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Socioeconomic Impacts of Designating a Marine Protected Area (MPA) in Korea Won Keun Chang & Jung Ho Nam Korea Maritime Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "Socioeconomic Impacts of Designating a Marine Protected Area (MPA) in Korea Won Keun Chang & Jung Ho Nam Korea Maritime Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 Socioeconomic Impacts of Designating a Marine Protected Area (MPA) in Korea Won Keun Chang & Jung Ho Nam Korea Maritime Institute

2 Agenda Definition of MPA ? Current Status of MPAs in Korea Policy Change in MPA Management Issues on MPA Management Conflict Resolution as a Key Process

3 Definitions Ariticle 2. Law on Conservation and Management of Marine Ecosystem A area for special protection which contains high marine biodiversity, important ecological entities, and valuable resources such as pristine coastal landscape. IUCN WCU any area of the intertidal or subtidal terrain, together with its overlying water and associated flora, fauna, historical and cultural features, which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment (world Conservation Union) Wikipedia.org a wide range of marine areas with some level of restriction to protect living, non-living, cultural, and/or historic resources

4 Major Statistics and Features of MPAs (Nam et al., 2004) (MOMAF, 2006) (Nam et al., 2004)  No. of designated areas : 425  Marine Protected Area: 10,667.9 km 2 equivalent to 10.7% of national land area (99,514 km 2 ) 2.4% of national sea waters (447,000 km 2 ) 13.1% of national territorial sea area  Mean size : 25.1 km 2 ( to 256 km 2 ) 10,000 km 2, minimum size for protection of ecosystem and species Current Status of MPAs in Korea (1/3)

5 Geographical Classification of MPAs (Nam & Chang, 2006) Current Status of MPAs in Korea (2/3) 200 nm12 nm Territorial Sea EEZ Ecosystem Reserves (5) Birds Habitats (86) Wetlands (7) National Parks (4) Natural Heritages (153) Marine Resources (4), Fisheries (10) Uninhabited Islands (153) Underwater Coastal LandsCoastal Waters Coastline

6 Legal and institutional mechanism : 4 ministries and 10 laws (Nam et al., 2004) MOMAF (Maritime Affairs and Fisheries) - NFRDI (Res. Inst.) MOE ( Environment) - NIER (Res. Inst.) MOCT (Construction & Transportation) MCT (Culture & Heritage Protection) Marine Pollution Prev. Act Law on Cons & Mgt of Marine Ecosystem * Framework Act on Mar. Fish. Dev. Prot of Cultural Properties. Act Nat’l Develop. Planning Law Wetlands Cons. Act Natural Env. Cons. Act Wildlife Protection Act Natural Parks Act Special Act on Islands Law on Conservation and Management of Marine Ecosystem : newly enacted in Oct Current Status of MPAs in Korea (3/3)

7 Establishment of institutional mechanism ’68~’88 Coastal & Marine National Parks ’75~’82 Fisheries Resources Protected Areas ’02~’03 Marine Ecosystem Reserves ’96~’98 Bird Habitats ’00~’04 Uninhabited Protected islands ’01~’03 Wetlands Protected Areas Broadening of policy scope Ecosystem-based Approach Introduced  Introduction of a comprehensive ocean management system  Revision of legal & institutional mechanism for C/MPAs  National Plans & Policies  Expansion of MPAs’ areas  Episodic Implementation  Surveys to support decision-making  Public awareness on coastal wetland protection  Lack of follow-up actions afterward desig.  Land-based approach (extension of land NP) Policy Changes in MPA Management of Korea

8 Strength and Opportunity  Enactment and amendment of new laws Improvement of national management system Expansion of numbers and areas of MPAs  Application of advanced institutional mechanisms and management tools ICM plans at the local and national levels, Comprehensive Marine Env. Mgt. Plan Adoption of Zoning System Stricter approval procedures for coastal area reclamation  Enhanced management capacity Establishment of a new division in MOMAF (Marine Ecosystem Division) Enactment of new “ Law on Conservation and Management of Marine Ecosystems ” (Oct. 2006) Issues on MPA Management (1/4) - Based on the SWOT analysis

9 Strength and Opportunity (cont’d)  Increased surveys and researches Wetlands, coastal areas Marine environmental monitoring  Increase of management budget for MPAs  Enhancement of public awareness and interest  Partnerships at the regional and global levels, bilateral cooperation  Incorporation of Ecosystem-based Approach into national policies and plans (3 rd National Comprehensive Plan for Marine Environment Conservation) Issues on MPA Management (2/4) - Based on the SWOT analysis

10 Threat and Weakness  Designation procedures need more scientific and systematic criteria Ambiguous and abstract designation criteria - little difference in designation criteria among MPAs lack of detailed and well-defined procedures  Conflicts between ministries and stakeholders in the designation process  Increase of claims against the designation of MPAs  Insufficient information for the rational decision-making Limited information, despite increase in survey activities Lack of researches on ecological functions of coastal and marine ecosystems Very few “issue-oriented” or “problem solving-oriented” surveys or researches  Lack of conflict resolution mechanism Lack of institutional mechanism to effectively deal with conflicts among stakeholders Issues on MPA Management (3/4) - Based on the SWOT analysis

11 Threat and Weakness (cont’d)  Lack of effective management system to achieve designation objectives Rigid top-down approach based on command and control, and lack of plans or in-situ implementation projects for effective protection Lack of effective countermeasures against development pressures  “Paper parks”, “Plans on the Shelf”  Limited public participation in the planning process, and lack of systematic support system for local residents Lack of institutional mechanisms to enhance public participation ↔ genuine participation based on sharing powers Lack of site-specific supporting systems  Lack of integrated management system at the national, ministerial & local levels Strengthening sectoral approach, rather than integration Issues on MPA Management (4/4) - Based on the SWOT analysis

12 Implementation Human & physical resources Planning Financing Designation Survey 123 Evaluation & Revision Monitoring & new issue identification 4 Conflict Zoning, support Conflict Zoning, support Conflict Enforcement Conflict Enforcement Conflict Cancellation or minimization Conflict Cancellation or minimization Regulation of socio-economic activities, present and potential Encroaches of free exercise of private property rights Public interests Vs. Private interests Conflict Resolution as a Key Process for Success of MPAS (Nam, 2006)

13 Criteria, plausible or implausible Information & data, sufficient or deficient Building consensus or not Plausible & ScientificCriteria Sharing data Joint-fact finding Participatory Deliberation & Consensus Criteria Assessment of areas Boundary demarcation Conflict Resolution as a Key Process for Success of MPAS

14 Case study (Chang et al., 2006) Valuation Range CVMEmergy*Market < 300 m-< 18.6 < 1 km 323.2~4.5< 33.6 Unit: 100K $(USD)/yr Conflict Resolution as a Key Process for Success of MPAS

15 Sport Fishing (1.34 M$) Gill Net (0.43 M$) Pot Fishing (0.09 M$) Total Income (1.86 M$) Conflict Resolution as a Key Process for Success of MPAS Case study (con’t) (Chang et al., 2006)

16 Thank you


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