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Nucleon Sea Structure and the Five-Quark Components Wen-Chen Chang Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan Jen-Chieh Peng University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA Baryons2013 International Conference on the Structure of Baryons June 24th - 28th 2013 1

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Outline Evidences of nucleon sea Flavor Asymmetry of light sea quarks Structure of strange quarks Intrinsic sea quarks in light-front 5q model Sea quarks in lattice-QCD Prospect Conclusion 2

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Deep Inelastic Scattering 3 Q 2 : Four-momentum transfer x : Bjorken variable (=Q 2 /2 M ) : Energy transfer M : Nucleon mass W : Final state hadronic mass Scaling Valence quarks Quark-antiquark pairs

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Sum Rules 4 J.I. Friedman, Rev. Mod. Phys. Vol. 63, 615 (1991)

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Gottfried Sum Rule 5 Assume a symmetric quark-antiquark sea, GSR is only sensitive to valance quarks. J.I. Friedman, Rev. Mod. Phys. Vol. 63, 615 (1991)

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Gottfried Sum Measured by NMC 6 S G = 0.235 ± 0.026 New Muon Collaboration (NMC), Phys. Rev. D50 (1994) R1 S G is significantly lower than 1/3 !

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Explanations for the NMC result 7 Uncertain extrapolation for 0.0 < x < 0.004 Charge symmetry violation in the proton Need independent methods to check the asymmetry, and to measure its x-dependence !

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Drell-Yan Process 8 Acceptance in Fixed-target Exps.

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Light Anti-quark Flavor Asymmetry Naïve Assumption: 9 NA51 (Drell-Yan, 1994) NMC (Gottfried Sum Rule) NA 51 Drell-Yan confirms d(x) > u(x)

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Light Anti-quark Flavor Asymmetry Naïve Assumption: 10 NA51 (Drell-Yan, 1994) E866/NuSea (Drell-Yan, 1998) NMC (Gottfried Sum Rule)

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Origin of u(x) d(x): Perturbative QCD effect? Pauli blocking g uu is more suppressed than g dd in the proton since p=uud (Field and Feynman 1977) pQCD calculation (Ross, Sachrajda 1979) Bag model calculation (Signal, Thomas, Schreiber 1991) Chiral quark-soliton model ( Pobylitsa et al. 1999 ) Instanton model ( Dorokhov, Kochelev 1993 ) Statistical model ( Bourrely et al. 1995; Bhalerao 1996 ) Balance model ( Zhang, Ma 2001 ) 11 The valence quarks affect the gluon splitting. G

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Origin of u(x) d(x): Non-perturbative QCD effect? Meson cloud in the nucleons (Thomas 1983, Kumano 1991): Sullivan process in DIS. Chiral quark model (Eichten et al. 1992; Wakamatsu 1992): Goldstone bosons couple to valence quarks. 12 Pion cloud is a source of antiquarks in the protons and it lead to d>u. n

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Strange Quark in the Nucleon: Deep-Inelastic Neutrino Scattering 14

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15 Strange Quark in the Nucleon CCFR, Z. Phys. C 65, 189 (1995)

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Strange Quark Asymmetry 16 NuTeV, PRL 99, 192001 (2007)

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Meson Cloud Model (Signal and Thomas, 1987) Chiral Field (Burkardt and Warr, 1992) Baryon-Meson Fluctuation (Brodsky and Ma, 1996) Perturbative evolution (Catani et al., 2004) 17

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Strange Content from Semi- Inclusive Charged-Kaon DIS Production 18 HERMES, PLB 666, 446 (2008)

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W and Z production at LHC 19 ATLAS, PRL 109, 012001 (2012)

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Parton Distribution Functions of Protons 20

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Short Range Structure of Hadron Extrinsic SeaIntrinsic Sea Gluon splitting in leading twistGluon fusion & light quark scattering (higher-twist) Perturbative radiationNon-perturbative dynamics CP invariantPossible CP non-invariant Fast fluctuationWith a longer lifetime Of small xOf large x (valence-like) Strong Q 2 dependentSmall Q 2 dependent 21 Hoyer and Brodsky, AIP Conf. Proc. 221, 238 (1990)

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Intrinsic Sea Quarks in Light-Front 5q Fock States “intrinsic” “extrinsic” 22 Brodsky, Hoyer, Peterson, Sakai (BHPS) PLB 93,451 (1980); PRD 23, 2745 (1981)

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Experimental Evidences of Intrinsic Charm 23 Gunion and Vogt, hep-ph/9706252

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Global Fit by CTEQ 24 No Conclusive Evidence….. Pumplin, Lai, Tung, PRD 75, 054029 (2007)

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Search for the lighter “intrinsic” quark sea 25 No conclusive experimental evidence for intrinsic-charm so far The 5-quark states for lighter quarks have larger probabilities!

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How to separate the “intrinsic sea” from the “extrinsic sea”? Select experimental observables which have no contributions from the “extrinsic sea” “Intrinsic sea” and “extrinsic sea” are expected to have different x-distributions. Intrinsic sea is “valence-like” and is more abundant at larger x. Extrinsic sea is more abundant at smaller x. 26

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How to separate the “intrinsic sea” from the “extrinsic sea”? Select experimental observables which have no contributions from the “extrinsic sea” Investigate the x distribution of flavor non-singlet quantities:,. 27

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Data of d(x)-u(x) vs. Light-Front 5q Fock States The data are in good agreement with the 5q model after evolution from the initial scale μ to Q 2 =54 GeV 2 The difference of these two 5-quark components could be determined. 28 Chang and Peng, PRL 106, 252002 (2011)

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How to separate the “intrinsic sea” from the “extrinsic sea”? “Intrinsic sea” and “extrinsic sea” are expected to have different x-distributions Intrinsic sea is “valence-like” and is more abundant at larger x Extrinsic sea is more abundant at smaller x 29

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Data of x(s(x)+s(x)) vs. Light-Front 5q Fock States The x(s(x)+s(x)) are from HERMES kaon SIDIS data at =2.5 GeV 2. The data seem to consist of two components. Assume data at x>0.1 are originated from the intrinsic |uudss> 5- quark state. 30 Chang and Peng, PLB 704, 197 (2011)

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31 How to separate the “intrinsic sea” from the “extrinsic sea”? Select experimental observables which have no contributions from the “extrinsic sea” Investigate the x distribution of flavor non-singlet quantities:,.

