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Data Sources Sources Variables Directobservations& Field notes Participantobservations& Surveys InformalTalks SoftwareEffectiveness Students'Perception.

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Presentation on theme: "Data Sources Sources Variables Directobservations& Field notes Participantobservations& Surveys InformalTalks SoftwareEffectiveness Students'Perception."— Presentation transcript:

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17 CALL software is more effective when explicit teaching is given during the practice. CALL software is more effective when explicit teaching is given during the practice. Using the software alone was shown not to be effective when practicing pronunciation; instead, the use of strategies along with the software was highly effective when using CALL to practice pronunciation. Using the software alone was shown not to be effective when practicing pronunciation; instead, the use of strategies along with the software was highly effective when using CALL to practice pronunciation. The implementation of these strategies also helped students enjoy their practice and take advantage of these tools not only for the practice inside the laboratory but outside in any other context. The implementation of these strategies also helped students enjoy their practice and take advantage of these tools not only for the practice inside the laboratory but outside in any other context. It is very important to be aware of the stage of language development the students are at, before practicing with the CALL software. It is very important to be aware of the stage of language development the students are at, before practicing with the CALL software. The CALL environment in which pronunciation is practiced, affects they way students perform. The CALL environment in which pronunciation is practiced, affects they way students perform.

18 If students want to practice their pronunciation, lab teachers should pay attention to the student’s performance in order to make this practice more guided with spaces for explicit teaching and support. If students want to practice their pronunciation, lab teachers should pay attention to the student’s performance in order to make this practice more guided with spaces for explicit teaching and support. Before students begin their pronunciation practice with the software mentioned, the lab teachers or lab assistant should give these students a set of learning strategies to complement and enhance their practice. Before students begin their pronunciation practice with the software mentioned, the lab teachers or lab assistant should give these students a set of learning strategies to complement and enhance their practice. Lab teachers should be aware of the students’ English level before letting them practice with the software. Lab teachers should be aware of the students’ English level before letting them practice with the software. The multimedia lab or any CALL environment should have a space for pronunciation practice only; therefore, students can practice in a more confident way. The multimedia lab or any CALL environment should have a space for pronunciation practice only; therefore, students can practice in a more confident way. A letter will be sent to the creators of Tell Me More, to have in mind the findings of this study for future versions of the software. A letter will be sent to the creators of Tell Me More, to have in mind the findings of this study for future versions of the software.

19 Reed and Railsback (2003) Process of sequential stages of language development According to the data gathered in this study, these students might not have been able to have a good practice with the software, simply because they were not cognitively ready. Krashen (2003) Speaking out in a new language can result in anxiety, embarrassment or anger because of public practice Many students stopped their practice or repeated the sentences in a low tone of voice in order not to be heard or feel embarrassed

20 Chapelle & Jamieson (2008) In order to help students become autonomous and efficient when practicing pronunciation through CALL, teachers can provide them with strategies. A group of students was provided with strategies in order to enhance their pronunciation. The study disclosed that these students, in comparison with the students that did not use any strategy at all, had an excellent practice with the software Once students were given the strategies, they used them for their pronunciation practice with the software, but they also used them for any other English practice they had inside and outside the laboratory.

21 Cummins (1981) Context-embedded instruction provides several communicative supports to students In this study the tools provided to the students as strategies were context-embedded Deterding (2005) ESL learners should be exposed to a variety of pronunciation varieties Deterding (2005) ESL learners should be exposed to a variety of pronunciation varieties

22 Derwing, Munro, and Wiebe (1998) Students who received explicit instruction when using CALL improved pronunciation In the secondary study that was conducted, students that were taught explicitly had a good and efficient practice.

23 Chapelle & Jamieson (2008) A critique made to CALL is the replacement of teachers by computers This review of studies, theory and findings showed that teachers and technology can be a great complement to one another when teaching pronunciation.

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25 References Baker, C. (2001). Cognitive Theories of Bilingualism and the Curriculum. In C. Baker, Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism (3rd ed.). Clevedon, U.K.: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Chapelle, C. & Jamieson, J. (2008). Tips for Teaching with CALL, Practical Approaches to Computer- Assisted Language Learning. San Francisco: Pearson Longman. Cummins, J. (1981). Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency, Retrieved March 10, 2009 from: Derwing, T. M., Munro, M. J., & Wiebe, G. (1998). Evidence in favor of a broad framework for pronunciation instruction. Language Learning, 48, Deterding, D. (2005). Listening to Estuary English in Singapore. TESOL Quarterly, 39, Fledge, J. (1995). Second language speech learning: theory findings, and problems. Speech perception and linguistic experience. Baltimore, MD: York Press. Hardison, D. (2004). Generalization of computer assisted prosody training: Quantitative and qualitative findings. Language Learning & Technology, Jenkins, J. (2002). A sociolinguistically based, empirically researched pronunciation syllabus for English as an international language. Applied Linguistics, 23, Krashen, S. (1981). Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Retrieved May 5, 2007 from MacDonald, D., Yule, G., & Powers, M. (1994). Attempts to improve English L2 pronunciation: The variable effects of different types of instruction. Language learning, 44, O’Brien, M. G. (2006). Teaching pronunciation and intonation with computer technology. San Marcos, TX: CALICO. TX: CALICO. Railsback, J. & Reed, B. (2003). Strategies and Resources for Mainstream Teachers of English Language Learners: Overview of Second Language Acquisition Theory. Retrieved October 4, 2008 from Schmitt, N., & Carter, R. (Eds.). (2004). Formulaic sequences in action: An introduction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford, UK: Oxford University press.


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