4Essential Questions Overarching Questions Topical Questions What is a society?How is the society different from the individual?Topical QuestionsHow are politics and society interconnected?To what extent can the society be shaped by politics.
5Biographical Outline 1969: Born in Sabah, Malaysia. 1991: Graduated with B.A (Hons) in Fine Art, Faculty of Art & Design, University Technology Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
6When (1988 - 94) 1988: Somalia Crisis The crisis started with their civil war in s. The country was plunged into a state of anarchy (meaning lawlessness) and chaos. Violence and starvation (due to famine) became rampant. The situation escalated into a grave humanitarian crisis which effected the UN relief in 1993 led by the Americans.: Gulf WarIraq invaded Kuwait in The coalitionforce from 34 nations led by US fought back.: Bosnian War1994: Rwandan Genocide
7When (1990s ): Bosnian WarA conflict between Bosnian Muslims and Bosnian Serbs ofEastern Orthodox Church. The war took place in Bosnia andHerzogovina- home to the Bosnians, Serbs and Croats. Research estimates a statistics of victims (soldiers and civilians). The majority of the death toll of civilians came from the Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims).1994: Rwandan GenocideThe conflict arises between the government and the rebel party in Central Rwanda. The genocide (mass killing of people) of Rwanda refers to the killings of Tutsi minority by extremist Hutu militia Hutus and Tutsis were killed in a span of about 100 days. The ultimate death toll registers at
8Where Malaysia The community in Malaysia is generally a sensitive one. So Radjikin althoughmore open and less cloistered because ofhis Javanese and Sabahan roots, ratheraddresses issues outside Malaysia.
9WhatSubject Matter-Figures- usually in the context of conflict and suffering.ThemeSocio-political criticism- eg: irony in war.War and suffering of mankind.Life and death.Torture and conscience.Starvation in Africa.Commentary on historical/tribal past.Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
10His Mixed MediaMan and War, 1990Charcoal on paper, x 122 x 92 cm
11His Mixed MediaCry Boy, 1990Charcoal on paper, 122 x 92
12Charcoal on paper and mixed media, His Mixed MediaDead: Nick Nurul Suhada Fighting for Her Life at Trengganu Hospital, 1993Charcoal on paper and mixed media,122 x cm
13His Mixed Media When Human Treat a Human, 1993 Charcoal on paper and mixed media,122 x 92 cm
14This painting is a close-up of a bigger one.Kopoeta, 1988, 1994Oil on canvas, 148 x 155 cm
15His PaintingsNever Ending Story A, 1990Oil on canvas, 125 x 188 cm
16His PaintingNever Ending Story C, 1990Oil on canvas125 x 155 cm
17His PaintingsXX Figure, 1993Oil on canvas, 92 x 137 cm
18Bang, Bang, Bang, Frankfurt 1970, 1994 His PaintingsBang, Bang, Bang, Frankfurt 1970, 1994Oil on canvas, 118 x 163 cm
19Bayu Utomo RadjikinPainting portrays the suffering of mankind and the issues happening around the world, different panels dealt with different social issues with the artist portraying different emotions.
20Bayu Utomo RadjikinThe phrase " You Black, Me White" and "Same Sun" refers to the racial discrimination. Despite being of the same world, humans are always seeking differentiation through race and religion, gender, leading to much conflict and social unrest.
21Bayu Utomo RadjikinThe Arabic writing on the right translates to " ikan makan ikan", meaning "fish eats fish". It refers to an unscrupulous society where people are out to sabotage and scheme against one another.A bare-bodied man in contorted postures is repeated among the 4 panels. The artist's usage of rough textures created by the palette knife and random bold strokes, adds to the aggression of the work, showing the agony and anguish of the screaming man.