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Data of x(d(x)+u(x)-s(x)-s(x)) vs. Light-Front 5q Fock States The d(x)+u(x) from CTEQ 6.6. The s(x)+s(x) from HERMES kaon SIDIS data at =2.5 GeV 2. 32 Chang and Peng, PLB 704, 197 (2011)

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Extraction of various 5q- components for light quarks 33

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Constituent 5q model 34 Riska and Zou, PLB 636, 265 (2006)

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Constituent 5q model 35 Kiswandhi, Lee, Yang, PLB 704, 373 (2011)

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Extended Chiral Constituent 5q model (complete configurations) 36 An and Saghai, PRC 85, 055203 (2012); 1306.3041 (2013) Strong interplays among different components with (very) large cancellations.

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Comparison of 5q Probabilities P(uu)P(dd)P(ss)P(cc)References 0.1980.1480.0930.011Bag model; Donoghue and Golowich, PRD15, 3421 (1977) 0.003Light-cone 5q model; Hoffmann and Moore, ZPC 20, 71 (1983) 0.250 0.0500.009Meson cloud model; Navarra et al., PRD 54, 842 (1996) 0.10 - 0.15 Constituent 5q model; Riska and Zou, PLB 636, 265 (2006) 0.1220.2400.024Light-front 5q model; Chang and Peng, this work (2011) 0.0980.2160.057Extended chiral constituent quark model; An and Saghai, PRC 85, 055203 (2012) 37

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Diagrams of Nucleon Hadronic Tensor in Path-Integral Formalism 38 Connected Diagram Disconnected Diagram

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Connected and Disconnected Sea q ds (x)=q ds (x), where q=u, d, s; s(x)=s(x) u ds (x)=d ds (x) q cs (x)=q cs (x), where q=u, d Origin of u(x) d(x): u cs (x) d cs (x) Small-x behaviors: q valence (x), q cs (x) x -1/2 q ds (x) x -1 39 How do we separate these two components? Liu and Dong, PRL 72, 1790 (1994)

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Ratio of Momentum Fraction between s and u in DI by Lattice QCD 40 Doi, et al. PoS LATTICE2008:163, 2008 Connected Insertion (CI) Disconnected Insertion (DI)

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Connected Sea 41 Liu, Chang, Cheng and Peng, PRL 109, 252002 (2012)

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Small-x Behaviors of CS and DS 42 Small-x behavior: Valence and CS x -1/2 DS x -1 Liu, Chang, Cheng and Peng, PRL 109, 252002 (2012)

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Moments of Nucleon Sea 43 Liu, Chang, Cheng and Peng, PRL 109, 252002 (2012)

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“Connected, Disconnected Sea” VS. “Intrinsic, Extrinsic sea” 44 Connected Sea (u, d quarks only) Intrinsic Sea: Non-perturbative Origin of flavor asymmetry of light sea quarks With x ^-1/2 small-x behavior from the Reggeon exchange Disconnected Sea (u, d quarks and heavy quarks) Intrinsic Sea: Non-perturbative Peaked at medium x (~ 0.1) Meson cloud or the Reggeon exchange Extrinsic Sea: Perturbative At small x With x ^-1 small-x behavior from the Pomeron exchange

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Future Prospect (Experimental) Light sea quarks: E906/SeaQuest at FNAL: flavor asymmetry of d-bar/u-bar at large x region. MINERνA at FNAL: x-dependence of nuclear effects for sea quarks. JLAB-12 GeV: transverse spatial distribution of sea quarks. Kaon-induced DY experiment at J-PARC: s and s-bar. Electron-Ion Collider (EIC): sea quark distributions and their spin structure. Heavy sea quarks: Open-charm production at forward rapidity, e.g. fixed-target experiment at LHC. Higgs production at large x F at LHC. 45

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d/u From E906/SeaQuest at FNAL Ratio of Drell-Yan cross sections (in leading order—E866 data analysis confirmed in NLO) Global NLO PDF fits which include E866 cross section ratios agree with E866 results Fermilab E906/Drell-Yan will extend these measurements and reduce statistical uncertainty. E906 expects systematic uncertainty to remain at approx. 1% in cross section ratio. 46

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Future Prospect (Theoretical) Intrinsic sea for hyperons and mesons? Intrinsic gluons in the nucleons? Connection between the 5-quark model and the meson-cloud model? Connection between the 5-quark model and lattice QCD? Spin-dependent observables of intrinsic sea? 47

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Conclusion Using DIS, Drell-Yan and SIDIS processes, the structure of sea quarks in the nucleon are explored. The measured x distributions of (d-u), (s+s) and (u+d-s-s) could be reasonably described by the light-front 5q Fock states. The probabilities of the intrinsic 5q states of light sea quarks are extracted. The intrinsic or valence-like sea quarks are deeply connected with the non-perturbative QCD. More accurate data will be available in the coming experiments at FNAL, JLAB, LHC, J-PARC and EIC. 48

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