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Enhancement of Satellite-based Precipitation Estimates using the Information from the Proposed Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) Part II: Drizzle Detection.

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Presentation on theme: "Enhancement of Satellite-based Precipitation Estimates using the Information from the Proposed Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) Part II: Drizzle Detection."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enhancement of Satellite-based Precipitation Estimates using the Information from the Proposed Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) Part II: Drizzle Detection and Warm Rain Retrieval Ruiyue Chen, Fu-Lung Chang, Zhanqing Li Cooperative Institute for Climate Studies (CICS) University of Maryland College Park, MD Ralph Ferraro, Robert Kuligowski NOAA/NESDIS/Center for Satellite Applications and Research Introduction Traditional IR and microwave techniques have problems in detecting rain associated with warm cloud tops (i.e., “ warm rain ” ), which is very important for both synoptic and climate scale precipitation analyses. This investigation presents an algorithm to detect drizzle and retrieve warm rain with cloud information including cloud droplet effective radius (DER) profile, cloud top temperature, and liquid water path (LWP). The cloud information is obtained through applying Chang and Li ’ s [2002, 2003] algorithm to the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the AQUA satellite, which also carries the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E). The microwave observations of AMSR-E contain information on precipitation. By analyzing the products of MODIS and AMSR-E, we will show that the vertical variation of cloud DER is effective to identify raining/non-raining clouds, and warm rain can be retrieved with this cloud information. The algorithm could be applied to the GOES-R ABI, which has all the required channels. References Chang, F.-L., Z. Li, 2003, Retrieving the vertical profiles of water-cloud droplet effective radius: Algorithm modification and preliminary application, J. Geophy. Res., 108, D(24), 4763, /2003JD Chang, F.-L., Z. Li, 2002 Estimating the vertical variation of cloud droplet effective radius using multispectral near-infrared satellite measurements, J. Geophy. Res., 107, /2001JD , pp12. Warm rain is derived from warm top cloud and does not involve ice-phase processes. It is generally one order of magnitude smaller than cold rain but occurs much more frequently. Warm rain is derived from warm top cloud and does not involve ice-phase processes. It is generally one order of magnitude smaller than cold rain but occurs much more frequently. Warm rain plays an important role in atmosphere and water circulation. Warm rain plays an important role in atmosphere and water circulation. IR techniques depend on cloud top temperature and can not detect warm rain. IR techniques depend on cloud top temperature and can not detect warm rain. Passive microwave depends on cloud ice scattering and can not detect warm rain over land. Over ocean, it depends on rain emission and physically sensitive to warm rain, but it may miss many light warm rain with small area coverage due to its large field of view and low sensitivity. Passive microwave depends on cloud ice scattering and can not detect warm rain over land. Over ocean, it depends on rain emission and physically sensitive to warm rain, but it may miss many light warm rain with small area coverage due to its large field of view and low sensitivity. This study estimates warm rain from cloud information retrieved by Chang and Li’s algorithm [ ]. The algorithm is calibrated with passive microwave retrieved rain rate from low level overcast cloud over ocean. This study estimates warm rain from cloud information retrieved by Chang and Li’s algorithm [ ]. The algorithm is calibrated with passive microwave retrieved rain rate from low level overcast cloud over ocean. A comparison with IR and Passive Microwave techniques Data and Method MODIS data MODIS data (low level liquid cloud on 01/01/2003 over 40 o N~60 o S ) Optical depth is retrieved with a visible channel ( ). Optical depth is retrieved with a visible channel (0.64 μm for land surface, 0.86 μm for ocean surface). Cloud top temperature is retrieved with IR window channel (11). Cloud top temperature is retrieved with IR window channel (11 μm ). 