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As European History – Course Outline AS Unit One Option E: The Expansion and challenge of Nationalism. Introduction to the course What is unity? What is.

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Presentation on theme: "As European History – Course Outline AS Unit One Option E: The Expansion and challenge of Nationalism. Introduction to the course What is unity? What is."— Presentation transcript:

1 As European History – Course Outline AS Unit One Option E: The Expansion and challenge of Nationalism. Introduction to the course What is unity? What is nationalism? How did Italy unify? How did Germany unify? Review of course & exam preparation

2 Dear Santa, Can I have….

3 What does it mean to be united? Objectives To investigate the concept of unity To agree definition of unity To share and give reasoned arguments

4 To what extent is this school united?

5 What is Nationalism? Objectives To agree a definition of Nationalism To research present and past examples of Nationalism To give short presentation on findings

6 What makes a nation? In pairs – List 5 things we would mention when describing Britain to other people List 5 things that makes Britain different to other countries

7 The Unification of Italy Topic Outline Italy Pre 1848 The impact of the 1848 Revolutions The role of Piedmont & Cavour The role of Louis-Napoleon The role of Garibaldi Unification completed & the role of foreign intervention Italy post 1870 Review of topic Areas of Debate What were the obstacles to unification & how were they overcome Why did Italy unite in 1870 & not 1848? Did Italy unite herself? Importance of the role of individuals

8 The Unification of Italy Italy Pre 1848 Topic Outline What was the make up of Italy in 1815 What were the main obstacles to unification Why did the Revolutions of 1820 & 30 fail Where did the growth of opposition come from What was the influence of Mazzini before 1848 (Ideas) Assessment Mazzini was only a dreamer and propagandist. He failed to contribute anything of substance to the Risorgimento How far do you agree with this judgment?

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11 What were the obstacles to unification? Objectives To understand the make up of the geographical area of Italy To investigate obstacles to unification To evaluate the found obstacles To come to a judgement on the possible way forward for Italy

12 What obstacles have we found to unifying Italy so far Complete this single bubble

13 Baseline Assessment To what extent was Austria the biggest obstacle to unification in 1815? Structure 1)Introduction Introduce the debate in the question, include one specific example 2) Explain why Austria was such a big obstacle 3) Explain what other obstacles there were 4) Conclusion – make sure you answer the question Word limit 500 Complete a pre-submission sheet

14 Why did the Revolutions of 1820 & 1830 fail? Objectives To investigate reasons for the failure of the early revolutions To look for similarities and differences in the failures To come to a judgement on the possible way forward for Italy

15 Why did the 1820 & 1830 Revolutions fail? Complete this single bubble

16 Which way forward – The Risorgimento Objectives To recap on the reasons for the failure of the early Revolutions To investigate options for Italy to move forward To start to see the role of the papacy in Italian affairs. Vincenzo Gioberti

17 Essay Writing

18 1)From 1789 to 1815 Italy was governed by Napoleon until he was finally defeated and exiled to St Helena. During his reign he separated Italy into first four states thin in 1810 he made Italy into three states. After Napoleons defeat the Congress of Vienna met to discuss who would now govern Italy which would be Austria. 2)The Risorgimento, despite the failures of the revolutions of 1820 and 1830, was what the Italians believed led to the formation of a united Italy. They thought of unification as the final stage of their gradual evolution as a nation. 3)Giuseppe Mazzini was born in 1805 in Genoa in Italy. In 1815, French rule in Italy ended and was replaced by that of Austria. Austria had a much stronger empire compared to the separate Italian states and this became an important factor in later years when several attempts to revolt against Austria by separate Italian states failed. What is the exam question?

19 What was the contribution made by Mazzini pre 1848? (Ideas) Objectives To understand the role played by Mazzini pre 1848 To evaluate the role played by Mazzini in order to come to a judgement Mazzini

20 What was the contribution made by Mazzini pre 1848? (Ideas) Mazzini was only a dreamer and propagandist. He failed to contribute anything of substance to the Risorgimento How far do you agree with this judgment? In your groups find evidence to plan your essay, you need three pieces of evidence for each side of the debate. Evidence failed to contribute anything of substance Evidence contributed some thing of substance

21 Quick Review List the obstacles to Italian Unification

22 The Unification of Italy The Impact of the 1848 Revolutions Topic Outline Why were Italian nationalists optimistic in 1848 The importance of the Rome Republic Why did the revolutions fail? Which way forward now? Assessment The failures of the revolutions in Italy were the result of political and social conflict amongst the revolutionaries themselves rather than international hostility Assess the validity of this view

23 Why were Italian Nationalists optimistic in 1848? Objectives To investigate reasons for optimism in 1848 To find examples of forward looking from Piedmont and the Pope To place the Revolutions into the back drop of economic hardship

24 Where and with what aim were there revolts in Italy in 1848? Objectives To investigate which states rose in revolt in 1848 To investigate aims of these revolts To look for common cause in the revolts To compare with 1820/30 Revolts

