2Judiciary Act of 1801Created new judgeships to be filled by the presidentJohn Adams filled the vacancies with party supporters (“Midnight Judges”) before he left officeLed to bitter resentment by the incoming Jeffersonian Republican PartyAct would play a role in the case of Marbury v. Madison
4War of 1812 British Impressments of American sailors American frontiersmen wanted more free land, as the west was held by Native Americans and the BritishThe US suspected the British were encouraging Native Americans rebellion“War Hawk” Congressional leaders, such as Henry Clay and John Calhoun, pressed for interventionWar Hawks desired annexation of Canada and FloridaDespite the Embargo Act and the Non-Intercourse Act, hostilities could not be cooledThe US sided with France against Britain.
5TR AS A PROGRESSIVE.1901 TO 1909Following the death of McKinley, several members of the press covered the brief swearing-in of the new president TR- One New York reporter particularly impressed with the ceremony, contrasted it in his article with a recent European coronation- The typesetter, mistakenly used the letter b instead of o in the word “oath” the next morning the paper’s audience was informed: “For sheer democratic dignity, nothing could exceed the moment when, surrounded by the cabinet and few distinguished citizens, Mr. Roosevelt took his simple bath, as President of the United States.” He also took a bath in London papers too.US Attorney General philander C. Knox
6AMERICA IN 1901 POPULATION 0F 76 MILLION ONE OUT OF 7 WERE FOREIGN BORNBETWEEN 1900 & MILLION NEW IMMIGRANTS ARRIVED.
7THE PROGRESSIVE REFORM MOVEMENT BEGINS TARGETS:MONOPOLIES,GOVERNMENT CORRUPTION,SOCIAL INJUSTICE,CONSUMER PROTECTION,CHILD LABOR,SLUM CONDITIONS, AND MORE.
8PROGRESSIVE ASSUMPTIONS: INDIVIDUALS ALONE ARE OVERWHELMED BY FORCES THEY CAN NOT CONTROL“THE PEOPLE” WORKING THROUGH GOVERNMENT CAN CORRECT INJUSTICE.PROGRESS IS POSSIBLE.
9PROGRESSIVE WRITERS HENRY LLOYD DEMAREST: WEALTH AGAINST COMMONWEALTH Criticized Standard OilBeginning of investigative journalism.THORSTEIN VEBLEN: THEORY OF THE LEISURE CLASSCONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION.Assailed the nouveau richeJACOB RIIS: HOW THE OTHER HALF LIVESExposed the dirt, disease, vice, and misery of the rat-infested New York slumsHeavily influenced Theodore RooseveltConspicuous consumption is a term used to describe the lavish spending on goods and services that are acquired mainly for the purpose of displaying income or wealth. In the mind of a conspicuous consumer, such display serves as a means of attaining or maintaining social status. A very similar but more colloquial term is "keeping up with the Joneses".
10MORE… THEODORE DREISER:AN AMERICAN TRAGEDY Published in 1925, the book is the story of a young man, Clyde Griffiths, whose troubles with women and the law take him from his religious upbringing in Kansas City to the fictional town of Lycurgus, New YorkThe book is naturalistic in style, containing subject matter such as religion, capital punishment and abortion.WRITERS ATTACK “BLOODY CAPITALISMJOHN SPARGO: THE BITTER CRY OF CHILDRENExposed the abuses of child laborMANY CALL FOR SOCIALISM:
11TR First Modern President “BULLY PULPIT”REFORM1ST TO PLAY A SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN WORLD AFFAIRS A. 1st Pres. in U.S. History to use government as a vehicle to directly help public interest. 1. Saw the Presidency as a "bully pulpit" to preach his ideas 2. Supported progressive reform with strong rhetoric but in reality was more moderate (and conservative at times); "middle of the road" politician. 3. Often bypassed congressional opposition (like Jackson) 4. Enormously popular among a large percentage of Americans \ B. 1st Pres. to play a significant role in world affairs 1. "Speak softly but carry a big stick [and] you will go far" 2. Major proponent of military and naval preparednessTR always was a wilderness explorer. As Chief of state he would often take friends and government leaders on adventures through the marsh around the Potomac River. Jean Jules Jusserand, the ambassador from France joined him.Once, as the party was hiking on a particularly rocky trial, Jusserand used gloves to protect his hands. Further downstream, as a relief from the hot Washington weather, the President suggested that the group take a swim. The idea seemed excellent, and the government leaders immediately stripped and jumped in to the water.Jusserand, however, did not removes his gloves.“Eh, Mr. Ambassador,” asked the nude president, “have you not forgotten your gloves?”Always the gentleman, the Frenchman looked down at his gloves. “We might meet the ladies,” He said
12TR THE FIRST MODERN PRESIDENT “I CAN DO ALL IT SAYS I CAN DO IN THE CONSTITUTION, AND ANYTHING IT DOESN’T BAR ME FROM DOING.”“STEWARDSHIP THEORY: PRESIDENT SHOULD PURSUE THE INTERESTS OF “THE PEOPLE.”The Square Deal Program: Instituted to set the president up as a sort of mediator between the greater interests of the country.The New Nationalism: A plan for the government to take new responsibilities as a mediator between special interests and the general interests.