22Bayu Utomo RadjikinHis palette consists of dark colours like blue and green as well as vibrant red, orange and yellow. While bold and agitated brushstrokes seen in the figures and background (especially in the 2nd and 3rd panels) creates a sense of chaos, he contrasts this with bold straight lines, geometric shapes (eg: target) and stenciled wordings (“SAMESUN”) – the effect is drastic and “in-your-face”. In the last panel, a fish sticks out of the painting in a totally incongruous fashion, rather than adhering to conventional formal elements and principles, Radjikin sought to offset the audience’s equilibrium.With repeated use of stylised shapes like the target, different fonts mostly in English and the energetic ‘scrawling’ of paint in the second panel, the work seems to reference graffiti art, advertising and newsprint – reflecting a globalised, fast pace and possibly information driven society.
23Bayu Utomo RadjikinNever Ending Story, 1990 Oil on canvas, 122 x cm (set of 4 panels)“ My work is a confrontation, it doesn’t solve anything. But if I want to confront people I have to speak their language, otherwise it is useless. “
24Bayu Utomo Radjikin(from top to bottom)Words at the Acropolis, Athens, 2006 Acrylic on canvas, 58cm x 139 cmWords at the Brandenberger Tor, Berlin, 2006, Acrylic on canvas, 58cm x 139cmSight, 2006, Acrylic on canvas, 40cm x 100cm
25 Acrylic and Charcoal on paper Bayu Utomo RadjikinArm Pit, 2004, Charcoal on canvas, 132 x 81.5 cmThe Portrait I & II, 2006 Acrylic and Charcoal on paper 92cm x 122cm
26Metal and Plaster of Paris, His SculptureBujang Berani means “Bujang the Brave”. This work belongs to a series of similar works that were executed in his final year of studies at ITM, dealing with the theme of the screaming Dayak chieftain. They are all the more remarkable when one considers that this young ITM Muslim art student had ventured to employ influences derived from another religious context, namely, the rich Dayak culture of Sarawak.Bujang Berani, 1991Metal and Plaster of Paris,100cm x 97cm x 55cm
27Describe and analyse this work. His SculpturePracticeDescribe and analyse this work.Bujang Berani, 1991Metal and Plaster of Paris,100cm x 97cm x 55cm
28Assess the ideas of the work through the materials used. Bujang Berani remains a remarkable piece of figurative sculpture. It portrays the image of an old Dayak warrior chief and the work resonates with the vibration of the anguished scream of this old man. It is a work founded on angst. The viewer is forced to wonder at the cause of the scream. The work has been constructed out of welded pieces of discarded metal bits and machine parts and the face has been modelled in plaster of paris. It is indeed a strange combination of materials to construct the image of a revered elder from the Dayak warrior tribe. The scrap metal components used to construct the body and head gear depersonalises the subject. The arms of the figure are missing, revealing empty sockets at the shoulders. The materials used do serve as a commentary on the plight of the tribal peoples of this country who must witness the encroachment of drastic modern changes in their midst. They must also witness the gradual destruction of the rain forests by the loggers and the encroachment of the new, mechanistic way of life. They must witness the threats to the older, traditional way of life. Herein, may be a reason for the anguished scream of the old warrior named Bujang. This conscious highlighting of the old warrior chief may be symbolically significant. The old chiefs were the guardians and protectors of their older, symbolic culture and the older way of life.
29This is the sculpture that propelled His SculptureThis is the sculpture that propelledRadjikin to fame.Lang Kacang, 1991Mixed media, 141x 104 x 120 cmSAM, Singapore
30Lang Kacang- A series of drawings, 1990 His DrawingsLang Kacang- A series of drawings, 1990SAM, Singapore
31What- Lang Kacang It is a work of rage and despair (Sabapathy, 1996). It expresses the real situation of people or community who do not fit into the “desired pattern” of modern society characterised with rising global economic systems.The result- the danger of being excluded or marginalised.The warrior cries out as if in protest of a disintegrating tribal culture and past glory.
