Presentation on theme: "Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue"— Presentation transcript:
1Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue UNIT 3, Part 3Issues of IdentityClick the mouse button or press the space bar to continue
2Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu. Unit 3, Part 3MAIN MENUIssues of Identity (pages 664–695)We Are FamilyClick a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu.
3Selection Menu (pages 664–667) Before You ReadReading the SelectionAfter You Read
4BEFORE YOU READPreview the ArticleIn “We Are Family,” writer Chang-rae Lee comments on the unshakable bond between his relatives in Korea and himself.From the title, what do you think the author values?Skim the first paragraph. What mood do you think the author is trying to establish?
5Set a Purpose for Reading BEFORE YOU READSet a Purpose for ReadingRead to discover Chang-rae Lee’s identification with his Korean family and culture.
6BEFORE YOU READAnalyzing Cultural ContextWhen you analyze cultural context, you consider the customs, beliefs, values, arts, and intellectual activities of a group of people and use this knowledge to better understand the theme or message of a literary work.
7BEFORE YOU READAnalyzing Cultural ContextTo understand the cultural context of this selection, consider the cultural characteristics of the author’s experiences in Korea and in the United States.
8BEFORE YOU READAnalyzing Cultural ContextReading Tip: Taking Notes As you read, take notes using a two-column chart like the one on the next slide.
10READING THE SELECTIONIssues of Identity Consider the following idea as you read. As a Korean American, Lee lives in and experiences two cultures simultaneously. What are the ways in which Lee introduces his American readers to Korean culture?
11READING THE SELECTIONAnswer: Lee makes several references to Korean food; he describes Korean burial practices; he refers to a “distinctive Korean mother-style scold.
12READING THE SELECTIONIssues of Identity Read the second complete paragraph on page 666. In what ways might being around his family in South Korea be a relief to Lee?Answer: He implies that he does not have to explain himself “in customary ways” and that around his cousins, he did not feel like an “ethnic,” or an outsider.
14Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRespondWhy do you think Lee opens his article with a description of his grandfather’s gravesite?
15Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRespondAnswer: He is setting up the idea of family connections. He also introduces the topic of loss that is prevalent throughout the piece. He mentions the alienation he felt from knowing and not knowing his grandfather, which is similar to his relationships with many of his other relatives.
16Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) How did Lee react to the names of his late family members on the black granite headstone? (b) Why do you think this reaction is significant?
17Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and InterpretAnswer: (a) Lee reacted in awe. He felt it was “remarkable” and “wonderful.” (b) It contrasts with his Korean relatives, who think of the tradition as ordinary, and shows how an outsider may have a richer appreciation of cultural traditions. It also emphasizes the theme of family bonds.
18Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) What might have made Lee feel like an outsider in the town in which he was raised? (b) How do you think being an outsider influenced Lee’s perspective on family?
19Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and InterpretAnswer: (a) He was one of only a few Korean Americans in a mostly white American town. (b) It seemed to instill in him a greater longing to understand his heritage.
20Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and InterpretWhat were Lee’s ties to his Korean heritage?Answer: His ties included his family, a taste for spicy food, and being able to understand some Korean.
21Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and Evaluate(a) How does Lee approach the subject of loss in the article? (b) What does he learn or gain from his losses?
22Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and EvaluateAnswer: (a) He speaks of the loss of some of his Korean relatives as well as of his mother. He also experiences a sense of loss because he does not speak Korean well and is not able to visit his Korean relatives often. (b) He learns the importance of family and cultural connections. He gains a sense of his identity.
23Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and EvaluateLee does not follow a traditional structure in his writing. It is not chronological or sequential. What techniques does he use to organize the article? Support your answer with examples from the text.
24Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and EvaluateAnswer: He uses flashbacks—one is the memory of visiting his father’s grave, and another is the memory of his family in the state of New York. He uses images, such as those
25Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyConnectLee comments that he did not have to explain himself to his relatives “as a teacher and writer and maybe (if there really is such a person) as an Asian American.” Why do you think he says this about the Asian American identity?
26Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyConnectAnswer: He discusses how he straddles both worlds of being an American and a Korean. His connection to his Korean heritage is strong, despite the small amount of time he has spent in Korea. He finds being an Asian American a difficult identity to inhabit because he straddles two cultures.
28Click a selection title or feature to go to the corresponding section. COMPARING LITERATURE MENUClick a selection title or feature to go to the corresponding section.
29Selection Menu (pages 669–674) Before You ReadReading the SelectionAfter You Read
30Click the picture to learn about the author. BEFORE YOU READMeet Langston HughesClick the picture to learn about the author.
31Connecting to the Poems BEFORE YOU READConnecting to the PoemsMost of Hughes’s poems are framed by his experiences of being an African American and a resident of Harlem during its cultural renaissance.
