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Earth 2005 Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction Hsiung-Wen Chen Director, Department of Comprehensive Planning Taiwan Environmental Protection.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth 2005 Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction Hsiung-Wen Chen Director, Department of Comprehensive Planning Taiwan Environmental Protection."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth 2005 Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction Hsiung-Wen Chen Director, Department of Comprehensive Planning Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration Prepared for THE 8th INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EASTASIAN RESOURCES RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY Beijing, China, November, 9-15, 2005

2 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 2 Brief Content  Introduction  National Waste Reduction Initiatives  Design of Excessive Packaging Restriction Regulation  Key Contents of the Regulation  Conclusions

3 Introduction

4 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 4 MSWs in Taiwan – Historical Review  The MSWs generation in Taiwan was peaked at 8.8 million metric tons in 1998 with growth in GDP and population.  Past waste reduction efforts, mainly waste recycling, have already reduced the household waste to 7.19 million metric tons in  TEPA has adopted the zero waste policy and introduced several initiatives with an aim to further reduce the household waste generation.

5 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 5 Recycling and Reduction Statistics MSWs vol kg/C-D MSWs vol kg/C-D MSWs vol kg/C-D MSWs vol kg/C-D MSWs vol kg/C-D Recy. Rate 3.69% Recy. Rate 14.26% Reinforce Collection Crew Capacity Recycling 4-in- 1 Scheme Evaluation and Improvement of Recycling Encourage Source Reduction MSWs Volume vs. Recycling Mandatory MSWs Source Separation Recy. Rate 18.44% Recy. Rate 11.55%

6 National Waste Reduction Initiatives

7 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 7 Action Plan for Zero Waste Ensure resources are efficiently recycled and reused, and to eventually achieve the goal of complete zero waste. Goals: Reduction & Recycling Goals Year Total Reduction Goal (%) Resource Recycling (%) Food waste Recycling Rate (%) Bulky Garbage recycling (%) Non- combustible Garbage (%) Others (%)

8 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 8 Initiatives Towards Zero Waste  2003: Plastic Shopping Bags & Disposable Plastic Tableware Restriction 9,495 metric tons of wastes were avoided in  2004: Mandatory Garbage Sorting Waste reduced by 10% (as of August 2005):  Recyclable waste collected increased by 29%  Kitchen waste collected increased by 68%  2006: Excessive Packaging Restriction 26% reduction of gift box packaging wastes expected

9 Design of Excessive Packaging Restriction Regulation

10 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 10 Excessive Packaging  Packaging, especially gift packaging, becomes more and more beautiful and complicated with the progress in packaging technologies and increasing GDP.  However, more and more people complains about excessive packaging: Too many layers of packaging. Too bulky volume of packaging. Too high packaging costs. Too many packaging materials.

11 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 11 Public Polls Excessive Packaging is severe Unwilling to Pay More for Excessive Packaging Product Support to Draft Regulation 60.9 % 77.5 % 92.7 % 82.4 % 91.4 % 68.9 %  The public supports regulating excessive packaging

12 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 12 Case Reviews 1.Essential Requirements 2.Performance Criteria Self declaration UK and France 1.Audited by gov. agency. 2.Manufacturer provides self- declaration for review. 3.Fine to whom disable to provide self-declaration. 1.Packaging Space Ratio 2.Number of Packaging Layer 3.PVC and EPS is prohibited Regulated by Gov. 1.Audited by gov. agency. 2.Request packaging test. 3.Request improvement in time or fine to violator. Korea only Rep. of Korea Resource Saving and Recycling Promotion Regulation EU EU Directive (94/62/EC) Command and ControlVoluntary Country Regulation Content Implemt.

13 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 13 Korean Approaches  Standards (for gift box): Packaging Space Ratio: 25% or less Packaging Layers: 2 or less Material Restriction: PVC and EPS(expanded polystyrene foam) are prohibited from certain applications.  Implementation: Packaging test required when requested by auditing officers. When failing packaging standards, improvements shall be made. Fines shall be imposed for failing to make improvements or rejecting packaging test.

14 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 14 Selection of Targets  Most Excessively Packaged Products Public Polls AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process) Analysis (2002) Year Items Pastries32.8%52.2% Processed Foods15.5%20.3% Cosmetics11.4%9.6% Software Optical Disk14.7% Pastries Cosmetics Software optical disk Processed foods Alcoholic beverages

15 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 15 Transforming Korean Standards to National Standard  Adopt command-and-control approaches.  Analyze national product packaging in accordance with Korean standards.  Simplify Korean calculations by introducing coefficient of necessary space.  Obtain localized coefficients of necessary space by corelating outcomes of Korean and simplified Taiwanese calculations.  Finalize regulation through extensive public outreach and participation, including 25 public meetings and WTO announcement.