32His Sculpture Central beliefs/ideologies Rebellion against the Malaysian traditional derision of the human form in art – was almost always figurative in sculptureReligious links – the Islamic world prohibits the portrayal of the human form in artExpressive, figurative sculptures evoke emotion and shock, often stimulating debate – though Radjikin demands no fixed interpretationOften attacks and reenacts the horror of the human and social condition, e.g. of the lone abused child, the wounded soldier, innocent bystander
33Lang Kacang, 1991, Mixed media, Bayu Utomo RadjikinWhat do you see with reference to subjectmatter and materials used?An armless figure standing with his legs apart, knees slight bent.His head is thrown slightly backwards, his mouth is opened, as though screaming.He looks like a tribal warrior in head-dress and battle gear.Body of the sculpture is an assemblage of a variety of metallic objects, they look tarnished and worn-out, reminiscent of “junkyard stuff”, while his legs and head is made from plaster-of-Paris.Lang Kacang, 1991, Mixed media,141 x 104 x 120 cm
34Lang Kacang, 1991, Mixed media, Bayu Utomo RadjikinContext:Radjikin is concerned with societal pressures the Dayak tribe faces which are incidentally responsible for pushing it to extinction.Dayak are indigenous people with population estimated at about four million spread over provinces in Borneo, the Malaysian territories of Sabah and Serawak and Brunei Darussalam. In the age of capitalism and modernisation, the tribe’s rich culture is gradually dissipating. Dayak youngsters migrate to Indonesian cities in great numbers, either to pursue their studies or make a living, enthralled by glamour and an urban lifestyle.Lang Kacang, 1991, Mixed media,141 x 104 x 120 cm
38Bayu Utomo Radjikin Effectiveness: Bayu has optimised two modes of sculpting and their unique expressive potentialas well as the complexity the materials amd techniques they comprise.He modelled and curved the head and legs with plaster-of-Paris which gives himgreater control and precision over the expression of the angst of the warrior.He assembled industrial scrapes to form the torso and head-dress to provideviewers immediacy to the “discarded element” of the industrial scrape, drawingparallels to the plight of the Dayak chief and the dying culture.The heavily corroded surface also expresses “battle injuries” the Dayak chief andhis culture sustain while they engage themselves with the pressures ofmodernisation.We see the figure in a dramatic and powerful stance, ironically executed in scrapematerials, crying for the lamentable fate of his degenerating tribe. His presence isforceful yet his armless nature also contributes to a sense of desperation,referencing a handicapped situation.
39WhyHis BackgroundRadjikin’s parents are Javanese. This lineage has probably given him a strong aesthetic sense.He is also a leading force behind a group of young artists called the Mata Hari (Eyes of the Soul).The Mata Hari are motivated by socio-political issues. Their artwork are often angst-filled expressions.He is formerly from Sabah- northern part of the island Borneo. Borneo is an island divided into three ruling spheres under Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei.He used to live in a town called Tawau- near the Indonesian border.He now lives in the city of Kuala Lumpur.He wants to confront his audience with issues that are affecting the world with the use of realistic images.
40HowFor his sculptures, he recycles scrap and junk for his sculptures and welds the metal parts in place - eg: Lang Kacang, 1991.For his paintings, he borrows images- copying them from the newspaper onto a large canvas, abiding by the shadow and highlights. He also adds colour and sets his figures in totally different surrounding. He uses immediate and up-to-date images/press photography.
41Reference(1996). Southeast Asian Art Today. Roeder Publications Pte Ltd: Singapore.Sabapathy, T. K (1996). Thematic Approaches to Malaysian Art History in Sabapathy, T.K (Ed). (1996). Modernity and Beyond: Themes in Southeast Asia. Singapore Art Museum: Singapore.Jamal, S. A. (2007).The Encyclopedia of Malaysia: Crafts and the Visual Arts. Archipelago Press. Singapore.(Check out this website for his later works)(Check out the artist’s blogspot)