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Bacon’s Rebellion ( 1676 - 1677) Nathaniel Bacon represents former indentured servants. Governor William Berkeley of Jamestown.

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Presentation on theme: "Bacon’s Rebellion ( 1676 - 1677) Nathaniel Bacon represents former indentured servants. Governor William Berkeley of Jamestown."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bacon’s Rebellion ( ) Nathaniel Bacon represents former indentured servants. Governor William Berkeley of Jamestown

2 Bacon’s Rebellion ( ) Nathaniel Bacon, representa a los antiguos sirvientes. Governor William Berkeley of Jamestown

3 Involved former indentured servants Not accepted in Jamestown Disenfranchised and unable to receive their land Gov. Berkeley would not defend settlements from Indian attacks

4 Involucrados ex funcionarios contratados No se aceptan en Jamestown Disenfranchised y no puede recibir su tierra El gobernador Berkeley no defendería los asentamientos de ataques de los indios

5 Nathaniel Bacon acts as the representative for rebels Gov. Berkeley refused to meet their conditions and erupts into a civil war. Bacon dies, Gov. Berkeley puts down rebellion and several rebels are hung Consequence of Bacon’s Rebellion Consequence of Bacon’s Rebellion Plantation owners gradually replaced indentured servants with African slaves because it was seen as a better investment in the long term than indentured servitude.

6 Nathaniel Bacon, actúa como representante de los rebeldes El gobernador Berkeley negó a cumplir sus condiciones y estalla en una guerra civil. Tocino muere, el gobernador Berkeley pone la rebelión y varios rebeldes se cuelgan Consequence of Bacon’s Rebellion Consequence of Bacon’s Rebellion. Los dueños de plantaciones reemplazados gradualmente sirvientes con los esclavos africanos, ya que fue visto como una mejor inversión a largo plazo que la servidumbre

7 By Coach Ketcham

8 8 In most of the French colonies, the tendency was for the settlers to merge their culture with the Indians. In this drawing, white settlers and Indians relaxed together at Vincennes, a French settlement established in the 1720s in what would be later known as the state of Indiana. Life in the French Colonies

9 9 En la mayor parte de las colonias francesas, la tendencia era que los colonos para combinar su cultura con los indios. En este dibujo, los colonos blancos y los indios se relajaron junto al Vincennes, una colonia francesa establecida en la década de 1720, en lo que sería más tarde conocido como el estado de Indiana. Life in the French Colonies

10 10 New France was more than double the size of British Colonies, yet much less populated British more interested in bringing settlers in from the mother country, French more interested in making Native Americans French citizens. They tended to treat Indians as equals and intermarried. French more interested in exploiting new lands economically French tended to develop stronger alliances with Indians Differences between French and British colonies

11 11 Nueva Francia fue más del doble del tamaño de las colonias británicas, sin embargo, mucho menos poblada Británica más interesados ​​ en traer colonos de la metrópoli francesa, más interesados ​​ en la toma de los nativos americanos a los ciudadanos franceses. Ellos tienden a tratar a los indios como iguales y se casaron. Francés más interesados ​​ en la explotación de nuevas tierras económicamente Francés tiende a desarrollar alianzas más fuertes con los indios Differences between French and British colonies

12 12 Disputed land claims in Western Pennsylvania in 1754 brought two of the greatest world powers to a conflict that spread in both the New World and in Europe. The French and Indian War

13 13 Las reivindicaciones de tierras en disputa en el oeste de Pennsylvania en 1754 trajo dos de las mayores potencias del mundo a un conflicto que se extendió tanto en el Nuevo Mundo y en Europa. The French and Indian War

14 Great Britain and the Iroquois Alliance - a formal agreement by two or more nations to act together in a cause French and Indian War: Alliances France, Spain (1762), Algonquins, and Hurons versus

15 Great Britain and the Iroquois Alliance - un acuerdo formal entre dos o más naciones a actuar juntos en una causa French and Indian War: Alliances France, Spain (1762), Algonquins, and Hurons versus