3.7, 2.1, 1.6, and the visible channel are utilized to retrieve DER profile, which is defined by r e1(DER at cloud top) and r e2(DER at cloud base) 3.7 μm, 2.1 μm, 1.6 μm, and the visible channel are utilized to retrieve DER profile, which is defined by r e1(DER at cloud top) and r e2(DER at cloud base) The DER profile is utilized to calculate LWP with The DER profile is utilized to calculate LWP with Warm Rain Retrieval Fig. 3 Mean rain rate for a) mean vertical DER variation in 2um interval b) mean DER at cloud base in 2um interval c) mean LWP on 0.08mm interval d) mean cloud top temperature in 2 o C interval Fig.5 Global distribution within 1x1 degree grid boxes of a) cloud top temperature b) Rain rate from AMSR-E c) Fraction of cloud with drizzle but no rainfall d) Warm rain rate from MODIS cloud information Motivation DER at cloud base shows a wider spectrum than DER at cloud top. DER at cloud base is small for developing cloud and large for mature cloud. DER at cloud base shows a wider spectrum than DER at cloud top. DER at cloud base is small for developing cloud and large for mature cloud. AMSR-E data AMSR-E Rain rate estimation from GPROF algorithm. AMSR-E Rain rate estimation on 01/01/2003 from GPROF algorithm. Fig.1 Probability Density Function of re1 and re2 Raining/Non-raining Cloud Identification The larger DER, the more opportunity of raining. DER at cloud base ( r e2 ) larger than 20um indicates rain. The larger DER, the more opportunity of raining. DER at cloud base ( r e2 ) larger than 20um indicates rain. Physically, means droplet at cloud top drizzles, but it may evaporate and can not form rain unless the DER at cloud base is large enough Physically, means droplet at cloud top drizzles, but it may evaporate and can not form rain unless the DER at cloud base is large enough Fig.2 Occurrence frequency of DER for raining/non-raining cloud a) DER at cloud top b) DER at cloud base c) Vertical DER variation Drizzling, but no rain Low-level liquid cloud Developing cloud Mature cloud Raining Fig. 4 Algorithm for drizzle detection and warm rain retrieval MODIS cloud parameters are matched to AMSR-E footprint covered by low level, liquid, and overcast cloud a b c abc d Fig. 3 shows warm rain rate is correlated with cloud top temperature, LWP, DER profile, and DER at cloud base Fig. 3 shows warm rain rate is correlated with cloud top temperature, LWP, DER profile, and DER at cloud base Cloud top temperature represents the available supersaturated water vapor for droplet growth Cloud top temperature represents the available supersaturated water vapor for droplet growth LWP represents the amount of liquid phase water for rain production LWP represents the amount of liquid phase water for rain production DER profile represents the droplet growth rate DER profile represents the droplet growth rate DER at cloud base represents the droplet size at cloud base DER at cloud base represents the droplet size at cloud base Regression with AMSR-E rain rate results Regression with AMSR-E rain rate results 20 is raining critical value of DER at cloud base 20 is raining critical value of DER at cloud base 30 is up-limit of cloud top temperature 30 is up-limit of cloud top temperature represents the efficiency of rain production from cloud LWP represents the efficiency of rain production from cloud LWP c a d b IR techniques utilize cloud top temperature and miss all warm rain IR techniques utilize cloud top temperature and miss all warm rain Microwave techniques measure cold rain globally & part of warm rain (overcast/heavy) over ocean Microwave techniques measure cold rain globally & part of warm rain (overcast/heavy) over ocean Average AMSR-E rain rate is 0.09mm/hr and occurs within 26% of grid boxes Average AMSR-E rain rate is 0.09mm/hr and occurs within 26% of grid boxes Average MODIS warm rain rate is mm/hr and occurs within 52% of grid boxes Average MODIS warm rain rate is mm/hr and occurs within 52% of grid boxes 38% of grid boxes have MODIS warm rain but no AMSR-E rain. These boxes contribute mm/hr warm rain to MODIS. This means AMSR-E misses more than 54% warm rain, because AMSR-E must also miss some warm rain in the other 14% grid boxes that contain MODIS warm rain. 38% of grid boxes have MODIS warm rain but no AMSR-E rain. These boxes contribute mm/hr warm rain to MODIS. This means AMSR-E misses more than 54% warm rain, because AMSR-E must also miss some warm rain in the other 14% grid boxes that contain MODIS warm rain. N Y N Y


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