A. Low standard of living GDP per capita $5,500 (ranked 6 th in Latin America). About half of Chileans lived below the poverty line, and 20% lived in extreme poverty. Only half of high school students graduated and 14% enrolled in college.
B. Low educational expenditures USD$360 per student a year. Public spending on education 2.4% of GDP vs. 5.5% in the Netherlands and 5.0% in the US.
C. Inadequate incentives 1.Poorly designed voucher program i.Flat voucher ii.School selection iii.School fees 2. No school accountability i.No objective information on school quality ii.Schools not held accountable for outcomes 3. No incentives for teachers i.No merit pay ii.No teacher evaluation
Higher standard of living Increased spending Incentives Educational Improvement Factors that help to explain achievement growth in Chile
A. Improvements to voucher design i.Differentiated voucher ii.School selection banned iii.No school fees for low SES students Source: MINEDUC, 2009
Source: MINEDUC Private voucher school enrollment expands
Source: MINEDUC More than 1 million students attend for-profit schools in Chile (1/3 of enrollments School typeSchools% SchoolsStudents% Students Public5.61454%1.498.35246% For-profit3.25631%1.054.26131% Non-profit9549%551.02817% Non-voucher6476%232.8217% Total10.471100%3.336.462100%
Source: MINEDUC More choice for low SES parents: In this low SES urban neighborhood in Santiago, the supply of schools almost doubled in 10 years.
Public Rankings of academic results of schools Information to parents about own school’s academic result evolution and compared to similar schools Website focused in informing parents about school’s alternatives: price, academic results, location, etc. B. Test scores widely disseminated to parents, schools, and researchers
C. School accountability program i.Schools are ranked by adjusted test scores and improvements ii.High ranking schools have autonomy and low ranking schools must present improvement plans iii.Failing schools schools can be closed
D. National teacher merit pay program and national public school teacher evaluation
E. Most growth explained by gains by low and middle SES students: test score gap reduced by ½ of a standard deviation in language 1/3 in mathematics on national test (SIMCE) 76 50 Source: SIMCE
F. Most growth explained by gains by low and middle SES students: Chile is the country that made the most progress in narrowing the achievement gap between 2000 and 2009 in PISA literacy (13 points) Source: PISA
Conclusions 1.Higher standard of living 2.Increased spending 3.Incentives
Challenge: Still a long way to go Source: PISA 2000, 2009 PISA 2000 PISA 2009
Factors that help to explain achievement growth in Chile Higher standard of living Increased spending Better incentives Educational Improvement Sense of urgency
Students and families put the quality of education at the center of the national debate 2006: High school students 2011: University students