Presentation on theme: "Learning to read… Reading route characterized by the written system (Bialystock, Majumder, & Martin, 2003) Word reading vary across languages (Wade-"— Presentation transcript:
Learning to read… Reading route characterized by the written system (Bialystock, Majumder, & Martin, 2003) Word reading vary across languages (Wade- Wooley & Kirby, 2007; Koda, 2000) Specific educational practices (Leong et al., 2005; Shu et al., 2003) Word reading across alphabetic and non alphabetic languages. Phonological awareness Morphological awareness Orthographic knowledge
Pinyin: Tonal representation ma 媽 妈 ma1 麻 麻 ma2 馬 马 ma3 罵 骂 ma4 嗎 吗 ma (no tone) Interrogation participle http://www.fonetiks.org/sou2ch.html hemp mother horse to scold
More about Radicals Semantic Radicals tend to be in positions either left or top (Larger repertoire of semantic radicals -7,000 morphemes in Mandarin) Phonetic Radicals tend to be in the right or bottom positions (1,300 different spoken syllables in Mandarin for example) Phonetic radicals are not consistent (Shu et al., 2002) 紅 : hong2 - red 江 : ji4ang1 – while they both have the same right radical, they do not sound the same and neither are related to the semantic radical 工 “gong” which means work
What common components are involved in bi-scriptal reading? Phonological awareness and orthographic experience in Chinese influences process of learning to read English (Cheung, Chan & Chong, 2007; Gottardo, Chiappe, Yan, Siegel & Gu, 2006; Leong et al., 2005; Wang & Geva, 2003; Wang et al., 2005) Chinese Phonological processing associated with Chinese pseudo-word reading and English word reading (Gottardo et al., 2001) Chinese children learning English as L2 outperformed native English speaking children on pseudo-word spelling (Wang & Geva, 2003)
Participants Native Hong Kong Cantonese speaking children 5 upper middle class primary schools 163 2 nd graders (mean age = 96.6 mos) 163 5 th graders (mean age = 132.65) Bilingual English and Chinese curriculum Children are taught to read in Chinese at age of 3-4 and English at the age of 4-5 years old through the “look and say” method not phonics.
Lexical Word Measures Chinese Word Recognition 61 item Character recognition test 27 single character words & 34 two character words 150 item test Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing (HKT-SpLD) All two character words All tests were arranged in increasing difficulty. Words were represented alone top to bottom/left to right English Word Reading 60 English high frequency words (K and primary school) All tests were arranged in increasing difficulty
Cognitive Measures Raven’s Progressive Matrices Geometric design with a portion missing Phonological Awareness (PA) syllable deletion 29 three syllable words (real and nonsense words) delete first, final or middle syllable = “Lemon tea” without “tea” would be “lemon” syllable onset deletion- 22 items Delete the initial sound from the syllable “po4” children would say “o4”
Cognitive Measures Morphological Awareness (MA) Morphological construction 27 3-sentence scenarios Described an object/concept and create a new concept using the lexical compounding “ drawerball” Homophone production 14 items 1 st part: Target morpheme/monosyllable shown- asked to form new words using target morpheme within 10sec 2 nd part: generate words that included homophones of target monosyllable within 10 sec. Meaning and Written form are different
Visual Configuration Discrimination (VOS) Discriminate real non lexical radicals and stroke patterns from a set of misspelling and incorrect non lexical radicals Cognitive Measures
Cross Language Associations PA measured in Chinese strongly associated with English word reading in both grades Strong crossover effect of Chinese VOS on English word reading No cross-linguistic transfer from Chinese MA to English word reading Results
Both within and cross language Associations Phonological Awareness (PA), Morphological Awareness (MA) and visual- orthographic skills (VOS) improved with age. Results
Discussion Chinese children whose L1 is Chinese and learning to read English as L2 adopt a visual orthographic-based strategy Discrimination of different graphic patterns stem from Chinese character recognition skills (Huang & Hanley, 1995; Siok & Fletcher) Spatial versus Linear Instructional practices influencing reading strategies- Look and say method Does the different types of morphological awareness inhibit the transfer?
Perfetti,C., Anderson, R.C & Leung, C.K Toronto, July 2010Reading Chinese Research