25 Where and with what aim were there revolts in Italy in 1848? WhereAimIn common with Failed? (leave for now)

26 What was the importance of the Rome Republic? Objectives To investigate the workings of the Rome Republic To add to the role of Mazzini To reflect on obstacles the Rome republic has started to remove

27 What was the importance of the Rome Republic? As a table decide – Did the actions surrounding the Rome Republic mean that unification was closer or further away Prepare to feedback to the class

28 Why did the 1848 Revolutions fail? Objectives To investigate the reasons for failure of the 1848 Revolutions, To understand the progress made in removing the obstacles to unification To predict the next move necessary for unification

29 Compare and contrast the failures in 1820/30 and the failures in 1848 Failure in 1820/30 Failure in 1848

30 1848 Revolutions- A Review? Objectives To review the failures of 1848 To review the obstacles to unification To prepare assessment Assessment The failures of the revolutions in Italy were the result of political and social conflict amongst the revolutionaries themselves rather than international hostility Assess the validity of this view

31 Multi-Flow Map! Major Event Root Causes Causes Effect Cause and Effect: The major function is to show causes- which can be sorted by root, immediate, proximal or long term causes- and their effects in relation to a major event; can be indefinitely expanded to include multiple cases. The Failure of the 1848 Revolutions

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33 1848 Revolutions- A Review? Reflecting on the 1848 revolutions What three pieces of advice would you give Italian nationalists to help them take the next step towards a unified Italy?

34 The Unification of Italy The role of Piedmont & Cavour Topic Outline Why did Piedmont get involved in the Crimea? How successful was the War of 1859? Review the role of Cavour Assessment Cavour should be regarded as the architect of Italian Unification How far do you agree with this judgement?

35 Why did Italian Nationalists look to Piedmont? Objectives To understand reasons why Piedmont became the focus for unification at this point To begin to find evidence of the role of Cavours diplomacy To understand how Piedmont manoeuvred themselves into a position to take on Austria Cavour

36 The Unification of Italy The role of Piedmont & Cavour Why did Piedmont get involved in the Crimean War? What was the aim behind Cavours involvement in the War? Answer question 2 Cavour was successful in this aim. Do you agree? find evidence for and against In pairs decide if you agree?

37 1848 Revolutions Assessment The failures of the revolutions in Italy were the result of political and social conflict amongst the revolutionaries themselves rather than international hostility Assess the validity of this view Feature of a focused essayDone Highlight Key words in the question Key words appear in every paragraph Each paragraph has a clear signpost linking it explicitly to the question Introduction has one specific example Conclusion starts with In conclusion Conclusion has clear judgement related to specific focus see below, e.g. I agree/disagree… To large/small extent… Used the exact words in the question The question has not been changed in anyway Essay has been read through and checked for Accuracy Spelling Grammar

38 The Unification of Italy The role of Piedmont & Cavour If you wanted to have a fight with someone! What factors would you want to choose or be able to manipulate to give yourself the best chance of winning a fight before it starts? As a table come up with three

39 The Unification of Italy The role of Piedmont & Cavour How was Piedmont able to launch a war against Austria? What factors can you find that mean Piedmont thinks it may be more successful this time How much of this is down to the work of Cavour? Reflect - In what ways would a war against Austria bring unification closer?

40 How did the War of 1859 bring unification closer? Objectives To investigate the gains made in the 1859 war To judge these gains against the move to unification To evaluate the ongoing obstacles to unification Piedmonts' Soldiers

41 How did the War of 1859 bring unification closer? Evaluate the level of effort of Piedmont in the war What does this tell us about the nationalist cause in Italy at the time? Evaluate the level of success in the war Answer question at the top of the slide Complete prep sheet for next lesson Examples of successExamples of failure

42 Kingdom of Naples and Sicily The Papal States Lombardy & Venetia Tuscany Modena Parma Piedmont -Sardinia Italy in 1859

43 Kingdom of Naples and Sicily The Papal States Venetia, still Austrian Kingdom of Northern Italy Italy in 1860

44 Multi-Flow Map! Major Event Root Causes Causes Effect Cause and Effect: The major function is to show causes- which can be sorted by root, immediate, proximal or long term causes- and their effects in relation to a major event; can be indefinitely expanded to include multiple cases. The1859 War

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46 Was Cavour the champion of Unification? (Diplomacy) Objectives To understand the role played by Cavour in the unification of Italy To evaluate the importance of Cavours contribution To answer the above question Cavour

47 Complete the following sentence Italy could not unite itself because…….. Complete the following sentence Louis-Napoleon was vital to unification because……

48 Who is more important? The man who calls the firemen Or The firemen who put out the fire

49 The Unification of Italy The role of Louis-Napoleon Topic Outline Why did France intervene in Italy? How did France aid the unification of Italy? How did France hinder the unification of Italy? Review the role played by Louis-Napoleon in the unification of Italy? How united was Italy in 1861? Assessment Louis-Napoleon was vital to unification How far do you agree with this judgement?