32Connecting to the Poems BEFORE YOU READConnecting to the PoemsBefore you read the poems, think about the following questions:What does Hughes reveal about the African American experience during his time?How much power do published words have to bring about change in people’s lives?
33BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundHughes was a champion at using language to convey his thoughts. In his poems, he portrayed the African American experience in the mid 1900s. During this time, many African Americans had dreams that went unrealized because of racism. Hughes used poetry to provoke awareness of the many frustrations felt by African Americans.
34Setting a Purpose for Reading BEFORE YOU READSetting a Purpose for ReadingIssues of IdentityAs you read, notice how Hughes expresses his thoughts in a style that displays a distinctively African American musical quality, reminiscent of jazz music.
35Setting a Purpose for Reading BEFORE YOU READSetting a Purpose for ReadingRhyme and Rhyme SchemeRhyme is the repetition of the same stressed vowel sounds and any succeeding sounds in two or more words. Rhyme scheme is the pattern that end rhymes (rhymes occurring at the ends of lines of poetry) form in a stanza or poem..
36Setting a Purpose for Reading BEFORE YOU READSetting a Purpose for ReadingRhyme and Rhyme SchemeRhyme scheme is designated by the assignment of a different letter of the alphabet to each new rhyme. As you read the poems, examine how Hughes uses rhyme and rhyme scheme to help him convey his message.
37BEFORE YOU READMaking Inferences About ThemeTo make inferences about theme is to draw a conclusion about the overall meaning of a literary work based on textual evidence and your background knowledge.
38BEFORE YOU READMaking Inferences About ThemeMaking inferences, or “reading between the lines,” can increase your understanding of a poem’s central meaning. As you read, ask yourself questions about the main points to help you find the poem’s central meaning.
39BEFORE YOU READMaking Inferences About ThemeReading Tip: Questioning Create a chart like the one on the next slide to organize your ideas through questioning as you read the poems.
40Making Inferences About Theme BEFORE YOU READMaking Inferences About Theme
41Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition. BEFORE YOU READdeferred v. put off, postponed (p. 673) Tom deferred his loan payment until he received a check from his employer.fester v. to become increasingly infected or inflamed, rot (p. 673) The man let the cut on his leg fester until he developed a dangerous infection.Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
43READING THE SELECTIONIssues of Identity Keep the following questions in mind as you read. Who is the speaker in each poem? Where does the speaker search for identity?Answer: The speaker may be Hughes himself. He seems to be searching for identity within music and dreams.
44READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyMaking Inferences About Theme Read the text highlighted in blue on page 671. Why does the speaker ask if it’s “a happy beat” and if “something underneath” is heard?Answer: Because the beat is a blues for “a dream deferred”
45READING THE SELECTIONIssues of Identity Read the text highlighted in tan on page 671. What do you think Hughes suggests in the concluding lines beginning with “I’m happy”?Answer: The speaker finds solace or happiness in the boogie beat of his people, or the group with whom he identifies.
46READING THE SELECTIONLiterary ElementRhyme and Rhyme Scheme Read the text highlighted in purple on page 672. What is the rhyme scheme in this stanza?Answer: The rhyme scheme is abcb. You should notice that the second and fourth lines rhyme.
47READING THE SELECTIONIssues of Identity Read the last two lines of the poem on page 672. If the speaker wants to fight against the plight of African Americans in his time, why might he have this motto?Answer: It sounds as if he believes in nonconfrontational methods rather than direct protest.
48Issues of Identity Why would the people of Harlem defer their dreams? READING THE SELECTIONIssues of Identity Why would the people of Harlem defer their dreams?Answer: They were forced into poor conditions by racial discrimination. They deferred their dreams to focus on day-to-day survival. There was neither time nor money to pursue their dreams.
49READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyMaking Inferences about Theme Read the last line of the poem on page 673. How could an explosive dream be either positive or negative?Answer: It could be positive if it were an instigator of social improvement, such as a revolution against an oppressive system. It could be negative if it resulted in a senseless and regrettable act of violence.
51Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRespondIf you could ask Langston Hughes one question about his poetry, what would it be?Answer: You should reflect thoughtfully on the poems.
52Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) In “Motto,” how does the speaker say that he stays alive? (b) What does this suggest to you about his situation in life?Answer: (a) He “plays it cool and digs all jive.” (b) He does not lose his head and agrees with what people say.
53Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) In “Motto,” what are the speaker’s actual words for the motto? (b) Rephrase the motto in your own words.Answer: (a) “Dig And Be Dug/In Return.” (b) “Live and let live.”
54Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) What is the final question in “Harlem”? (b) What might this question mean?Answer: (a) “Or does it explode?” (b) Deferred dreams could result in violent action.
55Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and Evaluate(a) In “Dream Boogie,” what questions does the speaker ask the audience? (b) What is their effect on the poem? Explain.Answer: (a) “You think / “It’s a happy beat?” and, “What did I say?” (b) They suggest that the beat is not actually “happy.”
56Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and EvaluateIn “Harlem,” how effective are the images Hughes creates in conveying what happens to a “dream deferred”?Answer: The images are distasteful and therefore apt.
57Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and EvaluateIn “Dream Boogie,” why does Hughes deviate from the rhyme scheme in some lines of the poem?Answer: To hold the reader’s attention and enhance the rhythm.
58Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyConnectIssues of IdentityWhat does Hughes mean when he refers to a deferred dream? Explain.Answer: Hughes is talking about the dreams of individuals, African American people, and the residents of Harlem.
59AFTER YOU READRhyme and Rhyme SchemeMany different types of rhyme schemes exist in poetry. Established poets such as Hughes can take liberties with rhyme scheme for added meaning and innovation.
60How is simile used as part of the rhyme scheme in “Harlem”? AFTER YOU READRhyme and Rhyme SchemeHow is simile used as part of the rhyme scheme in “Harlem”?Answer: Rhetorical questions rhyme and include similes.
61Answer: They connect the reader to the sounds of Harlem. AFTER YOU READRhyme and Rhyme SchemeHow do you think the rhyme schemes affect the meanings of Hughes’s poems?Answer: They connect the reader to the sounds of Harlem.
62Writing About Literature AFTER YOU READWriting About LiteratureEvaluate Author’s Craft In these poems, Hughes conveys his ideas about African American life in a jazz beat style. Write an essay describing this technique as Hughes applies it. Include your opinion of whether or not you think his presentation is effective.
63Writing About Literature AFTER YOU READWriting About LiteratureRefer to ideas, phrases, and lines from each of the three poems you have read. When you have finished your draft, exchange it with another student. Evaluate each other’s work and suggest revisions. Then proofread and edit your draft for errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation.
64AFTER YOU READMaking Inferences About ThemeLooking at the words and phrases in a poem can help you make inferences about theme. A poet may convey his or her ideas in subtle ways. As you read, pay attention to the style of each poem. Think about meanings that are implied but not stated.
65What theme is conveyed in this body of poetry? AFTER YOU READMaking Inferences About ThemeWhat theme is conveyed in this body of poetry?Answer: The deferred dreams of people, specifically African Americans confined because of racial prejudice.
66In support of your opinion, list two details from the poems. AFTER YOU READMaking Inferences About ThemeIn support of your opinion, list two details from the poems.Answer: Possible detail: “Or does it explode?”
67AFTER YOU READPracticePractice with Word Parts Your knowledge of word roots can help you understand unfamiliar words. Read the roots and definitions on the next slide. Then use your knowledge of roots, prefixes, and suffixes to pick the best definition for each vocabulary word.
68Latin Root: deferred—“to carry away” or “to transfer” AFTER YOU READPracticeLatin Root: deferred—“to carry away” or “to transfer”Latin Root: fistula—“pipe, ulcer”
69AFTER YOU READPracticeVijay deferred his plans of becoming a rock star until after he finished college.postponedabandonedfollowed
70AFTER YOU READPracticeMy mother put antibiotic cream on my cut to ensure that the wound would not fester.frightenhealbecome infected
72Selection Menu (pages 675–676) Before You ReadReading the Selection
73BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundAfrican American artists and writers, such as Maya Angelou, highly regard poet Jayne Cortez as a voice of her culture and era. Critics have praised Cortez because she “forged connections in her work that help us see how our histories are related.” Much of her poetry addresses social problems in the United States and the world.
74BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundCortez was born in Arizona, raised in California, and now lives in New York City. She has written ten books of poetry and her poems have been translated into twenty-eight languages. Additionally, she founded her own publishing company, Bola Press, in Cortez’s many awards and honors include the American Book Award, the International African Festival Award, and fellowships from the National Endowment for the Arts and the New York Foundation for the Arts.
75BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundMusic is part of both Cortez’s personal and professional life. Her husband, Ornette Coleman, is a jazz musician. Cortez herself is a member of a jazz and funk band, The Firespitters, whose other members include her son, Denardo. In fact, Cortez does not just write and publish her poetry: she also performs it with The Firespitters, with whom she has released nine recordings.
76BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundIn “Jazz Fan Looks Back,” Cortez displays her impressive knowledge of jazz music and history. In the poem, she cleverly associates several jazz musicians with some of their most popular compositions or tunes that they were known for playing. For example, the first line of the poem contains an allusion to jazz composer and pianist Thelonius Monk and his composition “Criss Cross.”
77BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundShe also refers to jazz pianist Bud Powell and his composition “Wail,” saxophonist Sonny Stitt and his frequent tune “Count Every Star,” and trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie and his composition “Groovin’ High.” In other lines, she skillfully relates musicians and their memorable personalities, behaviors, or talents: she references the gardenia flower that singer Billie Holiday was famous for wearing in her hair while performing and the wide vocal range that singer Dinah Washington could “scream.”
78BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundFinally, she clues her audience into the nicknames of other famous jazz artists: saxophonist and bandleader Charlie “Bird” Parker, tenor saxophonist Coleman “Hawk” Hawkins, and trumpeter “Fats” Navarro. To complete the mood of a jazz fan reminiscing, she mentions the Shrine Auditorium, a famous venue in Los Angeles.
80READING THE SELECTIONIssues of Identity Keep the following question in mind as you read. How is the speaker’s identity intertwined with music?Answer: The speaker’s identity seems wrapped up in music; the speaker is such a dedicated jazz fan that she feels as if she participates in the playing of the music with the musicians.
82Selection Menu (pages 677–680) Before You ReadReading the Selection
83BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundStuds Terkel is a New York City-born writer. After moving to Chicago, he began his career writing radio shows and ads, eventually hosting his own radio interview series. The show became a place for Terkel to highlight his love for all kinds of music, from jazz to blues to opera.
84BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundGiants of Jazz, from which this Dizzy Gillespie chapter is taken, was Terkel’s first book. It contains biographies of thirteen jazz greats. Giants of Jazz was reprinted in 2002 and still sells well, fifty years after its initial publication. Studs Terkel continues to write, interview, and maintain a public presence. Studs Terkel was born in 1912.
86READING THE SELECTIONIssues of Identity Keep the following questions in mind as you read. What does it take to become a successful musician? How can innovation be difficult?Answer: You might say it takes hard work, persistence, and spirit to become a successful musician. Innovation can be difficult because of rejection.
87READING THE SELECTIONIssues of Identity How might exposure to so many other artists help Gillespie form his own identity as a musician?Answer: He could bring a new sound and depth to a musical style steeped in tradition. By developing his own unique sound and influencing others, Gillespie’s name could become associated with a style of music.
88READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtLook at the photograph on page Why might Gillespie’s innovative style have irritated some musicians?
89READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtAnswer: They were surprised by his inventiveness. They were so rooted in tradition that they didn’t like the sound of something new. Perhaps they thought he was showing off. Perhaps they were just jealous of his ability.
90READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyMaking Inferences about Theme What can you infer about the theme based on Terkel’s inclusion of this quotation?Answer: Terkel wants to make the point that Gillespie was a man of the people and a believer in the unifying powers of music.
92Selection Menu (pages 681 –684) Before You ReadReading the Selection
93BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundEight-time Grammy Award winner Wynton Marsalis is arguably one of the best jazz musicians and trumpeters today.
94BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundA classical musician as well, he has recorded the music of Bach, Beethoven, and Mozart to great critical acclaim. He has also played with some of the most highly regarded orchestras in the United States and the world.
95BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundMarsalis began publicly performing traditional New Orleans jazz when he was just eight years old. Marsalis describes his music as being the sound of democracy, a concept he was introduced to by jazz great Art Blakey. According to Marsalis, “The jazz band works best when participation is shaped by intelligent communication.” His jazz artistry continues to inspire budding musicians today.
97READING THE SELECTIONIssues of Identity Keep the following questions in mind as you read. How can I apply Marsalis’s “bases” to my own interests?Answer: Answers will vary. The “bases” are applicable to pretty much anything.
98READING THE SELECTIONIssues of Identity Read the second complete paragraph on page 683. According to Marsalis, how is good music connected to identity?Answer: Music is made good by the player’s unique approach to playing. This unique approach is the musician’s identity.
99READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyMaking Inferences about Theme Read the fifth complete paragraph on page 683. What might Marsalis be trying to accomplish by corresponding with a young musician?
100READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyAnswer: Some may say that Marsalis wants to tap into the uninhibited freedom of expression the younger musician may still have. Others may say that Marsalis wants to impart the valuable wisdom he has learned over the years.
101READING THE SELECTIONIssues of Identity Read the first complete paragraph on page 684. Marsalis calls swing “a democratic and quintessential American concept.” What might he mean by this?
102READING THE SELECTIONAnswer: Swing involves individual and highly personal expression as well as maintaining identity in the face of change. Playing swing in an ensemble creates a constantly shifting balance of power to which all members contribute.
