Textbook CHEMISTRY-Molecules, Matter, and Change Loretta Jones and Peter Atkins Fourth Edition ， W. H. Freeman and Company, 2000 Available from Eurasia Book Co. 02-2363-6141 歐亞書局有限公司 方譔惟 231 台北縣新店市寶橋路 235 巷 118 號 5 樓 FAX ： 02-8912-1166
References 1. GENERAL CHEMISTRY An Integrated Approach John W. Hill and Ralph H. Petrucci, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, 1999 Available from Kao-Li Book Co. 02-2361-5330 台北縣五股工業區五工三路 116 巷 3 號一樓 高立圖書有限公司 電話： 02-2290-031 2. CHEMISTRY for Changing Times, 5 th Edition, John W. Hill, Doris K. Kolb Prentice Hall, 2001 台北縣五股工業區五工三路 116 巷 3 號一樓 高立圖書有限公司 電話： 02-2290-0318
3. CHEMISTRY, 3rd Edition, John McMurry, Robert C. Fay, Prentice Hall, 2001 台中市西屯區台中港路二段 122 之 19 號 11 樓 滄海書局 電話： 04-2258-8787 4. CHEMISTRY, 6 th ed., Raymond Chang, MnGraw-Hill, 1998. 台中市西屯區台中港路二段 122 之 19 號 11 樓 滄海書局 電話： 04-2258-8787 5. CHEMISTRY, The Central Science, 8 th Ed., Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., Bruce E. Bursten,Prentice Hall, 2000. 地址不詳 新月圖書公司 電話： 0 ？ -2331-7856, 0 ？ ─2331-1578
Web Pages Textbook website: http://www.whfreeman.com/gchem/content.htm When you do quizzes, make sure that you use correct e-mail address for the instructor: email@example.com, or else you might end up sending to a wrong address and you lose one firstname.lastname@example.org Useful sites: http://bouman.chem.georgetown.edu http://genchem.chem.wisc.edu/sstutorial/FunChem.htm
Chapter 1 Matter This is a page from the illustrated manuscript Chronicles, a history of Europe written by Jean Froissart in the 14th century. The picture shows the author presenting his book to the Duchess of Burgundy. The age and origin of the manuscript can be verified by analyzing the paint used. Every material, whether paint, paper, breakfast cereal, or the hull of a spaceship, is made from a set of about 100 elements. Each of these elements has its own distinctive properties that allow it to be identified. This chapter introduces the elements and the types of compounds they form.
Figure 1.1 Can you tell that the silver porringer on the left was made by Paul Revere, but that the one on the right is a fake? The fake porringer was detected only by analyzing its elemental composition. Modern chemical instrumentation allows authentic works of art to be distinguished from forgeries without damaging the art itself.
Figure 1.2 Samples of common elements. Clockwise from the red-brown liquid bromine are the silvery liquid mercury and the solids iodine, cadmium, red phosphorus, and copper.
Figure 1.3 When the mass of magnesium is doubled, the number of magnesium atoms doubles. As a result, twice the number of oxygen atoms, and therefore twice the mass of oxygen, is needed to react fully with the magnesium. Main idea of Dalton’s atomic theory
Figure 1.4 Individual atoms can be seen as bumps on the surface of a solid by using the technique called scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). This is an image of the surface of gallium arsenide. The gallium atoms are shown as blue and the arsenic atoms as red (these are not their actual colors).
Figure 1.5 Magnesium burns brightly in air. In the reaction, magnesium atoms from the metal combine with atoms of oxygen and nitrogen from molecules in the air. No atoms are lost: they simply change their partners.
Figure 1.6 These charts show the relative abundances of the principal elements in (a) the universe as a whole, (b) the crust of the Earth, (c) the human body.
Figure 1.7 The current model of an atom pictures it as a minute central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. The nucleus is far smaller than drawn here.
Investigating Matter 1.1 Discovering new knowledge requires not only the use of systematic procedures such as collecting data but also creativity in the design of new experiments. These chemistry students are planning and conducting experiments that are based on the same methods used by research scientists.
Figure 1.8 A close-up of the glowing path traced by a stream of electrons near the cathode in a simple cathode-ray tube, an apparatus like that used by Thomson. Note the deflection of the cathode ray by a magnetic field.
Figure 1.9 Part of the experimental arrangement used by Geiger and Marsden. The a particles came from a sample of the radioactive gas radon. Their deflections were measured by observing the flashes of light (scintillations) produced where they struck a zinc sulfide screen. About 1 in 20 000 particles was deflected through very large angles; most went through the platinum foil with very little deflection.
