to put down revoltsBuilt canals to connect the rivers, which made it easier to ship goodsImproved irrigation system to aid farmingBuilt the Great Wall to keep out northern invaders (Pieces of the wall were actually started in the 600s BC, but Qin connected smaller pieces to each other to form one long wall)
40 How did the Qin Dynasty fall? Shi Huangdi kept China unifiedAfter his death, the government began to fall apartRebel groups formed all over the country and each claimed to have a mandate from heaven to replace the emperorOne group attacked the capital and overthrew the new emperorWith no central government, China fell into another period of civil war
41 WIO ACTIVITY – SHI HUANGDI: HERO OR VILLAIN? Your poster must include: -A sketch of what the person probably looks like. -A reward amount listing the specific crime or heroic action the person did. -A made-up quote from a person living at the time showing what people might have said about this person. -The approximate date this poster would have been found. -A written description of what the person has done in their life.
42 Happy Thursday! WAR: ALL CLASSES: GLUE IN THE ISN CHECKLIST – GRADING TOMORROW!1st, 4th, 6th period: Read ch. 6, Section 4 pp and answer the following question: What were the social classes in Han China?Take out homework for gradingTurn in Filial Piety project (make sure your name is on it!) if you are finished – DUE TOMORROW!!!2nd, 3rd, 5th period:Why were wealthy merchants in the lower class?- Take out homework for grading!
43 Section 4: What is the Han Dynasty’s Government like Under Liu Bang? Founded in 202 BC by a peasant leader named Liu BangEarned the loyalty and trust of soldiers and peasantsLowered taxes for farmersMade punishments less severeGave land to supportersRelied on educated officials to advise him
44 What was the Han Dynasty’s Government Like Under Wudi? 140 BC: Emperor Wudi takes the throneCreated a stronger central governmentTook land from lordsRaised taxesTook control of grain supplyConfucianism became the official government philosophyFounded a Confucian universityGovernment officials had to pass an exam and have a recommendation to earn their job (rich families were mostly in control because of this policy)
45 Name Period Date Fictional Character Contact Info Qualification (Experience & Characteristics that make eligible) (probably 5-10) Education (where and when and how much, or degrees received) Family Connection (References)
46 How was Society organized during the Han Dynasty? Based on the Confucian system and was more rigid4 classes:- Emperor, his court, and scholars with government positions- Peasants (largest class)- Artisans- MerchantsWhy did merchants fall in the lower class?Soldiers were not part of the system, but being in the army could bring them an opportunity to rise up in class
47 Lives of the Rich Classes only divided people by rank, not wealth! Emperor lived in a palace and his officials had large houses and estatesFilled homes with expensive decorations and loved to entertainEven their tombs were filled with luxury items
48 Lives of the Poor Consisted of 90% of the population Worked long hours on farming or building projectsHad to pay heavy taxes, which may have forced them to give up their land to wealthy landownersWore simple clothing and ate simple dietsLived in small villages and wood-framed houses
49 Revival of Family Strong Confucian influence Children MUST respect their parents…IT WAS THE LAW!Fathers had absolute powerWomen and children had to be obedient to the fatherFilial piety helped keep order because obedience had been instilled in people since birthChildren were encourage to serve parents and had to honor dead relatives with ceremoniesBoys were valued more highly than girls because they would continue the family line and took care of the parents laterOlder women could become the head of family if needed
50 HAPPY FRIDAY!!!! WAR:1st, 4th, 6th period – take out your Filial Piety project for grading!Read Ch. 6, Section 4 and answer the following question, “How did Emperor Wudi create a strong central government?2nd, 3rd, 5th period – Answer the following question, “Do you think that an exam system is the best way to make sure that people are fairly chosen for government jobs? Why/why not?
51 WIO – Han AchievementsList and rank the Han achievements in order of importance, with 1 the most important and 11 being the least importantRead p and choose one of the Han achievements and describe what it is, how it affected Han society and why it was important.
52 What were some Han Achievements? Figure paintingWrote poetry (the fu and shi styles) and historiesSundialSeismographWaterwheels to grind grainIron drill bits to mine more saltSteelPaperMedicine and disease prevention improvedAcupunctureRudders for ships and new kinds of sails allowed the Chinese to trade with far off places like Southeast Asia, the Indian Ocean, India, and the Mediterranean Sea.
53 WIO: Writing Resumes Review Confucian beliefs – what’s important? What qualities did government officials have during the Han Dynasty?You will be writing a resume for an imaginary person seeking a job in the Han government. You must provide details in the resume regarding the person’s education, family connections, and other qualificationsMAKE SURE YOU REVIEW WHAT QUALIFICATIONS WERE NEEDED TO OBTAIN A POSITION IN THE HAN GOVERNMENTWhen you are finished, exchange your resume with another student to determine whether they believe that resume would earn them a job in the Han government
54 Section 5: How did Farming and Manufacturing improve the Han Dynasty? Became master ironworkersMade iron swords and armor that made the army more powerfulMade iron plows and the wheelbarrow to increase farming productivitySilk- the method for making it was very hush- hush and was expensive!
55 How did Trade improve?People outside of China valued Chinese goods such as silk and potteryGaining more territory in Central Asia helped trade because it presented more opportunities to trade items such as silkIn return, the Chinese received better horsesThe creation of the Silk Road also improved trade
56 The Silk RoadMost silk trade went overland by the Silk Road- network of trade routes that stretched 4000 miles to the MediterraneanThe Road began to be used b/w 200 and 100 BCChina began to trade with the West and the Roman EmpireSilk, spices, tea, and porcelain were carried over in return for gold, silver, precious stones, and horsesTravel was difficult because of the heavy loads, geography, possibility of theft, and weather
58 How did Buddhism come to China? Ideas were exchanged along with trade itemsBuddhist ideas came to China around 100 BCHan dynasty became unstable at this time and Buddhism offered hope (sound familiar?)Offered rebirth and relief from sufferingBuddhists used Daoism to explain BuddhismBy AD 200, the emperor’s own palace had a Buddhist altarBuddhism in China is an example of diffusion, the spread of ideas from one culture to anotherSome elements of Chinese culture changed as a result of Buddhist beliefs
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