104WRAP-UPComparing theIssues of IdentityWriting Jazz may be the only major art form that truly originated in the United States. Jazz involves several forms of music—African rhythms and American band music—blended with some European influence.
105WRAP-UPComparing theIssues of IdentityThe best jazz music involves improvisation. Creating new music during a performance is what tends to separate the true jazz musician from those who can play only the notes written in a musical score.
106WRAP-UPComparing theIssues of IdentityMany musicians, as well as aficionados, have found their identities in jazz. Think about the selections you have just read. Compare these writers in terms of the subjects they discuss. Are the writers alike in some ways? What makes each writer unique? How has music, specifically jazz, affected each writer?
107WRAP-UPComparingSound DevicesGroup Activity Sound devices are techniques used by a writer to make a literary work more appealing to the ear. Form small groups to discuss the questions on the following slides.
108WRAP-UPComparingSound DevicesWhat sound devices did you notice in the poetry you read? How do you feel about each poet’s use of sound devices and rhyme schemes?
109WRAP-UPComparingSound DevicesAnswer: Some may mention that “Dream Boogie” is written with a jazzlike beat, “Harlem” has an unusual rhyme scheme, and Cortez’s poem is composed of lines that are constructed according to tidbits of information. You should give reasons for your opinions.
110WRAP-UPComparingSound DevicesWhich lines did you especially like in the poems you read? Which lines, if any, did you read more than once? In what ways were those lines especially pleasing to the ear?Answer: You should cite specific details.
111WRAP-UPComparingSound DevicesIn your opinion, which of the selections was the most appealing? Explain.Answer: Choices should be supported by reasons.
112WRAP-UPComparingAuthor’s PurposePartner Activity Which of the authors, poems, and passages in this lesson had the greatest impact on you? With a partner, discuss your ideas about questions on the following slides.
113Comparing What will you remember from the readings in this section? WRAP-UPComparingAuthor’s PurposeWhat will you remember from the readings in this section?Answer: There is a rich history in jazz music, and many famous people have been involved with jazz. Those who are involved with jazz seem to love what they are doing, and they feel as though it is a huge part of their identity.
114Comparing What did these readings teach you? WRAP-UPComparingAuthor’s PurposeWhat did these readings teach you?Answer: The thoughts and experiences of other people can provide insight. You may suggest, for example, that the poems of Langston Hughes increased your understanding of social issues.
115WRAP-UPComparingAuthor’s PurposeWhat further questions do you have about someone or something mentioned in these selections?
116WRAP-UPComparingAuthor’s PurposeAnswer: You should offer specific questions about a subject or writer, such as how Wynton Marsalis began his letter-writing friendship with young Anthony, or what Dizzy Gillespie found most difficult about his success as a trumpeter.
118Reflecting on an Observation WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayReflecting on an ObservationConnecting to Literature In Gwendolyn Brooks’s poem, the speaker reflects on the lessons animals can teach us if we pay attention. Poems often present reflections—understandings and interpretations of experiences.Writing Workshop
119Reflecting on an Observation WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayReflecting on an ObservationEssays can do the same thing in paragraph form: look back, find significance, and present it in a meaningful and interesting way to an audience. In a reflective essay, you narrate and describe an experience or observation to show its effect on you. To write a successful reflective essay, begin by reading the goals and strategies on the next slide.Writing Workshop
120Taking a Biographical or Historical Approach WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayTaking a Biographical or Historical ApproachRubric: Features of Reflective EssaysWriting Workshop
121Taking a Biographical or Historical Approach WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayTaking a Biographical or Historical ApproachAssignmentWrite a reflection on an observation you have made or an experience you have had. As you move through the stages of the writing process, keep your audience and purpose in mind.Audience: classmates and peersPurpose: to explore the meaning and effect of a personal observation or experienceWriting Workshop
122Analyzing a Professional Model WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayAnalyzing a Professional ModelIn the reflective essay on pages 687–688 of your textbook, Joy Harjo finds her voice in both poetry and prose. As you read this reflection on the writer’s deep, life-changing experience of hearing jazz for the first time, identify the narrative elements in the essay, as well as the ways in which descriptive details make the essay come alive. Pay close attention to the comments in the margin; they point out features that you might want to include in your own reflective essay.Writing Workshop
123Analyzing a Professional Model WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayAnalyzing a Professional ModelReading-Writing Connection Think about the writing techniques that you have just encountered and try them out in the reflective essay you write.Writing Workshop
124Reflective Essay Prewriting WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayPrewritingFind a Topic You need to go back into your past to find a topic. Do this by thinking about different periods of your life. Record important experiences that occurred during each time frame. Be sure that you can find some meaning or significance in each event you list. Then choose the specific memory you like best.Writing Workshop
125Reflective Essay Prewriting WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayPrewritingList Details Once you have found a topic for writing, list details that seem to bring that experience or observation to life. You can use a cluster diagram, like the one on the next slide, for this purpose. Write your topic in the center and then list the associations, including sensory details, that you have with the experience.Writing Workshop
