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Presentation on theme: "INDIKATOR PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN"— Presentation transcript:

Oleh Sudrajat FMIPA_UNMUL 2010

2 Pollution Indicators The presence or absence of particular organisms can indicate whether the water is polluted or not. These are called Indicator Species

3 Air Pollution Indicators
Lichens Different types of lichen have different sensitivities to sulphur dioxide gas. 3 main types – crusty, leafy and shrubby Indicator species present Appearance of lichen SO2 concentration Crusty lichens only High Crusty and leafy Medium Shrubby low

4 Air Pollution Map Look at the air pollution map, and explain the distribution of the different types of lichen.

5 Lichen Lichen + Green algae not found : SO2 conc. >170 mg/m3
Only green algae : max. 170 mg/m3 close formations of lichen on the trunk of the tree, even in the cracks : mg/m3

6 Lichen leaf shaped lobe plates formed by leafy lichen : 60-70 mg/m3
lichen growing as a little bush or hanging like a beard : 40-50 mg/m3

7 Lichen Lichen are particularly good indicators of gas pollution in the air Almost all lichen are sensitive to air pollutions. Such as SO2, F2, O3, pH or even metal ion

8 What physiological properties make lichens useful indicators of air quality?
Range of air pollution sensitivities across species. Lichens exhibit a range of sensitivities to S- & N compounds in acid rain, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, and fluoride. Changes in distribution or populations of the most sensitive lichens provide an early warning that air pollution is beginning to adversely affect the ecosystem. The mix of species and abundances at any one site can be used to position the site along an air quality gradient. High surface area and no roots. Lichens on trees and shrubs obtain nutrients from the air, precipitation, and substrate run-off. Tissue levels of many pollutants are correlated with ambient atmospheric levels. Readily absorb water and lack specialized barriers to prevent vapor loss. Daily cycles of wetting and drying produce a dynamic equilibrium between concentration and leaching of pollutants. As pollution concentrations change, so do concentrations in lichens. Mobile elements: S, N, K, Ca, Mg, Na. – can change significantly over a few months. Less mobile elements: Pb, Cd, Ni—change more slowly. Lichens concentrate many pollutants and can therefore be used to indicate many pollutants, not just the ones to which they are sensitive

9 What kinds of data are collected?
Lichen communities and floristics Tissue analyses Transplants Laboratory

10 What are lichens? British soldiers Button lichen Lung lichen Lichens are symbiotic organisms consisting of a fungus and an alga and/or a cyanobacterium.

11 Hell’s Canyon National Recreation Area
Tongass National Forest, Sitka, Alaska Nitrogen concentrations in lichen tissue and abundance of the nitrogen-loving lichen, Xanthoria, were highest at sites closest to the Snake River.

12 Tongass National Forest, Sitka, Alaska
Lichens were absent from alder <0 .25 mi from the pulp mill, an SO2 source. Typical cover of lichens on alder in the Sitka area

13 Klondike Gold Rush National Historic Park, Skagway, Alaska
Mean concentrations of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, P, K, S, Zn in the lichen, Hypogymnia enteromorpha, were higher in Klondike Gold Rush NHP samples than Tongass National Forest samples. Mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, S, Zn in all three lichen species collected at Dewey, close to the ship docks, were higher than provisional PNW background thresholds. (Here, H. enteromorpha). Cruise ships and previous mine ore transport were likely sources of these pollutants. Pb S Zn

14 Schematic diagram of the DEEEP approach
Biochemical/chemical oxygen demand (COD<200mg/l or BOD<50mg/l) Acute toxicity tests (Suggested battery of tests include: bacteria, algae, invertebrates and vertebrates) Chronic toxicity tests Mutagenicity tests Bioaccumulation NO HAZARD (General Authorization)

15 Acute toxicity tests Battery, consisting of four tropic levels
Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria test Bacteria Selenastrum capricornutum growth inhibition test Algae Daphnia pulex acute toxicity test Invertebrate (waterflea) Poecilia reticulata acute toxicity test Vertebrate (fish)

16 Battery of toxicity test
Effect period Exposure period Endpoint Detection limit (%) Standard Vibrio fischeri luminescence bacterial test Acute/ Short term 30 minutes % growth inhibition or stimulation, EC20 and EC50 value 20 ISO, 1998 Selenastrum capricornutum (algal) growth inhibition test 72 h OECD, 1984 Daphnia pulex (waterflea) lethality test Short-term 24 and 48 h % lethality, LC10 and LC50 value 10 US EPA, 2002 Poecilia reticulata (fish) lethality test Acute/ Short-term 96 h US EPA, 1996 AMES Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity test Chronic/ Long-term Detects mutagenicity MR :≥2.0 US EPA, 1983 Start with DEEEP tests Best known is Daphnia and Guppy test LC10 sample concentration causing 10% lethality also called minimum effect concentration LC50 sample concentration causing 50% lethality As seen from slide these tests represents different trophic levels.

17 Presentation of data Report the screening test endpoints
% effects, such as mortality or growth (results exceeding detection limits will be marked in red) Report the definitive test endpoints Such as LC/EC50 values Report the Toxicity units (TUa) To classify individual test result and compare to DEEEP criteria Report Hazard rating Classify battery of tests, using toxicity indexes, such as Hazard Classification System (Persoone, 2005) Compare the % effect with detection limits to establish if detection limits were exceeded Report the toxicity endpoints Report the toxic units (TUs) (e.g. 100%/LC50s) and compare with criteria (hazard description as for DEEEP) Combine all the results obtained with a wastewater/receiving water in one number by using toxicity indexes, e.g. PEEP (Potential Environmental Effect Probe), Hazard rating (Hazard Classification System)

18 Toxicity units Toxicity units
Determine LC/EC50 value from dilution series tested Toxicity units (TUa) = 100/LC or EC50 Based on Tonks & Baltus, 1997 Key to classification system: 0-1 Limited to not acutely toxic 1-2 Negligibly acutely toxic 2-10 Mildly acutely toxic Acutely toxic >100 Highly acutely toxic


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