50 How vital was the role played by Louis- Napoleon in the unification of Italy? (Force) Louis-Napoleon Objectives To understand why Louis- Napoleon got involved in the unification of Italy To understand the ways Louis- Napoleon aided unification in 1859

51 Did Louis-Napoleon help or hinder the unification of Italy? (Force) Louis-Napoleon Objectives To investigate the ways Louis- Napoleon hindered unification To come to a conclusion on the role of Louis-Napoleon in the unification of Italy To compare the importance of Cavour and Louis-Napoleon in 1859

52 Italy in 1861 Using your notes fill in the blank map – How united is Italy in 1861?

53 Objectives To understand the progress made towards unification To review the obstacles still outstanding To suggest the next step Italian flag How far was Italy united by 1861?

54 Multi-Flow Map! Major Event Root Causes Causes Effect Cause and Effect: The major function is to show causes- which can be sorted by root, immediate, proximal or long term causes- and their effects in relation to a major event; can be indefinitely expanded to include multiple cases. The 1859 war with Austria

55 The Unification of Italy The role of Garibaldi Topic Outline Garibaldi – the early years Garibaldis role in the Rome Republic Garibaldi & The Thousand Attempts on Rome Review the role of Garibaldi Assessment An effective leader of the Italian Unification or a reckless man of action Which is the more valid judgement on Garibaldis role in the diplomatic and political developments in Italy in the years 1848 to 187o?

56 How vital was the role played by Garibaldi in the unification of Italy? (Romantic hero) Objectives To gain an understanding of the character of Garibaldi To investigate his contribution pre 1860 (Romantic hero) To investigate his contribution post 1860 (unites the south) To answer the above question

57 How vital was the role played by Garibaldi in the unification of Italy? (Romantic hero) Objectives To prepare short presentation To prepare short hand out To make a judgement on the role of Garibaldi PearAppleorangeBanana AndrewDarinaReeceLeigh James GMatthew GShannahDillon Matthew FAdamMarkJames S

58 How vital was the role played by Garibaldi in the unification of Italy? (Romantic hero) Objectives To give presentations To come to a judgement on the role of Garibaldi To plan assessment Assessment An effective leader of the Italian Unification or a reckless man of action Which is the more valid judgement on Garibaldis role in the diplomatic and political developments in Italy in the years 1848 to 187o?

59 Who played the most vital role ?Cavour (the north) or Garibaldi (the south) Objectives To compare the roles played by Cavour & Garibaldi To evaluate these roles To come to a judgement on the above question V Assessment How far do you agree with the judgement that it was Cavours diplomacy rather than Garibaldis ideas and actions which made the greater contribution to Italian Unification

60 Double Bubble! To look for similarities and differences Garibaldi Hun gry Cavour

61 The Unification of Italy The Unification completed & the role of foreign intervention Topic Outline The role of Prussia Unification completed The role of other powers, eg Britain Review of foreign intervention Assessment Foreign intervention hindered rather than helped the cause of Italian unification in the years 1848 to 1870 How far do you agree with this judgement?

62 Unification completed Role of Prussia Objectives To understand what is left to unite (Papal States) To understand the role of Prussia To review the removal of France as an obstacle The Vatican

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64 Unification completed The role of the Great Powers Objectives To review the roles played in unification by France, Austria & Prussia To investigate the roles played by Britain & Russia To plan and answer assessment Foreign intervention hindered rather than helped the cause of Italian unification in the years 1848 to 1870 How far do you agree with this judgement?

65 The Role of Victor Emmanuel How did Victor Emmanuel contribute to the Unification of Italy?

66 The Unification of Italy Italy Post 1870 Topic Outline To investigate the Idea that Italy was just expanded Piedmont Divisions within Italy To evaluate the extent at which Italy is united in 1871 Assessment To what extent were the weaknesses of Italy in 1871 the result of economic and cultural divisions rather than opposition to Piedmonts dominant position?

67 Review How United was Italy in 1870? Objectives To investigate the level of unity in 1870 To find examples for and against the argument Italy was unified To come to a judgement on the level of unity

68 Review Who united Italy? Objectives To review the roles played by different people in the unification of Italy To come to a judgement on the relative importance of these roles To agree this as a class

69 Brace Map The Unification of Italy The Unification of Italy Vital Factors Feed into the Vital Factors

70 Review Who united Italy? Objectives To experience exam times To complete answer in time allowed To evaluate experience You have forty minutes – chose wisely

71 Review - Revision How United was Italy in 1870? To review all areas of debate Complete timed past exam questions Areas of Debate What were the obstacles to unification & how were they overcome Why did Italy unite in 1870 & not 1848? Did Italy unite herself? Importance of individuals

72 Review Who stays – You Decide


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