16 Conflicting claims over vast territories Control over St. Lawrence, Great Lakes, Mississippi and Gulf waterways. Religious differences – French Catholics vs. British and Protestants Control over lucrative beaver trade Grand Banks fishing rights Seething tension from prior wars Causes single click speaker to hear audio clip >>>>>

17 Afirmaciones contradictorias? Más vastos territorios -El control sobre St. Lawrence,? Grandes Lagos, el Mississippi? Y cursos de agua del Golfo. -Las diferencias religiosas -? Católicos franceses contra británicos y protestantes? -El control de la lucrativa? Comercio castor -Grandes Bancos derechos de pesca -Tensión hirviente de las guerras anteriores Causes single click speaker to hear audio clip >>>>>

18 Territorial Claims French explorers sent to make claims French expeditions sent to remove English settlers and build forts Forts became key focal points during the conflict

19 Territorial Claims Exploradores francés? Enviado a hacer afirmaciones -Expediciones francesas? Enviados para eliminar? Colonos ingleses y construir fortalezas? -Fuertes se convirtieron? Puntos focales clave? Durante el conflicto

20 Native American Involvement Did not form large alliances Fought amongst themselves American colonists great threat Treaty conflicts French allies: Algonquin, Lenape, Wyandot, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Shawnee British ally: Iroquois Confederacy

21 Native American Involvement No formar grandes alianzas Luchado entre ellos -Colonos americanos genial Amenaza conflictos Tratado -Aliados franceses: Algonquin, Lenape, Wyandot, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Shawnee Británico aliado: Confederación Iroquois

22 Commercial Interests: Beavers Beaver pelts sold in Europe at 20 times New World cost Large trading companies made fortunes French and English tried unsuccessfully to control the trade English trade goods preferred by Native Americans

23 Commercial Interests: Beavers Pieles de castor venden en? Europa en 20 veces? Nuevo coste Mundial Las grandes empresas comerciales? Fortunas hechas? Francés e Inglés? Intentaron sin éxito? Para controlar el comercio Productos de comercio inglés? Preferidos por los nativos americanos?

24 Commercial Interests: Fishing Grand Banks one of best fishing spots Located off the coast of Newfoundland near New France Fished since the arrival of the Portuguese in the 15 th Century

25 Commercial Interests: Fishing Grand Banks, uno de los mejores lugares de pesca -Situado frente a la costa De Terranova Cerca de Nueva Francia -Pesca desde el Llegada del Portuguesa en? El siglo 15

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27 Tensions from Past Wars YearNorth American WarEuropean WarResult 1689 – 1697 King William's War 1st Intercolonial War (in Quebec) War of the Grand Alliance War of the League of Augsburg Treaty of Ryswick (1697) 1702 – 1713 Queen Anne's War 2nd Intercolonial War War of the Spanish Succession (1701 – 1714) Treaty of Utrecht (1713) 1744 – 1748 King George's War 3rd Intercolonial War War of the Austrian Succession War of Jenkins' Ear (1740 – 1748) Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) 1754 – 1763 French and Indian War 4th Intercolonial War Seven Years' War (1756 – 1763) Treaty of Paris (1763)

28 Tensions from Past Wars YearNorth American WarEuropean WarResult 1689 – 1697 King William's War 1st Intercolonial War (in Quebec) War of the Grand Alliance War of the League of Augsburg Treaty of Ryswick (1697) 1702 – 1713 Queen Anne's War 2nd Intercolonial War War of the Spanish Succession (1701 – 1714) Treaty of Utrecht (1713) 1744 – 1748 King George's War 3rd Intercolonial War War of the Austrian Succession War of Jenkins' Ear (1740 – 1748) Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) 1754 – 1763 French and Indian War 4th Intercolonial War Seven Years' War (1756 – 1763) Treaty of Paris (1763)

29 What was Life Like in 1750? Life expectancy: 30 in South, 40 in North –Cholera, Small Pox, Yellow Fever, and Malaria killed thousands (mostly children) 500,000 slaves worked on plantations in the South Medical treatment non-existent, primitive

