Presentation on theme: "INDIKATOR PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN"— Presentation transcript:
1 INDIKATOR PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN OlehSudrajatFMIPA_UNMUL2010
2 Pollution IndicatorsThe presence or absence of particular organisms can indicate whether the water is polluted or not.These are called Indicator Species
3 Air Pollution Indicators LichensDifferent types of lichen have different sensitivities to sulphur dioxide gas.3 main types – crusty, leafy and shrubbyIndicator species presentAppearance of lichenSO2 concentrationCrusty lichens onlyHighCrusty and leafyMediumShrubbylow
4 Air Pollution MapLook at the air pollution map, and explain the distribution of the different types of lichen.
5 Lichen Lichen + Green algae not found : SO2 conc. >170 mg/m3 Only green algae :max. 170 mg/m3close formations of lichen on the trunk of the tree, even in the cracks :mg/m3
6 Lichen leaf shaped lobe plates formed by leafy lichen : 60-70 mg/m3 lichen growing as a little bush or hanging like a beard :40-50 mg/m3
7 LichenLichen are particularly good indicators of gas pollution in the airAlmost all lichen are sensitive to air pollutions.Such as SO2, F2, O3, pH or even metal ion
8 What physiological properties make lichens useful indicators of air quality? Range of air pollution sensitivities across species. Lichens exhibit a range of sensitivities to S- & N compounds in acid rain, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, and fluoride. Changes in distribution or populations of the most sensitive lichens provide an early warning that air pollution is beginning to adversely affect the ecosystem. The mix of species and abundances at any one site can be used to position the site along an air quality gradient.High surface area and no roots. Lichens on trees and shrubs obtain nutrients from the air, precipitation, and substrate run-off. Tissue levels of many pollutants are correlated with ambient atmospheric levels.Readily absorb water and lack specialized barriers to prevent vapor loss. Daily cycles of wetting and drying produce a dynamic equilibrium between concentration and leaching of pollutants. As pollution concentrations change, so do concentrations in lichens. Mobile elements: S, N, K, Ca, Mg, Na. – can change significantly over a few months. Less mobile elements: Pb, Cd, Ni—change more slowly.Lichens concentrate many pollutants and can therefore be used to indicate many pollutants, not just the ones to which they are sensitive
9 What kinds of data are collected? Lichen communities and floristicsTissue analysesTransplantsLaboratory
10 What are lichens?British soldiersButton lichenLung lichenLichens are symbiotic organisms consisting of a fungus and an alga and/or a cyanobacterium.
11 Hell’s Canyon National Recreation Area Tongass National Forest, Sitka, AlaskaNitrogen concentrations in lichen tissue and abundance of the nitrogen-loving lichen, Xanthoria, were highest at sites closest to the Snake River.
12 Tongass National Forest, Sitka, Alaska Lichens were absent from alder <0 .25 mi from the pulp mill, an SO2 source.Typical cover of lichens onalder in the Sitka area
13 Klondike Gold Rush National Historic Park, Skagway, Alaska Mean concentrations of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, P, K, S, Zn in the lichen, Hypogymnia enteromorpha, were higher in Klondike Gold Rush NHP samples than Tongass National Forest samples.Mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, S, Zn in all three lichen species collected at Dewey, close to the ship docks, were higher than provisional PNW background thresholds. (Here, H. enteromorpha). Cruise ships and previous mine ore transport were likely sources of these pollutants.PbSZn
14 Schematic diagram of the DEEEP approach Biochemical/chemical oxygen demand(COD<200mg/l or BOD<50mg/l)Acute toxicity tests(Suggested battery of tests include:bacteria, algae, invertebrates and vertebrates)Chronic toxicity testsMutagenicity testsBioaccumulationNO HAZARD(General Authorization)
16 Battery of toxicity test Effect periodExposure periodEndpointDetection limit (%)StandardVibrio fischeri luminescence bacterial testAcute/Short term30 minutes% growth inhibition or stimulation, EC20 and EC50 value20ISO, 1998Selenastrum capricornutum (algal) growth inhibition test72 hOECD, 1984Daphnia pulex (waterflea) lethality testShort-term24 and 48 h% lethality, LC10 and LC50 value10US EPA, 2002Poecilia reticulata (fish) lethality testAcute/ Short-term96 hUS EPA, 1996AMES Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity testChronic/Long-termDetects mutagenicityMR :≥2.0US EPA, 1983Start with DEEEP testsBest known is Daphnia and Guppy testLC10 sample concentration causing 10% lethality also called minimum effect concentrationLC50 sample concentration causing 50% lethalityAs seen from slide these tests represents different trophic levels.
17 Presentation of data Report the screening test endpoints % effects, such as mortality or growth (results exceeding detection limits will be marked in red)Report the definitive test endpointsSuch as LC/EC50 valuesReport the Toxicity units (TUa)To classify individual test result and compare to DEEEP criteriaReport Hazard ratingClassify battery of tests, using toxicity indexes, such as Hazard Classification System (Persoone, 2005)Compare the % effect with detection limits to establish if detection limits were exceededReport the toxicity endpointsReport the toxic units (TUs) (e.g. 100%/LC50s) and compare with criteria (hazard description as for DEEEP)Combine all the results obtained with a wastewater/receiving water in one number by using toxicity indexes, e.g. PEEP (Potential Environmental Effect Probe), Hazard rating (Hazard Classification System)
18 Toxicity units Toxicity units Determine LC/EC50 value from dilution series testedToxicity units (TUa) = 100/LC or EC50Based on Tonks & Baltus, 1997Key to classification system:0-1 Limited to not acutely toxic1-2 Negligibly acutely toxic2-10 Mildly acutely toxicAcutely toxic>100 Highly acutely toxic
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