Presentation on theme: "6.6 Canals and Command Area Structures. (1) Canals in Spate Schemes traditional systems are diverted to short, steep canals in the upstream areas (with."— Presentation transcript:
6.6 Canals and Command Area Structures
(1) Canals in Spate Schemes traditional systems are diverted to short, steep canals in the upstream areas (with considerable slope) In downstream area (with low slope and less heavy sediment content) water is guided gently split flows to reduce flood discharges to manageable flow rates gates not used; control of flows by proportional dividers and by small earthen canal bunds
Traditional channels in spate areas Mid-land spate areas Lowland spate areas SlopeSteep to flatVery flat alluvial soils Sediment loadMixed – including coarse sediment Mainly fine silts Type of canalsShort and steepGently guiding water – sometimes trees in channels help to slow and stabilize Main challenge is to prevent heavy sediment deposition in channels Main challenge is to prevent erosion of channels
Bed slopes of traditional canals in the original (before modernization) Wadi Zabid system in Yemen. Canal Maximum capacity (m 3 /s) Average bed slope (m/km) Mansury403.8 Rayyan603.7 Bagr403.7 Gerhazi503.9 Mawi604.8 Example: Canals in Spate Schemes in Upstream Area
Canal design In the first systems that were modernised lower canal slopes than observed in traditional systems were provided. Limited sediment transporting capacity in canals = severe canal sedimentation problems = high/unaffordable maintenance requirements.
Desilting a canal head reach – immense work if one gets it wrong
Water distribution In some early schemes water distribution systems similar to those used in perennial schemes were adopted where water is supplied to numerous field outlets at the same time. Farmers then head up flows at undersized outlets, promoting canal sedimentation.
Farmers check structure
Silted field outlet
Silted undersized crossing structure
(2) Spate canal design methods
Spate canal design methods No scouring – no silting” criteria – not for spate “Regime” design methods mostly for canals carrying low sediment loads but Simons and Albertson method include equations for canals with sand beds and cohesive banks, carrying “heavy” sediment loads – have been used in spate systems Rational methods provide the most logical method of designing canals to achieve a specified sediment transporting capacity. Chang, 1985 method provides predictions of slopes and bed widths that are similar to that observed in many spate systems SHARC package for canal design
Use canal surveys to aid design in modernised schemes Canal designs in modernised schemes are best based on the slopes and cross sections of (stable) existing canals. Design of enlarged, extended or new canals can then be derived using the Chang equation, with a judicious choice of input parameters to provide a good match with the slopes and cross sections observed in existing canals.
(3) Command area structures Check and drop structures; Flow splitting structures; Field offtakes; and In-field structures (see also module 4)
Gabion Distribution Structures Advantages: Stabilize the channel bed Proportional distribution of the flow Disadvantages Downstream scour and gullying may undermine the structure Gabions may be difficult to repair (gabion mats not easily available)
Model 1: Flow divider Flow approaches Distribution can be adjusted with brushwood
Flow divider Advantages Easy to adjust flow distribution Not sensitive to gullying Disadvantages Only works where soil is hard and stony – otherwise it creates scour and erosion of banks
Model 2: Flow distribution structure
The downsteam apron should be long and deep enough to withstand the upstream formation of gullies Important to survey channel bed downstream and check for gullies SOME HINTS
Use of geotextiles Use of geotextile underneath gabions SOME HINTS Prevents wash-out of fine materials underneath the gabions, which can lead to overturning
Geotextile inside gabion mattrass SOME HINTS
CASE OF LOWLAND COMMAND FLOW DIVISION MOCHIWAL, DI KHAN, PAKISTAN
In lowland spate irrigation a main challenge is to spread water gently over a command area, thus maintaining manageable velocities in the flood channels and avoid the floodwater going to low-lying areas quickly.
The spreading of these large quantities of flood water can often be achieved with simple and low cost structures
Case: Mochiwal Flow Division Darabam Zam Mochiwal Division Point North channel: -500 ha -low lying area West Canal: ha
Problem in the past Darabam Zam An earthen bund was built at this division point. However it would break quickly and all water would disappear into North Channel, making it impossible to control water here (all channel bunds broken quickly), while leaving no water for West Channel. North channel: -500 ha -low lying area West Canal: ha
Considerable damage in downstream area of North Channel
Solution Solution: Flow Division Structure North Channel West Channel The flow division structure allows both channels to be irrigated with flood water at the same time, letting in a manageable flow into North Channel as well as West Channel
Flow division structure: -Three gated gates, one open -Initially use of stoplogs but replaced with gates and hoisting gear
Cost: -USD 2000 Benefit ha -USD 20,000 a year!
This spectacular impact was due to the selection of this very crucial site as well as a good design. The site selection was done by experienced farmers. Farmer contributed to cost of structure and are maintaining the site.
Discuss and agree the water distribution structures with the representative and authorized group of water users: location proportion design General principle!
Acknowledgement This presentation was prepared with thanks to: Tzegai Teklemariam WRRI DI Khan Team Philip Lawrence Ian MacAnderson