Presentation on theme: "Factors contributing to achievement growth in Chile Gregory Elacqua Instituto of Public Policy School of Economics Universidad Diego Portales."— Presentation transcript:
Factors contributing to achievement growth in Chile Gregory Elacqua Instituto of Public Policy School of Economics Universidad Diego Portales
CHILE 17,269,525 residents 3,395,845 students 11,511 schools Became an OECD country in 2009
Source: Hanushek, Peterson & Woessman (2012) Chile second in annual rate of growth in student achievement ( )
Source: SIMCE Same trend in national tests (SIMCE language and math 4th grade)
Chile in the 90’s
A. Low standard of living GDP per capita $5,500 (ranked 6 th in Latin America). About half of Chileans lived below the poverty line, and 20% lived in extreme poverty. Only half of high school students graduated and 14% enrolled in college.
B. Low educational expenditures USD$360 per student a year. Public spending on education 2.4% of GDP vs. 5.5% in the Netherlands and 5.0% in the US.
C. Inadequate incentives 1.Poorly designed voucher program i.Flat voucher ii.School selection iii.School fees 2. No school accountability i.No objective information on school quality ii.Schools not held accountable for outcomes 3. No incentives for teachers i.No merit pay ii.No teacher evaluation
Higher standard of living Increased spending Incentives Educational Improvement Factors that help to explain achievement growth in Chile
I. HIGHER STANDARD OF LIVING
Source: World Bank A. GDP per capita increased by 3 fold (GDP per capita PPP, constant USD 2008)
Source: World Bank B. Ranked 6 in Latin America, today #1 (GDP per capita PPP, constant USD 2008)
Source: CASEN C. Cut poverty rate by two thirds
D. Eradicated extreme poverty (% extreme poverty) Source: World Bank
E. High school graduation rates increased rapidly across SES groups (age 20-24, by income quintiles)
Source: Education at a Glance, 2008 F. Young adults have similar attainment as peers in OECD countries (% with at least upper secondary by age group)
Source: Brunner, 2008; INE; CASEN; MINEDUC. 1984: 180, : 1,015,000 G. Expansion of higher education
H. Parents of 15 years old students are more educated than in the past. Source: SIMCE
II. INCREASED EDUCATION SPENDING
Source: MINEDUC B. Annual per student expenditure has increased fourfold since (USD 2011)
Source: MINEDUC C. Public and private education spending as % of GDP has doubled since 1990
Source: MINEDUC D. Expansion of % enrollment in schools with full school day.
Source: MINEDUC, Central Bank of Chile E. Since 1990 teachers’ salaries have increased by 200% in real terms. (USD 2011)
Source: Enlaces, 2010 F. Students/computer ratio declined in the last decade, 79 to 9.
A. Improvements to voucher design i.Differentiated voucher ii.School selection banned iii.No school fees for low SES students Source: MINEDUC, 2009
Source: MINEDUC Private voucher school enrollment expands
Source: MINEDUC More than 1 million students attend for-profit schools in Chile (1/3 of enrollments School typeSchools% SchoolsStudents% Students Public % % For-profit % % Non-profit9549% % Non-voucher6476% % Total % %
Source: MINEDUC More choice for low SES parents: In this low SES urban neighborhood in Santiago, the supply of schools almost doubled in 10 years.
Public Rankings of academic results of schools Information to parents about own school’s academic result evolution and compared to similar schools Website focused in informing parents about school’s alternatives: price, academic results, location, etc. B. Test scores widely disseminated to parents, schools, and researchers
C. School accountability program i.Schools are ranked by adjusted test scores and improvements ii.High ranking schools have autonomy and low ranking schools must present improvement plans iii.Failing schools schools can be closed
D. National teacher merit pay program and national public school teacher evaluation
E. Most growth explained by gains by low and middle SES students: test score gap reduced by ½ of a standard deviation in language 1/3 in mathematics on national test (SIMCE) Source: SIMCE
F. Most growth explained by gains by low and middle SES students: Chile is the country that made the most progress in narrowing the achievement gap between 2000 and 2009 in PISA literacy (13 points) Source: PISA
Conclusions 1.Higher standard of living 2.Increased spending 3.Incentives
Challenge: Still a long way to go Source: PISA 2000, 2009 PISA 2000 PISA 2009
Factors that help to explain achievement growth in Chile Higher standard of living Increased spending Better incentives Educational Improvement Sense of urgency
Students and families put the quality of education at the center of the national debate 2006: High school students 2011: University students