127Reflective Essay Prewriting WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayPrewritingMake a Plan for Writing Your next step is to outline or organize your ideas for writing. One way to do this is by thinking out ideas for the beginning, middle, and end of your reflective essay. Draw a chart, or divide a piece of paper into three rows, and include the following information in each section:Writing Workshop
128Reflective Essay Prewriting WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayPrewritingBeginning—The beginning of your reflective essay should accomplish the same goals that the beginning of any narrative accomplishes: it may provide important details about the time and place, introduce the characters or people who were important in the experience or observation, or start the action.Writing Workshop
129Reflective Essay Prewriting WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayPrewritingMiddle—The middle of your reflective essay should tell what happened. It may present a series of events or give the details of just one event.End—The end of your reflective essay should accomplish two goals: it should bring the action or events to a close in some way, and it should also state the meaning or significance of the experience.Writing Workshop
130Reflective Essay Prewriting WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayPrewritingTalk About Your Ideas Meet with a partner. Explain what your topic is and the significance of the experience you have chosen. Then review your organizational plan with your partner. To develop your writing voice, listen to your speaking voice now as you express the meaning of the experience or its effect on you. Work with your partner to identify words and phrases that reflect your voice and then jot them down.Writing Workshop
131Reflective Essay Drafting WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayDraftingCreate a Structure As you write your ideas on paper in the form of sentences and paragraphs, remember that your essay should have a clear beginning, middle, and end. In some cases, you may be able to achieve this in just three paragraphs, one for each part of this essay. It is also fine to develop two or more paragraphs for the middle of your reflective essay and to add a full paragraph of reflection after the narrative.Writing Workshop
132Reflective Essay Drafting Analyzing a Workshop Model WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayDraftingAnalyzing a Workshop ModelRead the final draft of the reflective essay on pages of your text book. Read the essay and answer the questions in the margin. Use the answers to these questions to guide you as you write.Writing Workshop
133Reflective Essay Revising WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayRevisingPeer Review When you finish your draft, have a peer reviewer read it. Ask him or her to identify narrative and descriptive elements in your writing. Then ask your reviewer to make suggestions about where to add background information, sensory details, or reflection. Also ask your reviewer to study the traits of strong writing, and to think about how they apply to your work.Writing Workshop
134Reflective Essay Revising WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayRevisingUse the rubric below to help you evaluate your writing.Writing Workshop
135Reflective Essay Using Sensory Details WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayUsing Sensory DetailsSensory details are words or phrases that appeal to one of the five senses. It is never necessary to use sensory details that appeal to all five senses—especially when they simply do not fit! Sensory details that are appropriate for the time, characters, place, and events enrich any narrative, however. Note how well-chosen sensory details improve the passage from the Workshop Model on the following slides.Writing Workshop
136Reflective Essay Using Sensory Details Draft: WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayUsing Sensory DetailsDraft:These students were doing everything we had been told to do.Writing Workshop
137Reflective Essay Using Sensory Details Revision: WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayUsing Sensory DetailsRevision:Chatting quietly,1 these students were noticing the separate daytime and nighttime areas for the chimps, as well as their ropes, swings, and hammocks.2 Some were also listening to the various hoots and calls,3 while others sketched the animals.1: Appeals to Hearing2: Appeals to Sight3: Appeals to HearingWriting Workshop
138Editing and Proofreading WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayEditing and ProofreadingGet It Right When you have completed the final draft of your story, proofread it for errors in grammar, usage, mechanics, and spellingCorrecting: Unclear Pronoun Reference A pronoun must refer to a noun or another pronoun. Often, it refers to a noun that appears earlier in the sentence. To be clear, it should refer to the closest noun or pronoun in the sentence or a previous sentence. On the next slides are examples of unclear pronoun references and corrections.Writing Workshop
139Correcting Unclear Pronoun References WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayCorrecting Unclear Pronoun ReferencesProblem: Unclear Pronoun ReferenceThe pronoun them refers to the antecedent the visitors and the chimp, yet the writer intends the pronoun them to refer to the mask.[He] then made a second mask. In a few minutes, the visitors and the chimp were looking at each other through them.Writing Workshop
140Correcting Unclear Pronoun References WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayCorrecting Unclear Pronoun ReferencesSolution A: Replace the pronoun with the exact noun to which it refers.He then made a second mask, In a few minutes, one visitor looked through it at the chimp while the chimp eyed the visitor through the first mask.Writing Workshop