Figure 1.10 Rutherford’s model of the atom explains why most particles pass almost straight through, whereas a very few—those scoring a direct hit on the nucleus—undergo very large deflections. The nuclei actually are much smaller relative to the atom than shown here.
Figure 1.11 The mass spectrum of neon (see Investigating Matter 1.2). The locations of the peaks tell us the masses of the atoms, and their heights tell us the relative numbers of atoms with each mass.
Investigating Matter 1.2 (a) A mass spectrometer (MS) is used to measure the mass and abundance of an isotope. As the strength of the magnetic field is changed, the path of the accelerated ions moves from a to c. When the path is at b, the ion detector sends a signal to a recorder. At a fixed magnetic field strength, the three paths represent the trajectories of the ions of isotopes with three different masses, decreasing from a to c.
Investigating Matter 1.2 ( b)The mass spectrum of HF. The peak produced by the parent ion is that with a mass number of 20.
Figure 1.12 The nuclei of isotopes have the same numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons. These three diagrams show the compositions of the nuclei of the three isotopes of neon. On this scale, the atom itself would be about 1 km in diameter. The arrangement of the protons and neutrons inside the nucleus is not shown.
Figure 1.13 These two samples, both of which have mass 100 g, illustrate the density difference between ordinary water, H 2 O, and heavy water, D 2 O. The volume occupied by 100 g of heavy water (right) is 11% less than that occupied by the same mass of ordinary water (left).
Figure 1.14 Stars are born in immense clouds of molecular hydrogen and stardust such as this one in the Eagle nebula, which is also known as M16. The new stars shining through the dust will emerge as the cloud disperses.
Figure 1.15 The structure of the periodic table, showing the names of various regions and groups. The groups are the vertical columns numbered 1 through 18. The periods are the horizontal rows. The main-group elements are hydrogen and those elements in Groups 1, 2, and 13–18.
Figure 1.16 The alkali metals react with water, producing gaseous hydrogen and heat. Potassium reacts vigorously, producing so much heat that the hydrogen ignites.
Figure 1.17 The halogens are colored elements. From left to right, chlorine is a yellow-green gas, bromine is a red-brown liquid (its vapor fills the flask), and iodine is a blue-black solid (note the small crystals) with a violet vapor. The insets show that the halogens all form molecules consisting of two atoms.
Figure 1.18 All metals can be deformed by hammering. Gold can be hammered into a sheet so thin that light can pass through it. Here it is possible to see the light of a candle through the sheet of gold. The inset shows that the atoms of gold lie in a closely packed regular array typical of metals.
Figure 1.19 The location of the seven elements commonly regarded as metalloids: these elements have characteristics of both metals and nonmetals. Other elements, notably beryllium and bismuth, are sometimes included in the classification.
Figure 1.20 Sulfur burns with a blue flame and produces the dense gas sulfur dioxide.
Figure 1.21 A ball-and-stick model of a molecule (ethanol, in this case) uses colored balls to depict the atoms and sticks to indicate the links between them. Black denotes carbon, red oxygen, and gray hydrogen. (Other models also use blue for nitrogen and yellow for sulfur.)
Figure 1.22 This tube structure of ethanol focuses on the links between atoms by representing the atoms and the links between them by colored lengths of tube. The colored parts of the tubes have the same color coding as the balls in the ball-and-stick model.
Figure 1.23 (a) A space-filling representation of the ethanol molecule, generated by computer graphics. (b) The superimposed lines and labels identify the atoms and show the pattern of bonds between them. The small circles identify the locations of the centers of the atoms.
Figure 1.24 An ionic solid consists of an array of cations and anions stacked together. This illustration shows the arrangement of sodium cations (Na ) and chlorine anions (chloride ions, Cl – ) in a crystal of sodium chloride (common table salt). The faces of the crystal are where the stacks of ions come to an end.
Figure 1.25 A neutral sodium atom (left) consists of a nucleus that contains 11 protons and is surrounded by 11 electrons. When 1 electron is lost, the remaining 10 electrons cancel only 10 of the proton charges, and the resulting ion (right) has 1 overall positive charge.
Figure 1.26 The typical cations formed by a selection of elements in the periodic table. The transition metals form a wide variety of cations; we have shown only a few.
Figure 1.27 Iron is an example of an element that can form more than one type of ion. Aqueous solutions containing Fe 2 are usually pale green, and solutions containing Fe 3 in the form of the complex ion FeOH(H 2 O) 5 2 are usually yellow-brown.
