Stage 1: The Need Before the official iPod, MP3 players existed. However their existence was funded by low budget companies that could not produce a device that had multiple capabilities nor be marketed the way that Apple did. In addition, the designers want to create a device that was smaller, lighter, and allowed users to legally download material to the device.
Stage 2: Research Tony Fadell can be credited with envisioning the iPod. He actually approached two companies that both denied his innovation for various reasons. Therefore Fadell decided to approach Apple. Apple was enthusiastic of this idea and in 2001 provided him with a development team of about thirty people to assist him. The idea was to have the product complete within one year. To aide in the project, Apple approached the company PortPlayer to design the iPods software.
It was through this collaboration that ideas were tested about what the device should be able to do, i.e. the amount of songs it should hold and lifespan. The project development of the iPod was kept under lock-and-key with only a few people knowledgeable of what the device even looked like. This gave Apple an excellent opportunity to market this mysterious new device to consumers. The iPod was first released within the planned year by Apple.
Stage 3: Development The focus of development was the intended audience of the iPod…music enthusiasts. At the time, it was unbeknownst that the iPod would be popular among all ages. Controversy in the design resided with the size and weight of the device, as well as its aesthetic appearance. Some were unsure of the scroll wheel, which proved to be the iPod signature feature as well as user friendly capability.
In addition, developments had to be tweaked when it came to song holding capability as well as battery life. In the end the first marketed iPod used 5GB, ARM processors, an operating system from Pixo, a high resolution face display, a lithium polymer battery, and a scroll wheel (Hormby, T. & Knight, D., 2007).
Stage 4: Commercialization Since the iPod had been kept a secret by Apple, the released statement of a major announcement to come on October 23, 2001 kept the public in suspense. Most thought the announcement would unveil a new computer, not MP3 player. When the announcement was made about the iPod and people saw the device, criticism immediately raged from its price (starting at $400) to its design.
When the iPod soared with popularity in Europe, the product officially became a success. Soon after, a 10 GB version was released to hold more content. Since its initial appearance in 2001, new versions have appeared, like the Nano and Shuffle, in addition to various colors. From its feature capabilities, uploading music, photos, television shows, and podcasts, the iPod has uses that Apple never foresaw it to!
The conception and development of the iPod was a success for Apple, yet much work still needed to be done. Apple had a big job on its hands as it needed people to become aware of its innovation, form an attitude to accept or reject the gadget, and put it to use for the innovation to truly be deemed a success.
Knowledge The development of an MP3 player was not the rightful idea of Apple. However, Apple saw an opportunity to take a product already on the market and modify it to better fit users needs. This was not an attempt develop a new technology but reinvent what was already on the market. The iPod, in 2001, was the first MP3 player to make it easy to transfer and organize music as well as download songs (Lloyd, 2004).
As mentioned, when the iPod was first introduced many were not impressed at the price of this new innovation. However, its appeal resided in features such as the initial 5GB storage (about 1,000 songs), its compact size, the portability of the player, hard disk storage, and the easiness of downloading songs through the use of iTunes (Lloyd, 2004). By the end of 2001, Apple had sold approximately 125,000 iPods. (Lloyd, 2004)
The initial sale of iPods was slow to excel because of lack of knowledge about the product. The original version of the iPod was designed for Mac users and was later upgraded for PCs. Therefore, the how-to knowledge of the innovation remained with Mac users while the rest of the world was left with just an awareness- knowledge. (Rogers, 2003)
Persuasion Since the appearance of the original iPod in 2001, Apple has consistently produced a new generation iPod almost every year to stay ahead of the game. Each generation iPod boasts features to make it better than the generation prior. For example, greater storage space has been an excellent appeal for those wanting to upgrade. Currently the 6.5 generation release of the classic iPod brags to have a storage space of 120 GB and a running life of 36 hours!! (Lloyd, 2004)
Not only have new generations been released, but Apple has also marketed limited edition iPods beginning in 2002 backed by celebrities like Tony Hawk and famous musicians like U2. The Nano, Mini, Shuffle, and Touch have also added to the edge that Apple has over its competitors due to desirable traits of each model.
While all of the upgrades were appearing, Apple did not stop short on advertising its product as well. See for yourself!!
Decision The acceptance of the iPod drastically changed with the appearance of the 3 rd generation classic version. This revolutionized the devices popularity as well as sales for Apple. What made this generation more appealing than past models?
The 3 rd generation iPod, which started to sell at the beginning of 2003, was smaller and lighter. It also featured a bottom-dock instead of a top USB port for charging and downloading music. The most appealing feature though centered on its storage capabilities. One version boasted 10GB, another 15GB, and yet another 30GB. The prices ranged from $300 to $500. (Llyod, 2004)
Implementation By June 23, 2003, Apple had sold its one millionth iPod. Obvious now, this innovation was a success! Though the market provided cheaper alternative MP3 players, the modification of iTunes that allowed PC users the ability to download music and upload songs to iPods.
With the upgrades of new generations, the iPod was designed to allow users to upload pictures, television shows, as well as create podcasts.
Confirmation Evidence shows that the iPod has gained significant popularity. The conclusion of Apples fiscal 2009 second quarter (which ended March 2009), shows that over 11.013 million iPods were sold this quarter, resulting in $1.665 billion in revenue (Malley, 2009). Though it is slightly lower in comparison to the end of the 2008 fiscal year, the numbers speak for themselves!!
Today iPods are not only being used for listening enjoyment. iPods are slowly being integrated in areas of the working world and in the education sector. Though full acceptance of the devices promising abilities in the classroom is being researched, implementation by educators is trying to demonstrate the usefulness of new innovations like the iPod in the learning environment.