16 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 16 Volume Standard Development  Simply Korea’s “Space Volume Ratio” to “Packaging Volume Ratio(PVR)”  PVR = Volume of Packaging ÷ Allowable Volume of Packaging (AVP)  AVP = Σ Volume of products X Coefficient of Necessary Space (CNS)  Selection of CNS Pastries: through market survey, near 60% of gift boxes need re-design Other products: Taiwan’s standards approximate Korea’s To facilitate recycling, packaging made of a single material are granted larger CNS

17 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 17 CNS Selection - Pastry

18 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 18 Layer Standard Development  Criteria: Adopt Korea’s standard Packaging Requirement Test Making sure the standards are sufficient to meet packaging requirements through extensive discussion with industries and packaging experts.  Pastry: 3 layers are sufficient for meeting packaging requirements. 96% surveyed are packaged with 3 layers or less.  Other products Disk: 3 layers Other gift boxes: 2 layers

19 Key Contents of the Regulation

20 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 20 Scope Designated Industry Manufacturers Importer Seller Designated Product Pastries Gift Box Alcoholic product Gift Box Processed food Gift Box Disk of computer program work Cosmetics Gift Box Exemptions:  Product destined for export  Packaging specifically for insulation or transportation  Packaging deliberately requested by consumers

21 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 21 Packaging Standards Gift Box Packaging Volume RatioUnder 1.0 Number of Packaging layer pastries : 3 or less. cosmetics, alcoholic product, processed foods: 2 or less. Disk of Computer Program Works Packaging Volume RatioUnder 1.0 Number of Packaging layer 3 or less.

22 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 22 Calculation of Packaging Volume Ratio  Equation for Packaging Volume Ratio  All Packaging Volume Ratios shall be under 1.0. Packaging Volume Ratio = Volume of Packaging / Allowable Volume of Packaging Volume of Packaging The volume of the minimum cuboid that circumscribes the product Allowable Volume of Packaging ΣVolume of unit product × Coefficient of necessary space Coefficient of necessary space Non-Single Material pastry : 6.0 other : 2.7 Single Material pastry : 6.9 other : 3.1 Volume of unit product The volume of the minimum cuboid that circumscribes the unit product

23 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 23 Identification of Packaging Layer Gift Box Pastry Any packaging fully wrapping a pastry is considered one layer. Other  Any packaging fully wrapping a unit product is considered one layer.  The packaging layers of unit products themselves are not counted in the packaging layers of the gift box. Disk of Computer Program Works Any packaging fully wrapping a disk of computer program works is considered one layer.

24 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 24 Case Study – Pastries Gift Box

25 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 25 Case Study – Packaging Layer

26 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 26 Case Study – Packaging Volume Ratio Unit : mm

27 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 27 Testing and Labeling  Designated industries may send samples to testing organizations commissioned by the competent authority for compliance verification. The competent authority may still inspect the verified products.  Designated industries may mark verified packaging volume ratio, number of packaging layers and materials of packaging on designated products.

28 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 28 Violation and Penalty Violation ConditionPenalty Manufacturers or importers of designated products violating packaging standards  Violators are fined NT$30,000 to NT$150,000.  Violators that fail to make improvement within the prescribed time may be subject to consecutive daily fines.  Serious violators may be ordered to stop work for one month to one year, or stop operations.  When necessary, violators may be ordered to terminate business. Designated industries refused to provide designated product for inspection or information.

29 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 29 Phase-In Implementation  First Phase: from July 1, 2006 Disk of computer program works Pastry gift box Cosmetic gift box Alcoholic product gift box  Second Phase: from July 1, 2007 Processed food gift box

30 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 30 Example 1 Old design : PVR : 0.82 Layer : 3 New design : PVR : 0.47 Layer : 2

31 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 31 Example 2 New design : PVR : 0.59 Layer : 2 Old design : PVR : 1.22 Layer : 2

32 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 32 Expected Outcomes  Encourage new packaging design Use resources efficiently Can be recycled easily  Reduce the volume of packaging used and disposed of: Annual packaging used for designated products is 26,600 metric tons. Fully implemented, the regulation will reduce the volume by 6,900 metric tons, or 26%, each year.

33 Conclusions

34 EARTH 2005 Beijing, China H.W. Chen, H.C. Chang, and J.E. Chang, Taiwan’s Policy on Excessive Packaging Restriction 34 Conclusions  To pursue sustainable development, Taiwan has adopted several new initiatives to reduce the generation of household waste,.  The plastic bag and disposable tableware restriction policy enforced since 2002 has been quite effective in waste reduction.  The newly implemented mandatory waste separation and recycling scheme, as well as the regulation on excessive packaging restriction will further prevent waste at the source.

35 Thank You for Your Attention


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