Figure 1.28 A neutral fluorine atom (left) consists of a nucleus that contains nine protons and is surrounded by nine electrons. When the atom gains 1 more electron, the 9 proton charges cancel all but one of the 10 electron charges, and the resulting ion (right) has 1 overall negative charge.
Figure 1.29 The typical monatomic anions formed by a selection of elements in the periodic table. Only the nonmetals are shown, for only they form monatomic anions.
Figure 1.31 Three states of matter: (a) solid; (b) liquid; (c) gas. As the insets show, in a solid, the molecules are locked into a rigid, orderly array. In a liquid, the molecules are close together, but free to move past one another. In a gas (or vapor), there is a lot of space between the fast-moving molecules.
Figure 1.32 This piece of granite is a heterogeneous mixture of several substances.
Figure 1.33 Three examples of homogeneous mixtures and representations of their nature at the molecular level. (a) Air is a homogeneous mixture of many gases, including the nitrogen, oxygen, and argon depicted here. (b) Table salt dissolved in water consists of sodium ions and chloride ions distributed among water molecules. (c) Brass is a solid mixture of copper and zinc. (a)(b)(c)
Figure 1.34 Solutions are homogeneous mixtures. The solvent (in this case, water) is the substance present in the larger amount. The dissolved substance is called the solute.
Figure 1.35 Precipitation is the formation of an insoluble substance. Here lead(II) iodide, PbI 2, which is an insoluble yellow solid, precipitates when we mix colorless solutions of lead(II) nitrate, Pb(NO 3 ) 2, and potassium iodide, KI.
Figure 1.36 The hierarchy of materials: matter, mixtures, and substances (which include compounds and elements). Physical techniques of separation—techniques that depend on differences in physical properties—are indicated by the upper horizontal arrow.
Figure 1.37 The technique of distillation, which is used to remove a liquid from a solid. The solution is heated, the liquid boils off, condenses in the water-jacketed tube (the condenser), and is collected.
Figure 1.38 In paper chromatography, the components of a mixture are separated by washing them along a paper—the support—with a solvent. A simple form of the technique is shown here. On the left is a dry filter paper to which a drop of food coloring has been applied. Solvent is then added to the center of the filter paper (middle). The filter paper on the right has been allowed to dry after the solvent spread out to the edges of the paper, carrying two components of the coloring matter to different distances as it spread. The dried support showing the separated components is a simple chromatogram.
Figure 1.39 In gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), the mixture of gases or vapors is separated as it travels through a long, coated tube. Some molecules are adsorbed on (stick to) the coating (the stationary phase) more readily than others do and therefore emerge later, but eventually all pass through in the stream of carrier gas (typically, helium). The less readily adsorbed component (red) emerges first, followed by the more readily adsorbed component (yellow).
Figure 1.40 A gas chromatogram of bourbon whiskey, showing the components that contribute to the flavor. Mixing the chemicals identified here does not, it is said, recreate the flavor, because the flavor also depends on hundreds of other compounds present in very small amounts.
Case Study 1 (a)Two spectra obtained in a gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS) analysis of evidence in a possible arson case. (a) The spectrum of a sample obtained from the scene of the fire. (b) The spectrum of gasoline. In each case, the mass spectrum shows the composition of the compound producing the peak that left the gas chromatograph at the same point in time. The correspondence of peaks shows that the compounds present in gasoline were also present at the crime scene. This finding suggests that gasoline was present and that it is likely that the fire was a result of arson.
Case Study 1 (b) This crime lab technician is looking for evidence at a crime scene. The driver of the car had caused a serious accident and then fled.
Case Study 1 (c) The red area in this three-dimensional pulse fast-neutron analysis (PFNA) scan of an airline cargo container shows the presence of materials that may pose a security threat.
Nomenclature of Simple Compounds Ionic Compounds Metal element(s) +Nonmetal element(s) Anions+Cations Molecular Compounds Nonmetal elements
Toolbox 1.1 (a) How to name simple inorganic compounds
Examples of Ionic Compounds NaCl Sodium Chloride Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Calcium Phosphate CuCl Copper (I) Chloride CuCl 2 Copper (II) Chloride KMnO 4 Potassium Permagnate Na 2 B 2 O 7 10H 2 O Sodium Borate Decahydrate
Figure 1.41 The sample of CuSO 4 5H 2 O on the left shows the blue color of hydrated copper(II) sulfate. The water molecules can be driven off by heating, resulting in anhydrous (“without water”) CuSO 4 (right). CuSO 4 5H 2 O Copper(II) Sulfate Pentahydrate