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1 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Haggerston School Biology A-Level
2 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them. Galileo Galilei
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5 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Introducing proteins Proteins are a diverse group of large and complex polymer molecules, made up of long chains of amino acids. They have a wide range of biological roles, including: structural: proteins are the main component of body tissues, such as muscle, skin, ligaments and hair catalytic: all enzymes are proteins, catalyzing many biochemical reactions signalling: many hormones and receptors are proteins immunological: all antibodies are proteins.
6 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The general structure of amino acids All amino acids have the same general structure: the only difference between each one is the nature of the R group. The R group therefore defines an amino acid. amino group carboxylic acid group R group The R group represents a side chain from the central alpha carbon atom, and can be anything from a simple hydrogen atom to a more complex ring structure.
7 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The 20 naturally-occurring amino acids
8 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Peptide bonds and dipeptides
9 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Peptides
10 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Polypeptides When more amino acids are added to a dipeptide, a polypeptide chain is formed. A protein consists of one or more polypeptide chains folded into a highly specific 3D shape. There are up to four levels of structure in a protein: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. Each of these play an important role in the overall structure and function of the protein.
11 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The structure of proteins
12 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Protein structure
13 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Bonds in proteins The 3D shape of a protein is maintained by several types of bond, including: hydrogen bonds: involved in all levels of structure. hydrophobic interactions: between non-polar sections of the protein. disulfide bonds: one of the strongest and most important type of bond in proteins. Occur between two cysteine amino acids.
14 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Fibrous proteins Fibrous proteins are formed from parallel polypeptide chains held together by cross-links. These form long, rope-like fibres, with high tensile strength and are generally insoluble in water. collagen – the main component of connective tissue such as ligaments, tendons, cartilage. keratin – the main component of hard structures such as hair, nails, claws and hooves. silk – forms spiders webs and silkworms cocoons.
15 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Globular proteins Globular proteins usually have a spherical shape caused by tightly folded polypeptide chains. The chains are usually folded so that hydrophobic groups are on the inside, while the hydrophilic groups are on the outside. This makes many globular proteins soluble in water. enzymes – such as lipase and DNA polymerase. hormones – such as oestrogen and insulin. transport proteins – such as haemoglobin, myoglobin and those embedded in membranes.
16 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Denaturing proteins If the bonds that maintain a proteins shape are broken, the protein will stop working properly and is denatured. Changes in temperature, pH or salt concentration can all denature a protein, although the specific conditions will vary from protein to protein. Fibrous proteins lose their structural strength when denatured, whereas globular proteins become insoluble and inactive. denaturation: bonds broken
17 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Biuret test for proteins
18 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Proteins: true or false?
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20 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Introduction to lipids Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol. The most common types of lipid are triglycerides (sometimes known as true fats or neutral fats), but other important lipids include waxes, steroids and cholesterol. Like carbohydrates, lipids contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, but they have a higher proportion of hydrogen and a lower proportion of oxygen.
21 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The structure of triglycerides
22 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Saturated and unsaturated
23 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Role of lipids Lipids are stored in adipose tissue, which has several important roles, including: The major biological role of lipids is as an energy source. Lipids provide more than twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates – about 38 kJ/g. heat insulation – in mammals, adipose tissue underneath the skin helps reduce heat loss. protection – adipose tissue around delicate organs such as the kidneys acts as a cushion against impacts.
24 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The structure of phospholipids
25 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Emulsion test for lipids
26 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Components of lipids
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28 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Glossary
29 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Whats the keyword?
30 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Mystery substance
31 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Multiple-choice quiz
1 of 29© Boardworks Ltd Introducing proteins Proteins are a diverse group of large and complex polymer molecules, made up of long chains of amino.
1 of 12© Boardworks Ltd of 12© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Introducing proteins Proteins are a diverse group of large and complex polymer molecules, made.
1 of 8© Boardworks Ltd of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2011 Introducing proteins Proteins are a diverse group of large and complex polymer molecules, made.
Proteins – Structure and Function. 2 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Introducing proteins Proteins are a diverse group of large and complex polymer molecules,
1 of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Happy 2 nd Birthday Tavis!
Draw and label the structure of an amino acid.. Objectives Outline the structures of proteins. Outcomes 3: Represent the 4 structures of proteins. 5:
1 of 8© Boardworks Ltd of 8© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Introduction to lipids Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that are insoluble in water but.
Haemoglobin. Use the paper, scissors and glue provided to build a model of a protein. 10 minutes!
Haemoglobin: Structure and Formation of Proteins 1.1.2, a, b,c.
Biomolecules: Nucleic Acids and Proteins. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Carry and transmit detailed instructions for building every human cell and for every.