What is an S-Curve? An S-Curve is a measure of the adopters of a particular innovation. The curve is an S shape because it models the rate of adoption. At first the adoption of an innovation is typically slow. As knowledge of the innovation increases, the rate of adoption also follows. In the end, the adoption of the innovation seems to plateau and level off once majority of members of a social system adopt the innovation.
Apple iPod S-Curve Apples fiscal year ends in September. This means that Q1 includes the holiday season which accounts for the jump in the data. Fiscal Q1 is October-December of the previous year, and so on (Wikipedia, 2009) The first graph illustrates total iPods sales from fiscal quarter 1 2002 to fiscal quarter 2 2009. The second graph serves as a closer view of the iPod sales between 2002 and 2004.
What does this mean? After examining the data, one can see that iPod sales have steadily increased since its appearance on the market eight years ago. The yearly increase in sales is attributable to numerous factors: new models of iPods, cheaper prices, holiday sales, and so forth. The steady increase causes one to question when iPod sales will level off?
An S-Curve is visible for iPod sales. In the beginning, the adoption was slow due to lack of knowledge about the product and the price. However, in 2003 sales took off with the 3 rd generation model marketed with increased storage space at a more reasonable price for consumers.
2007 3 rd quarter sales mark the beginning of a slower adoption rate of the innovation. The jumps marked on the chart indicate holiday sales which skews the S-curve. By this point though, in 2009, many adopters contributing to the sales of iPods are those users wanting to upgrade, not necessarily purchase for first- time use. However, with the integration of the iPod in the classroom, many school districts might make the investment for classroom sets of iPods just as computers are standard in most rooms.
Works Cited Hormby, T. & Knight, D. (2007). A History of the iPod: 2000 to 2004. Low End Mac. Retrieved June 25, 2009, from http://lowendmac.com/orchard/05/origin-of-the- ipod.html#0. Lessons from Apple. Economist, 00130613, 6/9/2007, Vol. 383, Issue 8532. Database: Business Source Premier. Retrieved July 2, 2009, from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/bsi/de tail?vid=9&hid=106&sid=c6445905-3958-45b4-a7f7- 57467fc320ee%40sessionmgr108&bdata=JnNpdGU9YnN pLWxpdmU%3d#db=buh&AN=25419026.
Lloyd, D. (2004). Instant Expert: A Brief History of iPod. iLounge Publishing. Retrieved July 2, 2009, from http://www.ilounge.com/index.php/articles/comme nts/instant-expert-a-brief-history-of-ipod/. Malley, A. (2009). Notes of interest from Apples Q209 quarterly conference call. Retrieved from AppleInsider July 2, 2009, from http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/09/04/22/not es_of_interest_from_apples_q209_quarterly_confer ence_call.html. Muller, T. (23 April 2008). The Outlook for Apples iPod Business from Seeking Alpha. Retrieved July 9, 2009, from http://seekingalpha.com/article/73612-the-outlook- for-apple-s-ipod-business.
Rogers, E. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations. (5th ed.). New York: NY; Free Press Wikipedia. (7 July 2009). iPod: iPod sales per quarter. Retrieved July 9, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ipod_sales _per_quarter.svg.
Application to the Classroom (Articles to be Used in Research)
Works Cited Crispin, D. & Pymm, J. (2009). Podagogy: The iPod as a learning community. In Active Learning in Higher Education; Mar2009, Vol. 10 Issue 1, p84- 96, 13p. Retrieved June 25, 2009, from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp. waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail ?vid=6&hid=104&sid=d9d6de0 d-d826-468f-8133- 75ef9cd16bab%40sessionmgr1 04&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhv c3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1za XRl#db=ehh&AN=36795187 #db=ehh&AN=36795187 Article details three examples of how iPods can be used in schools. In this case, the classes were performing arts classes.
Works Cited Crispin, D. (2008) iPods and Creativity in Learning and Teaching: An Instructional Perspective. In International Journal of Teaching & Learning in Higher Education; Vol. 20 Issue 1, p1-9. Retrieved June 25, 2009, from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp. waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail ?vid=9&hid=104&sid=d9d6de0 d-d826-468f-8133- 75ef9cd16bab%40sessionmgr1 04&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhv c3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1za XRl#db=ehh&AN=34922477. An illustration of how to improve instructional practices with the iPods, including the enhancement of creativity among students.
Works Cited Fernandez, V., Simo, P., & Sallan, J. (2009)Podcasting: A new technological tool to facilitate good practice in higher education. In Computers & Education; Vol. 53 Issue 2, p385-392. Retrieved June 25, 2009, from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp. waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail ?vid=11&hid=104&sid=d9d6de 0d-d826-468f-8133- 75ef9cd16bab%40sessionmgr1 04&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhv c3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1za XRl#db=ehh&AN=41582950. A research study that takes a closer look at the benefits of podcasting.
Works Cited Hew, K. (2009) Use of audio podcast in K-12 and higher education: a review of research topics and methodologies. In Educational Technology Research & Development; Vol. 57 Issue 3, p333-357. Retrieved June 25, 2009, from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp. waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail ?vid=11&hid=104&sid=d9d6de 0d-d826-468f-8133- 75ef9cd16bab%40sessionmgr1 04&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhv c3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1za XRl#db=ehh&AN=39767997 Provides summaries of multiple research studies of podcasts and draws conclusions of the benefits and drawbacks of iPod use for education.