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US-Taiwan Relations Since 1979 Dr. Jaw-ling Joanne Chang Research Fellow, Institute Of European And American Studies, Academia Sinica A Paper Presented.

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Presentation on theme: "US-Taiwan Relations Since 1979 Dr. Jaw-ling Joanne Chang Research Fellow, Institute Of European And American Studies, Academia Sinica A Paper Presented."— Presentation transcript:

1 US-Taiwan Relations Since 1979 Dr. Jaw-ling Joanne Chang Research Fellow, Institute Of European And American Studies, Academia Sinica A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13,

2 1)Michel Tatu’s Theory of the Triangle Game Michel Tatu, an expert on US-China-USSR relations, observed in 1970, that “the surest way for any of the three to provoke the other two into collision is to display undue aggressiveness.” Tatu’s theory of the game had three other principles: 1.The existence of an “adversary number one” leads to “objective collusion” with number two. 2.Each of the three players aims to reduce collusion between the others to a minimum. 3.At the same time, it is in the interest of each to bluff or blackmail this chief adversary by threatening collusion with the other. 2 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

3 2)When China acts with undue aggressiveness against Taiwan, the result has been strengthened US military ties with Taiwan. The Taiwan Strait Crisis: In , Beijing had launched a series of missile exercises to retaliate against President Lee’s private visit to the Cornell University. During the March 1996 missile crisis, the US dispatched two aircraft carriers to the Taiwan Strait. US military observation of Taiwan’s Hankuang military exercises resumed in In 2002, Taiwan and the US militaries set up hotline. 3 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

4 In 2003, the U.S designated Taiwan as a “major non- NATO ally.” In August 2005, the first active-duty defense attaché began his duty in AIT/Taipei with civilian clothes. There are a dozen security related dialogues with Taiwan. One led by the State Department: US-Taiwan Political-Military Talks; One led by AIT/ Washington: Political-Military Working Group; Ten led by Defense Department: such as Monterey Talks, Defense Review Talks, Security Cooperation Talks, General officer Steering Group, Service-to-Service Security Cooperation Programs and Engagement. 4 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

5 The United States and Taiwan have held high-level defense-related meetings in the US since On October 2, 2012, Taiwan’s Vice Minister of National Defense Andrew Yang met with US Deputy Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter at the Pentagon. Later, the DOD posted the meeting photo on the official website for the first time since A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

6 3)When the US administration unduly injures Taiwan's interests, US Congress takes concrete actions to strengthen US- Taiwan ties. The US Congress passed the Taiwan Relations Act in In 2002, Congress passed “Foreign Relations Authorization Act of Fiscal 2003” to authorize the assignment of active-duty personnel to Taiwan and designate Taiwan as a “major non-NATO ally.” In April, 2002, US House established “Congressional Taiwan Caucus” to strengthen US-Taiwan relations; In 2003, Senate also established “Senate Taiwan Caucus.” 6 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

7 From 1999 to 2004, five resolutions passed by Congress became US Public Laws, supporting Taiwan’s observer status at the annual meeting of the World Health Organization (WHO). In September 2012, US Congress passed a concurrent resolution (S. Con. Res. 17) supporting Taiwan’s observer status in the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). From 1979 to September, 2012, members of Congress have proposed at least 577 resolutions to strengthen US-Taiwan political, economic, military relations and US arms sales to Taiwan. 7 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

8 4)When Taiwan “surprises” its interlocutors, as with the 2003 referendum initiative and 2007 application of U.N. membership, Washington and Beijing found common ground to contain Taipei. December 9, 2003, President Bush met with Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao in the White House. In a press conference President Bush said: “We oppose any unilateral decision by either China or Taiwan to change the status quo. And the comments and actions made by the leader of Taiwan indicate that he may be willing to make decisions unilaterally to change the status quo, which we oppose.” 8 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

9 August 30, 2007, National Security Council Senior Director for Asian Affairs Dennis Wilder said “membership in the United Nations requires statehood. Taiwan, or the Republic of China, is not at this point a state in the international community.” 9 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

10 5)The US has objected to all administrative barriers that unilaterally determine the political status of Taiwan by UN system agencies, as when UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon misinterpreted the status of Taiwan in 2007 On May 25, 2007, the PRC. has successfully downgraded Taiwan’s status in OIE (Office international des épizooties) to “non-sovereign regional member.” On March 28, 2007, the U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki- moon in a letter to Nauru’s Ambassador to the United Nation, stated that in accordance with the General Assembly resolution 2758, adopted on October 25, 1971, the U.N. considers “Taiwan for all purposes to be an integral part of the PRC.” 10 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

11 In August 2007, the US reportedly presented a demarche to U.N. Secretary General. The US key position as follows: The United States noted that the PRC has become more active in international organizations and has called on the UN Secretariat and member states to accept its claim of sovereignty over Taiwan. The United States noted that the UN General Assembly resolution 2758 adopted on 25 October 1971 does not in fact establish that Taiwan is a province of the PRC. There is no mention in Resolution 2758 of China’s claim of sovereignty over Taiwan. The United States urged the UN Secretariat to review its policy on the status of Taiwan and to avoid taking sides in a sensitive matter on which UN members have agreed to disagree for over 35 years. If the UN Secretariat insists on describing Taiwan as a part of the PRC, or on using nomenclature for Taiwan that implies such status, the United States will be obliged to disassociate itself on a national basis from such position. 11 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