141Correcting Unclear Pronoun References WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayCorrecting Unclear Pronoun ReferencesSolution B: Rewrite the sentence so that the pronoun clearly refers to a previous noun or pronoun.He then made a second mask. In a few minutes, one visitor looked through it at the chimp while the chimp eyed the visitor through the first mask.Writing Workshop
142Correcting Unclear Pronoun References WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayCorrecting Unclear Pronoun ReferencesProblem: Unclear Pronoun ReferenceThe pronoun They does not refer to any specific person, place, or thing.They say that chimps have a lot to tell us, so I plan on learning more about them.Solution: Rewrite the sentence to eliminate the pronoun.Whatever chimps may have to tell us, I plan on finding out.Writing Workshop
143Reflective Essay Presenting WRITING WORKSHOPReflective EssayPresentingDo not Rely on Your Spell-check Feature Never rely on a computer’s spell-check feature to do the whole job of proofreading. A spell-checker has limited use, because it cannot distinguish certain kinds of errors, such as misused homonyms. After using the spell-checker, reread your paper to catch additional errors.Writing Workshop
144Presenting a Reflective Essay SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPReflectionPresenting a Reflective EssayConnecting to Literature Poet Joy Harjo expresses herself and her Cherokee and Creek heritage through music, art, and words. She has a band called Poetic Justice; she also paints and pursues other visual arts. According to Harjo, she approaches the art of poetry as a visual artist. In fact, any written work can be delivered, changed, or enhanced with the addition of visual aids and music. In this workshop, you will present a reflection that uses visuals to help express the events and their significance.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
145Presenting a Reflective Essay SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPReflectionPresenting a Reflective EssayAssignmentCreate an oral presentation of your reflective essay about an observation and deliver it to an audience.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
146Planning Your Presentation SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPReflectionPlanning Your PresentationPresenting an essay orally is not the same thing as simply reading it aloud. It is a chance to use your voice, body language, and visual aids to communicate meaning to an audience in a way that involves both listening and viewing.Begin by reading your essay aloud to yourself. As you read, think about your audience. Ask yourself which parts of your essay will be most interesting, which will be hardest to understand, and which might lend themselves to visual interpretation.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
147Planning Your Presentation SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPReflectionPlanning Your PresentationNext, make notes. For example, circle or highlight the details, the dialogue, and the descriptions that you consider most effective and important. Underline anything that you think can be cut, needs more explanation, or will drag down your presentation. Jot down ideas for visuals in the margins.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
148Planning Your Presentation SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPReflectionPlanning Your PresentationRevise your essay to make it a spoken script. In the script, retain all of your best details, dialogue, and descriptions. Expand them and enliven them. Omit details that contribute little to an overall impression or a theme. Add brief, interesting bits of explanation wherever they are needed.Finally, make note cards. After you rehearse and learn your presentation, these cards will serve as reminders or cues during your delivery.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
149Creating Your Visual Media SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPReflectionCreating Your Visual MediaAs you create your script and note cards, concentrate on the images you want to display or project. There are many options for visual aids—drawings, collages, photographs, and video. You can also incorporate colors, shapes, and designs into your project to represent a feeling or mood.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
150Creating Your Visual Media SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPReflectionCreating Your Visual MediaBecause you are telling a story, one way to plan your visuals is by sequencing images along a plot diagram.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
151Creating Your Visual Media SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPReflectionCreating Your Visual MediaOnce you have a plan, assemble your images in order and write brief prompts on your note cards that cue you to display each one at the right time.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
152Reflection Rehearsing SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPReflectionRehearsingNever deliver an oral presentation without rehearsing it several times.You can rehearse your presentation the first few times by yourself. Get used to using your note cards as prompts and learn your presentation thoroughly. Be sure to practice the actual gestures you will use.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
153Reflection Rehearsing SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPReflectionRehearsingNext, practice in front of a classmate or a family member. Ask your listener to comment on the effectiveness of each of the verbal and nonverbal techniques listed in the chart on the next slide. If possible, rehearse once more in front of the same person, incorporating his or her suggestions.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
154Reflection Rehearsing SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOP
155Unit 3, Part 3BELLRINGERWrite some common mottoes on the board, such as “Be prepared,” “Look before you leap,” and so on.Do you agree with these mottoes? Do you have your own motto? Does having a motto help you make decisions?
156Unit 3, Part 3BELLRINGER OPTION TRANSPARENCYClick on the image to see a full version of the Bellringer Option Transparency.
157CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSIn “Dream Boogie,” what does the speaker say one can hear if he or she listens closely?a secret beatsomebody walking upfeet beating outa dream deferredDream Boogie, Motto, and Harlem Checkpoint
158What purpose do the italics take in “Dream Boogie”? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhat purpose do the italics take in “Dream Boogie”?The identify the words of a different speaker.They represent the thoughts of the speaker.They are the words to the song the speaker is listening to.They are the voices coming from a radio.Dream Boogie, Motto, and Harlem Checkpoint
159In “Motto,” how did the speaker get his motto? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSIn “Motto,” how did the speaker get his motto?from a bookfrom a songfrom living and learningfrom friendsDream Boogie, Motto, and Harlem Checkpoint
160CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSIn “Harlem,” what do the first three possibilities of what might happen to deferred dreams have in common?They describe foods.They describe sweet things.They describe smells.They are heat related.Dream Boogie, Motto, and Harlem Checkpoint
161Where did the speaker scat with Ella Fitzgerald? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhere did the speaker scat with Ella Fitzgerald?in a jazz clubon 52nd streetat the Apollo Theaterat the shrine AuditoriumJazz Fan Looks Back Checkpoint
162With whom did the speaker groove high? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWith whom did the speaker groove high?DizBirdMaxMonkJazz Fan Looks Back Checkpoint
163Why was the Gillespie house strewn with musical instruments? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhy was the Gillespie house strewn with musical instruments?Dizzy’s father owned a music store.Dizzy wanted to learn how to play as many instruments as possible.Dizzy’s father was guardian of his bands mates’ instruments.Dizzy’s father was a collector of antique instruments.Dizzie Gillespie, Explorer of New Sounds Checkpoint
164What did Dizzy find appealing about the piano? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhat did Dizzy find appealing about the piano?The piano made the most noise with the least amount of effort.He liked the colors of the keyboard.He was captivated with the softness of the piano notes.He liked to use the pedals as well as the keys.Dizzie Gillespie, Explorer of New Sounds Checkpoint
165CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhat problem did Dizzy Gillespie develop as he became more proficient at the trumpet?His lungs and breathing technique weakened.His fingers cramped from playing too much.He developed problems with his mouth.He could only play in one key.Dizzie Gillespie, Explorer of New Sounds Checkpoint
166How did John Birks Gillespie earn the nickname Dizzy? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSHow did John Birks Gillespie earn the nickname Dizzy?He often became light-headed from playing the trumpet.He liked pranks and was well known for his fun loving ways.He was once hit on the head and lost consciousness.His musical style was often described as weird, or “dizzy.”Dizzie Gillespie, Explorer of New Sounds Checkpoint
167What does Terkei say was the highlight of Gillespie’s career? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhat does Terkei say was the highlight of Gillespie’s career?playing in Cab Calloway’s banddeveloping a new style of jazzhis tour of the Middle East in 1956his work with Charlie ParkerDizzie Gillespie, Explorer of New Sounds Checkpoint
168CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhat according to Marsalis, will cause a touring musician to be lonely?if he or she does not like the peoplea dislike of foodif he or she is shya distrust of modern transportationPlaying Jazz Checkpoint
169Studying the vocabulary of music is like what, according to Marsalis? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSStudying the vocabulary of music is like what, according to Marsalis?SociologyGeographyEtymologyAnthropologyPlaying Jazz Checkpoint
170CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhat quality does Marsalis argue many good Latin bands have that many jazz bands often lack?a belief in the integrity of their groovesoula richer musical vocabularymusicianshipPlaying Jazz Checkpoint
171Who according to Marsalis, is usually the president of the swing? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWho according to Marsalis, is usually the president of the swing?the trumpet playerCharlie Parkerthe piano playerthe drummerPlaying Jazz Checkpoint
172Unit 3, Part 3 Literary Terms Handbook Test-Taking Skills Handbook REFERENCELiterary Terms HandbookTest-Taking Skills HandbookReading HandbookDaily Language Practice TransparenciesFoldablesWriting HandbookGrammar and Writing Workshop TransparenciesBusiness WritingLanguage Handbook
173Unit 3, Part 3 To navigate within this Presentation Plus! product: HELPTo navigate within this Presentation Plus! product:Click the Forward button to go to the next slide.Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide.Click the Section Back button to return to the beginning of the section you are in. If you are viewing a feature, this button returns you to the main presentation.Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu.Click the Help button to access this screen.Click the Speaker button to listen to available audio.Click the Speaker Off button to stop any playing audio.Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show.Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Handbook, Literature Online, and others are located in the left margin of most screens. Click on any of these buttons to access a specific feature.Help