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Dick & Reiser Model (1996) Instructional Planning Presenter: Mohammad Syukran Kamal Ruzzaman P-QM0015/10 Lecturer: Dr. Balakrishnan Muniandy QIM 501 –

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Presentation on theme: "Dick & Reiser Model (1996) Instructional Planning Presenter: Mohammad Syukran Kamal Ruzzaman P-QM0015/10 Lecturer: Dr. Balakrishnan Muniandy QIM 501 –"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dick & Reiser Model (1996) Instructional Planning Presenter: Mohammad Syukran Kamal Ruzzaman P-QM0015/10 Lecturer: Dr. Balakrishnan Muniandy QIM 501 – Instructional Design and Delivery

2 Background of the Proponents Walter DickRobert A. Reiser

3 Background of the Proponents Ph.D. Arizona State University Specialization: Educational Technology Degree received August, 1975 M.A. Arizona State University Specialization: School Library Media Degree received August, 1974 B.A. Queens College of the City University of New York Major: Economics Minor: Secondary Education Degree received June, reiser.html

4 PhD from Penn State University in Educational Psychology Emeritus Professor from Florida State University Is currently an Adjunct Assistant Professor at Penn State University Background of the Proponents

5 Dick & Reiser ID Model (1996) Identify Goal Identify Goal Identify Objective Identify Objective Plan Activities Choose Meda Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Revise Instruction

6 The Purpose Dick & Reiser (1996) model is an instructional design (ID) model. All ID models have the same general purposes: – Analysis of learners’ needs and context analysis – Design a set of specifications to create an effective, efficient, and relevant learner environment – Develop all learner and management materials – Implement the instructions. – Evaluate the results of the development process (formative) and end product (summative)

7 The Purpose Instruction in classroom or any learning environment. Serve as conceptual and communication tools for analyzing, designing, creating, and evaluating guided learning ranging from broad educational environments to narrow training functions

8 The Purpose ID models help us to conceptualize representations of reality. A model is a simple representation of more complex forms, processes, and functions of physical phenomena or ideas. As a guide for teachers to design the best instruction so that the learning can take place.

9 Audiences and prerequisites Students differ in terms of background of experience, attitudes, abilities, needs, motivation, knowledge, and other factors. Instruction must be designed with these matters in mind. Are your students highly motivated toward further study in it? Do they already know and care quite a lot about your subject, and do they have attitudes about it? Before implementing the model

10 Audiences and prerequisites Determination of the target audience will lead to identification of prerequisites. Are certain prior knowledge and abilities necessary for achieving the goals of your class? Do the goals need to be adjusted in terms of the audience? Before implementing the model

11 Dick & Reiser ID Model (1996) Identify Goal Identify Goal Identify Objective Identify Objective Plan Activities Choose Meda Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Revise Instruction

12 Identify instructinal goal A systematic, or instructivist, approach to instruction has been shown to be an effective model due to its focus on clearly identifying goals and systematically developing instructional activities and assessment that lead to the attainment of the goals (Reiser & Dick, 1996) Identify Goal Identify Goal Identify Objective Identify Objective Plan Activities Choose Module Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Revise Instruction

13 Identify instructinal goal A goal – general statements of what you would like for students to be able to do when they complete your course. Example : – For the first grade math student the goal is “Students should be able to solve basic addition problems. – For teachers : “Teacher should be able to construct ten structured question using Hot Potatoes Software Identify Goal Identify Goal Identify Objective Identify Objective Plan Activities Choose Module Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Revise Instruction

14 Identify learning objectives Objectives are specific statements of what students will be able to do as a result of you instruction which will contribute to their reaching the goals(s) Objectives are steps to achieve main goal(s) Identify Goal Identify Goal Identify Objective Identify Objective Plan Activities Choose Module Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Revise Instruction

15 Identify learning objectives Identify Goal Identify Goal Identify Objective Identify Objective Plan Activities Choose Module Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Revise Instruction Instructional goal: Explain the process of photosynthesis Instructional goal: Explain the process of photosynthesis Objective 1: Define photosynthesis Objective 1: Define photosynthesis Objective 2: State the requirements of photosynthesis. Objective 2: State the requirements of photosynthesis. Objective 3: List down the outcome of photosynthesis Objective 3: List down the outcome of photosynthesis Objective 4: Explain what are he factors in photosynthesis