12 On May 17, 2011, US Secretary of Health and Human Services Kathleen Sebelius stated “No organization of UN has unilaterally determined the position of Taiwan.” On October 4, 2011, Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Kurt Campbell testified before the House Foreign Affairs Committee, stated that “We have also seen UN system agencies and other international organizations affiliated with the UN take further steps to limit Taiwan’s participation based on the 1971 General Assembly resolution which expelled Taiwan from the UN. We have consistently objected to any and all administrative barriers that unilaterally determine the political status of Taiwan, and we will continue to do so if this issue arises in the future.” 12 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

13 6)With proper Cross-Strait policies, Taipei can maintain good relations with Washington and Beijing at the same time a)Under President Lee Tung-hui ( ) Cross-Strait Relations: In 1991, the ROC government created the “Straits Exchange Foundation” (SEF) and the PRC set up the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits (ARATS) as “white gloves” to manage Cross-Strait relations. In1992, both sides met in Hong Kong to discuss the “one China principle.” In 1993, the head of SEF Koo Chen-fu and the head of ARATS Wang Daohan, met in Singapore and reached four agreements. 13 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

14 US-Taiwan Relations: In 1991, the US supported Taiwan’s application of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). With US support, Taiwan became a member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in In 1992, the Bush Administration announced the sales of 150 F-16 A/B to Taiwan and sent US cabinet member- Trade Representative Carla Hills-to visit Taiwan for the first time since A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

15 b)Under President Ma Ying-jeou (since May 2008) Cross-Strait Relations: Since June 2008, there are eight meetings between Chiang Pin-kung and Chen Yunlin. By September 2012, on the basis of the 1992 consensus, SEF and ARATS have reached 18 agreements including Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA). Currently there are 558 flights across the Taiwan Strait every week. 15 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

16 US-Taiwan Relations: On January 29, 2010, the Obama Administration submitted his first notification to Congress on arm sales to Taiwan worth US $6.4 billion. On September 21, 2011, the Obama Administration formally notified Congress of three programs to upgrade Taiwan’s 145 F-16 A/Bs worth US $5.85 billions. In November 2011, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said Taiwan is “an important security and economic partner” in Hawaii. 16 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

17 Resumption of US high-level officials visit to Taiwan since September 2011: Daniel Poneman (United States Deputy Secretary of Energy), Rajiv Shah(Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, USAID), Sandra Henriquez (Assistant Secretary for Public and Indian Housing), Suresh Kumar (Assistant Secretary for Trade Promotion and Director General of the US and Foreign Commercial Service); July 2012: Dawn McCall (Coordinator of International Information Programs); August 2012: Jose Fernandez (Assistant Secretary of Economic And Business Affairs); September 2012: Atul Keshap (the US APEC Senior Official and Coordinator for Economic Policy in the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs). 17 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

18 In July 2012, Raymond Burghardt, chairman of the American Institute in Taiwan, observed that Washington once thought of Taiwan as an “agenda” or even a “problem” for the US relations with China, but now recognizes Taiwan as a success story in Asia and values its relationship with Taiwan. On September 9, 2012, President Obama’s representative US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton hold bilateral meeting with President Ma’s representative Dr. Lien Chan at the Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Summit in Vladivostok, for the first time since Taiwan joined APEC. October 2, 2012, the US announced Taiwan’s visa- waiver status. 18 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

19 7)Taiwan’s Position on the Diaoyutais The Diaoyutais are an island group of Taiwan under the administrative jurisdiction of Yilan County, Taiwan, and are therefore an inherent part of the sovereign territory of the Republic of China. Diaoyutai issue should be addressed in accordance with the principles of “safeguarding sovereignty, shelving disputes, pursuing peace and reciprocity, and promoting joint exploration and development. 19 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

20 On August 5, 2012, President Ma proposes “East China Sea Peace Initiative”, calling on all concerned parties to: 1.Refrain from taking any antagonistic actions. 2.Shelve controversies and not abandon dialogue. 3.Observe international law and resolve disputes through peaceful means. 4.Seek consensus on a code of conduct in the East China Sea. 5.Establish a mechanism for cooperation on exploring and developing resources in the East China Sea. 20 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.

21 8)With the rise of China, Taiwan will face further challenges in its relations with the United States China continues to build up missiles against Taiwan. Abandon Taiwan proposals If Taiwan's economy is further marginalized and grows more reliant on the Chinese market, this will have strategic implications for Cross-Strait negotiation and US-Taiwan relations. Jeff Bader observed in his book Obama and China's Rise (2012) that “the growing disparity between the militaries on the two sides meant it was increasingly unrealistic to think the United States could provide Taiwan with weapons sufficient for its defense.” Taiwan’s domestic division on Cross-Strait policy and many other issues. 21 A Paper Presented at 2012 Annual Conference of American Association for Chinese Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 13, 2012.


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