13TR’S SQUARE DEAL CONTROL CORPORATIONS CONSUMER PROTECTION CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCESIX. "Square Deal" (for Capital, labor, and the public at large) was his 1906 campaign slogan -- TR’s program embraced three C’s: 1. Control of the corporations 2. Consumer protection 3. Conservation of natural resources
14TR A “CONSERVATIVE REFORMER.” “NEVER TRY THE IMPOSSIBLE.”NEVER TOOK ON THE TARIFF ISSUE.ATTACKED ONLY SOME TRUSTS, NOT ALL TRUSTS.HE CHOSE HIS BATTLES CAREFULLY.
15TR & THE COAL STRIKEJOHN MITCHELL LEADS STRIKE BY UNITED MINE WORKERS.MINE OWNERS REFUSE TO RECOGNIZE THE UNION OR NEGOTIATE.THEY EXPECT TR TO SEND TROOPSHE REFUSES.TR MEDIATES THE STRIKE, “JAW BONES” THE OWNERS. THREATENS TO SEIZE THE MINES. A. Control of Corporations 1. Anthracite Coal Strike (1902) – (hard coal used much in heating homes) a. 140,000 workers of the United Mine Workers union in coal mines of Pennsylvania went on strike demanding 20% increase in pay and reduction of work day from 10 to 9 hrs., fair weighing of coal, and better safety conditions. b. George F. Baer, president of the company, assumed public would react against miners thus refused to arbitrate or negotiate. -- Baer demanded TR prosecute union leader for violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, as President Cleveland had done in the Pullman strike in c. TR threatened to seize mines and operate them with federal troops if owners refused to compromise (unprecedented in U.S. history) -- TR rationalized that the public at large was in jeopardy of having no coal during winter so it was his duty to intervene. d. Owners consented to arbitration i. Miners received a 10% pay boost and 9 hr. wk day ii. Owners got assurances that union would not be officially recognized. -- Also, allowed 10% increase in price of coal. Anthracite Coal Strike (1902) – (hard coal used much in heating homes) a. 140,000 workers of the United Mine Workers union in coal mines of Pennsylvania went on strike demanding 20% increase in pay and reduction of work day from 10 to 9 hrs., fair weighing of coal, and better safety conditions. b. George F. Baer, president of the company, assumed public would react against miners thus refused to arbitrate or negotiate. -- Baer demanded TR prosecute union leader for violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, as President Cleveland had done in the Pullman strike in c. TR threatened to seize mines and operate them with federal troops if owners refused to compromise (unprecedented in U.S. history) -- TR rationalized that the public at large was in jeopardy of having no coal during winter so it was his duty to intervene. d. Owners consented to arbitration i. Miners received a 10% pay boost and 9 hr. wk day ii. Owners got assurances that union would not be officially recognized. -- Also, allowed 10% increase in price of coal.
16TR AS TRUST BUSTERFIRST PRESIDENT TO USE SHERMAN ACT AGAINST A MONOPOLY.FILE SUIT AGAINST NORTHERN SECURITIES COMPANY 1902SUPREME COURT IN 5 TO 4 RULES IN FAVOR OF THE GOVERNMENT.
17TR: GOOD AND BAD TRUSTSIF A TRUST EXPLOITS ITS POWER IT IS BAD AND SHOULD BE BROKEN UP.IF A TRUST IS NOT EXPLOITIVE LEAVE IT ALONE.SUPREME COURT LATER CALLS THIS THE “RULE OF REASON.”US STEEL IS AN EXAMPLE OF A GOOD TRUST.
18TR AND CONSERVATION FIRST PRESIDENT TO SET ASIDE LAND. NEWLANDS ACT OF 1902: FEDERAL IRRIGATION PROJECTSNEWLANDS RECLAMATION ACT OF 1902MAKES CONSERVATION POPULARAPPOINTS GIFFORD PINCHOT CHIEF FORESTER.Newlands Reclamation Act of a. Gov’t authorized to collect money from sale of public lands in western states and use funds for development of irrigation projects. b. Settlers repaid cost of reclamation by building successful farms.. c. Money put into revolving account to finance more such projects. d. Dozens of dams constructed on virtually every major western river in subsequent decades. 3. Saving the forests a. TR set aside 125 acres of forests in federal reserves. -- About 3X as much as his 3 predecessors. b. Also earmarked millions of acres of coal deposits, as well as water resources useful for irrigation and power.TR, an outdoorsman, appalled at destruction of timber & mineral resources. b. Gifford Pinchot, head of federal Division of Forestry, had made significant contributions before TR. c. Conservation Roosevelt’s most tangible enduring achievement. i. Aroused public opinion vis-à-vis conservation. ii. Advocated intelligent use, not preservation: recreation, sustain-yield logging, watershed protection and summer stock grazing on same expanse of federal land
19MORE… CALLS GOVERNORS CONFERENCE ON CONSERVATION 1908 TR BELIEVED IN RATIONAL USE OF RESOURCES.
20TR AND CONSUMER PROTECTION TR AND THE JUNGLEPASSES PURE FOOD & DRUG ACT 1906MEAT INSPECTION ACT 1906