8 THE CAT ATE THE RAT THC ATA TET HER AT…. 2) A frameshift mutation inserts or deletes a nucleotide in the DNA sequence.THE CAT ATE THE RATTHC ATA TET HER AT….
9 Example of a frame shift mutation: Tay–Sachs diseasearound 6 months of ageNerves start deterioratingChild becomes blind, deaf, and unable to swallowDeath usually occurs before the 4th year
10 Chromosomal mutations affect many genes.may occur during crossing over
11 1) Gene duplication results from unequal crossing over.
12 2) Translocation results from the exchange of DNA segments between nonhomologous chromosomes.
13 Mutations may or may not affect phenotype (looks). Chromosomal mutations tend to have a big effect.Some gene mutations change phenotype.may cause a premature stop codon.may change protein shape or the activation site.may change gene regulation.Ex: down syndrome
14 Some gene mutations do not affect phenotype. A mutation may be silent.A mutation may occur in a noncoding region.A mutation may not affect protein folding or the active site.Ex: Cystic Fibrosis- caused by a deletionblockageno blockage
15 Mutations in body cells do not affect offspring. Mutations in sex cells can be harmful or beneficial to offspring.Natural selection often removes mutant alleles from a population
16 CCR5 32 is a deletion thought to resist the bubonic and pneumonic plague as well as HIV Beneficial mutationsMutations that cause resistance to antibiotics
17 Conjoined TwinsChang and Eng BunkerBorn in 1811Married sistersHad 21 children between themIn modern times, they could have easily been separatedDied on the same day in 1874Chang contracted Pneumonia and died in his sleep- Eng refused to be separated from his dead twin and died several hours later.