Introduction to lipids Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol. The most common.
2 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Introduction to lipids Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.
1 of 13© Boardworks Ltd of 13© Boardworks Ltd 2010 Proteins and amino acids Proteins are a diverse group of large and complex polymer molecules,
1 of 7© Boardworks Ltd of 7© Boardworks Ltd 2014 Introduction to lipids Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that are insoluble in water but.
7.5: PROTEINS Proteins Function Structure. Function 7.5.4: State four functions of proteins, giving a named example of each. [Obj. 1] Proteins are the.
1 of 30© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Haggerston School Biology A-Level.
Nutrition Expedition. Proteins Functional Proteins: Have specific metabolic roles. They can be enzymes, antibodies and transport molecules. The enzymes.
Organic Compounds Emily and Lauren. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates have a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen. Ex. Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 When sugars are broken.
2-1 The Macromolecules of Cells: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acid.
PROTEINS Proteins are the most complex and most diverse group of biological compounds. If you weigh about 70 kg: About 50 of your 70 kg is water. Many.
Denaturation of proteins Some of the interactions responsible for holding a protein in its 3D tertiary structure are weak –Eg hydrogen bonds They are easily.
This diagram shows the primary structure of PIG INSULIN, a protein hormone as discovered by Frederick Sanger. He was given a Nobel prize in The primary.
Nutrition Expedition Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins.
3.8 Fats are lipids that are mostly energy-storage molecules Some fatty acids contain double bonds –This causes kinks or bends in the carbon chain because.
L IPIDS © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc Fats are lipids that are mostly energy- storage molecules Lipids are water insoluble (hydrophobic, or water-
1 Proteins Protein functions include: 1. enzyme catalysts 2. defense 3. transport 4. support 5. motion 6. regulation 7. storage Chapter 3- part 2.
THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES. YOU MUST KNOW… THE ROLE OF DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS IN THE FORMATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND HYDROLYSIS IN.
Protein Basics Made of C,H,O, N SPONCH Monomers = amino acids - 20 different types of amino acids used to make proteins Proteins are the polymer also.
CHEMICAL BASIS OF LIFE AT THE CELLULAR LEVEL: CHEMISTRY BECOMES BIOLOGY -body functions depend on cellular functions -cellular functions result from chemical.
Pp 50 – 51 & Pp 15 & Proteins Proteins are polymers of amino acids Each has a unique 3D shape Amino acid sequences vary Proteins are.
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Chapter 2 Section 3. Organic Compounds are made mostly of carbon atoms most molecules with carbon are organic exception: carbon.
Protein structure is complex and can be divided into four levels. 1. Primary structure = the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain ◦ Genes.
Protein Structure and Function Review: Fibrous vs. Globular Proteins.
TITLE: Chemistry Benchmark review STANDARDS-1h,4ef, 1b TURN IN WHEN COMPLETE NAME, DATE, PERIOD. ROW #1-33 ANSWERS ONLY Letter & word.
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids.
End Show 2–3 Carbon Compounds Slide 1 of 37 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Macromolecules Four groups of organic compounds found in living things are:
Macromolecules Review ws 1.Name the 6 main elements that make up 95% of an organism. 2.What are macromolecules? 3. Name the 4 classes of macromolecules.
Organic Chemistry (Chapter 3) Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. Biochemistry is the study of carbon compounds that crawl.
Biochemistry Organic Molecules. Target #20- I can differentiate between inorganic and organic molecules Inorganic molecules constitutes non- living.
Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. Biochemistry is the study of carbon compounds that crawl.
P ROTEINS SBI4U Ms. Manning. Most diverse molecules in living organisms. Coded for by genes in the DNA Used as: Structural building blocks Catalysis -
Chapter 19 The Chemistry of Life. The Molecules of Life 4 molecules necessary for life functions formed from smaller subunits – proteins – carbohydrates.
Proteins Multipurpose molecules Proteins Most structurally & functionally diverse group of biomolecules Function: involved in almost everything.
3.2 Macromolecules Notes IB Biology HL 1 Mrs. Peters Fall 2013.
Chapter 3 Test Review Sheet. #1 What functional groups are these: -OH -COOH -C=O -NH 2 -OPO 3 - ANSWER: hydroxyl carboxyl carbonyl amino phosphate.
Honors Biology The molecules of Cells Chapter 3. Life’s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon Most compounds in living organisms.
7.4/14.1 PROTEINS. Protein’s have 4 levels of Structure: 1. Primary Structure = the order of amino acids that make up the polypeptide; amino acids are.
What are proteins? Proteins are made up of C, H, O, N and some S and P Proteins are the building blocks of life There are millions of different proteins.
Molecules of Life. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in.
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