30 What was Life Like in 1750? Esperanza de vida: 30 en el sur, 40 en el norte de -El cólera, la viruela, la fiebre amarilla y la malaria Miles de muertos (La mayoría niños) esclavos trabajaron en Plantaciones en el Sur -El tratamiento médico Inexistente, Primitiva

31 The Combatants: Regulars Cavalry and cannon often attached to regular regiments British - best regular army Lead by career officers Beat militia on open battlefields Britain fielded 20,000 regulars, France around 6,000

32 Temporary soldiers who formed a reserve Normally used in a defensive roll inside their home territories Drafted, paid, and under command of states 35,000 participated Officers elected or politically appointed by states The Combatants: Militias George Washington a British-trained Militia Officer

33 The Combatants: Irregulars Specialized in ambush and sniping Independent, loyal only to their leaders Tough fighters Used as scouts Roger’s Rangers and Native Americans best examples

34 34

35 35 Duquesne (modern day Pittsburgh) was located at the convergence of three major rivers, the Ohio, the Allegheny, and the Monongahela. Long seen by both the French and British as the key to the rich farmlands and settlement opportunities in the Ohio River Valley, both France and England laid claim to the area. When the British found that the fort had been built, a young officer by the name of George Washington was dispatched to warn the French to get out of the area. Duquesne was claimed by the French and the British

36 36 George Washington, a 22 year old militia officer, was sent by the British to deliver the ultimatum to the French. Washington constructed an outpost approximately 60 miles from Duquesne called “Fort Necessity” Fort Necessity

37 37 Attack at Jumonville Glen "I fortunately escaped without any wound, for the right wing, where I stood, was exposed to and received all the enemy's fire, and it was the part where the man was killed, and the rest wounded. I heard the bullets whistle, and, believe me there is something charming in the sound." --George Washington  The first skirmish between the French and Washington’s men took place not far from the fort.  Washington and Indian allies attacked a French position at a location known as Jumonville Glen. Within a few minutes, 10 Frenchmen were killed and 21 wounded.  A few days later the French retaliated against Washington’s position, and Washington surrendered Fort Necessity.  Washington became embroiled in controversy because the surrender document written by an interpreter incorrectly deemed the French diplomats instead of combatants, making Washington a murderer.

38 The Battles continued… Battle of the Great Meadows –July 3, 1754 –Known as the Battle of Fort Necessity –Washington constructs a weak fort near French Fort Duquesne –Tanaghrisson and his Native Americans abandon Washington –Captain de Villiers leads 700 to defeat Washington's 300 in a short siege single click speaker to hear audio clip >>>>>

39 39  The next year in 1755, British General Edward Braddock was ordered to attack the French stronghold at Fort Duquesne. Assigned as his aide was George Washington.  Braddock and his 1500 men were confident they could take the fort, but they were ambushed outside the gates by French soldiers and their Native American allies.  During the battle, Braddock and his staff were killed with the exception of Washington.  The British defeat at Fort Duquesne was only the first of many losses suffered during the period of British attack on Fort Duquesne

40 40 The French were initially victorious over the British military. However this changed dramatically when King George III picked new leaders to run the British government. William Pitt, as prime minister, put together a massive army of 50,000 men to fight the French, but had to borrow a large amount of money to do so. Prime Minister William Pitt

41 41 Battle of Quebec Wolfe (British) Montcalm (French) The commanders

42 42 The battle was fought outside the city of Quebec on the “Plains of Abraham” Wolfe had 4800 men under his command, Montcalm, 4000 Wolfe’s men scaled cliffs protecting the city and surprised Montcalm. Montcalm could have evacuated the city, but elected instead to fight Wolfe’s men British losses in the battle were 58 killed, 600 wounded French losses were 644 men killed or wounded Both Wolfe and Montcalm were killed in the battle Battle ended in a decisive British victory The Battle of Quebec

43 43 The British victory caused the French to surrender Benjamin West painted this portrait of the death of Wolfe