16 Identify learning objectives Identify Goal Identify Goal Identify Objective Identify Objective Plan Activities Choose Module Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Revise Instruction Instructional goal: Teachers will be able to use Hot Potatoes Software to construct structured questions Instructional goal: Teachers will be able to use Hot Potatoes Software to construct structured questions Objective 1: Install the software Objective 1: Install the software Objective 2:. Create a JCloze document Objective 2:. Create a JCloze document Objective 3: Construct 10 structured question Objective 3: Construct 10 structured question Objective 4: Save the document Objective 4: Save the document

17 Identify learning objectives If students achieve all of the objectives, but have not reached their goals, then there is something wrong with the objectives. On the other hand, if students have not met all of their objectives, but have reached their goals, some of the objectives were not necessary. Identify Goal Identify Goal Identify Objective Identify Objective Plan Activities Choose Module Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Revise Instruction

18 Planning instructional activities Instructional activities are those activities which help to meet the objectives and, eventually the goal(s). Activities that provide opportunity to students to explore within a domain, integrating their new knowledge with knowledge and attitudes which they brought with them in order to "construct their own meaning." Identify Goal Identify Goal Identify Objective Identify Objective Plan Activities Choose Module Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Revise Instruction

19 Planning instructional activities Activities may consist of anything from reading to listening to participating in field trips to exploring the Internet They may be developed by the instructor, or with knowledge of the students’ background, needs, abilities, etc. (Reser & Dick) Identify Goal Identify Goal Identify Objective Identify Objective Plan Activities Choose Media Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Revise Instruction

20 Choose instructional media Instructional media include lecturing, assignments, using presentation packages such as PowerPoint, the Internet, computer-assisted-instruction packages, and others. The problem is to discover which helps most in meeting objectives, and that may not be the same for all students. Identify Goal Identify Goal Identify Objective Identify Objective Plan Activities Choose Media Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Revise Instruction

21 Practicality: Is the intended media practical in that the media is available, cost efficient, time efficient, and understood by the instructor? Student Appropriateness: Is the intended media appropriate for the developmental and experiential levels of the students? Instructional Appropriateness: Is the intended media appropriate for the planned instructional strategy? Will the media facilitate the students’ acquisition of the specific learning objectives? Identify Goal Identify Goal Identify Objective Identify Objective Plan Activities Choose Media Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Revise Instruction

22 Develop Assessment Tools Assessment tools must be designed to provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate the skills, knowledge, and attitudes stated in the objectives. Identify Goal Identify Goal Identify Objective Identify Objective Plan Activities Choose Media Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Revise Instruction

23 Implement instruction Implementation gives instructor the opportunity to assess the effectiveness of the plan of instruction. In real situation Identify Goal Identify Goal Identify Objective Identify Objective Plan Activities Choose Media Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Revise Instruction

24 Any plan should be subject to revision, and the revision should go clear back to the objectives. Usually we do not wish to change the actual goals for a course, but – the objectives may not be actually helping to meet the goal – the activities may not be helping to meet the objectives, – the medial may not be the most efficient means of delivery, – the assessment may not actually provide the opportunities to demonstrate meeting the objectives. Identify Goal Identify Goal Identify Objective Identify Objective Plan Activities Choose Media Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Revise Instruction

25 Dick and Reiser Model (1989)

26 References Cher Ping Lim and Ching Sing Chai Rethinking Classroom- oriented Instructional Development Models to mediate Instructional Planning in Technology-enhanced Learning Environments Amy L. Baylor A Comparative Analysis and Validation of Instructivist and Constructivist Self-Reflective Tools (IPSRT and CPSRT) for Novice Instructional Planners Kristin Koepke and Bill Cerbin Writing Course Objectives Jennifer Summerville and Angelia Reid-Griffin Technoogy Intergration and Instrucional Design

27 References m y=&State=&Country=&CategoryID=2&Interface=46


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