44 44  Ended the French and Indian War  France ceded Canada and all land claims east of the Mississippi River to England  France kept the island colony of Guadeloupe  Spain received Louisiana and New Orleans from the French, Cuba was restored to Spain  Spain temporarily ceded Florida to the British Treaty of Paris 1763

45 45  France lost most of its overseas empire  The size of British holdings in North America doubled with the acquisition of Canada and territory to the Mississippi River  The British treasury went deep into debt to pay expenses for the war. Eventually they tried to pay for much of the expense of the war by taxing the Thirteen Colonies, which led to the American Revolution  The French sought ways to maintain the “balance of power” in Europe by undermining Britain’s power whenever possible. This led them later to support the colonists in the American Revolution  While the British saw their empire grow substantially, they also found that it became increasingly difficult to manage such a large territorial area  Britain became the dominant world power at that time Impact of the war

46 46 Pontiac’s Rebellion Various Indian tribes, concerned with the number of British soldiers entering the Ohio River valley region, united behind Ottawa Chief Pontiac in an attempt to reclaim lands for Native Americans. Indians were successful in capturing eight British forts, but were weakened when British officers gave them smallpox-infected blankets during peace negotiations. They eventually entered into treaties with the British, and gave up control of the lands they’d taken.

47 47 Faced with a difficult task of guarding an expansive empire in the New World, King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763, which restricted settlement to the east of a line drawn at the Appalachian Mountains. The Proclamation also sought to stop the exploitative sale of Indian land. The purpose of the Proclamation was to forestall further frontier warfare after Pontiac’s Rebellion. Proclamation of 1763

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49 Albany Plan of Union The Albany Plan of Union, proposed by Benjamin Franklin and Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson, called for colonial unity in the face of the coming war with France.

50 None of the colonies approved the plan out of fear of losing power. The Albany Plan of Union called for a Grand Council with representatives from each colony. The Grand Council would: - make laws - raise taxes - defend the colonies * The Albany Plan of Union set an example that would later be followed by such gatherings as the First and Second Continental Congress.

51 The Treaty of Paris was signed in 1763, ending the war. Spain gave up Florida to Britain. French and Indian WarFrench and Indian War: Effects The Treaty of Paris Britain gained Canada and all of the French land east of the Mississippi River. Spain gained all of the French land west of the Mississippi River.

52 Prior to the French and Indian War After the French and Indian War

53 The Battles continued… Braddock's Campaign –Begins May 29, 1755 –Braddock tries to capture Fort Duquesne –Benjamin Franklin provides logistics help –George Washington acts as Aide-de-Camp to Braddock –Thomas Gage participates Later Governor of Montreal and leader of British in 1776

54 The Battles Interlude: Musket Inefficient precursor to modern rifle Bayonet equipped to repel cavalry –Fired a heavy ¾ inch diameter lead ball only accurate at under 100 yards –Muzzle loading limited its rate of fire to 2 to 3 shots per minute –Cumbersome, heavy and unreliable, especially in rain Soldiers fired in unison at short range, usually 40 yards or less

55 Aftermath of War England now largest colonial empire in the world The Colonists are independence minded under British rule North America most prosperous area on earth The French still continue to inhabit areas around Quebec and Montreal

56 Casualties and Cost of the War Britain raised taxes which led to Revolution in 1776 Pensions paid to war widows and disabled until late 1880s War refugees frequently died from exposure

57 Albany Plan of Union The Albany Plan of Union, proposed by Benjamin Franklin and Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson, called for colonial unity in the face of the coming war with France.

58 None of the colonies approved the plan out of fear of losing power. The Albany Plan of Union called for a Grand Council with representatives from each colony. The Grand Council would: - make laws - raise taxes - defend the colonies * The Albany Plan of Union set an example that would later be followed by such gatherings as the First and Second Continental Congress.

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61 The French and Indian War CauseEffect

62 England and France break off diplomatic relations. England goes into debt. England wins the war. England and France fight over ownership of land in North America. England forces colonists to pay taxes. France and Native Americans become allies. France gives up rights to land in North America.


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