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# Simple Is Beautiful – Refreshing thinking in engineering modeling and beyond Liming Chang Professor Penn State University Guest Professor National Chung.

## Presentation on theme: "Simple Is Beautiful – Refreshing thinking in engineering modeling and beyond Liming Chang Professor Penn State University Guest Professor National Chung."— Presentation transcript:

Simple Is Beautiful – Refreshing thinking in engineering modeling and beyond Liming Chang Professor Penn State University Guest Professor National Chung Cheng University

Implications of Simplicity Deep understanding leads to simple approaches to problem solving Simple solutions often generate time-lasting significance Ability to solve a complex problem simply is the highest level of competency Three examples…….

I. An Analytical Model for the Basic Design Calculations of Journal Bearings R. K. Naffin and L. Chang http://www.mne.psu.edu/chang/me462/finite-journal.pdf

A basic journal bearing

Long-bearing model (L/D > 3)

Short-bearing model (L/D < 1/4)

A finite-bearing model Define a dimensionless load: Then for short bearings for long bearings

Take log: Or, short bearings long bearings

Approximate finite bearings by:

II. A Theory for the Design of Centrally-Pivoted Thrust Bearings L. Chang http://www.mne.psu.edu/chang/me462/JOT_slider.pdf

Centrally-pivoted plane-pad thrust bearing

Classical lubrication theory fails to predict

Potential mechanisms of lubrication Viscosity-temperature thermal effect

Load capacity by thermal effect

A simple thermal-lubrication model: assumptions Infinitely wide pad Conduction heat transfer negligible Convection heat transfer at cross-film average velocity Uniform shear-strain rate

A simple thermal-lubrication model: equations Reynolds equation: Pad equilibrium: Temperature equation: Oil  ~ T relation:

Temperature distribution Temperature rise Dimensionless variables:

Pressure distribution Pressure Pad equilibrium Given solve for  and

Bearing dimensionless load parameter, W th Load and dimensionless load Bearing load parameter  = viscosity-temperature coefficient ~ 0.04 o C -1  = lubricant density ~ 900 kg/m 3 c = lubricant specific heat ~ 2000 J/kg- o C w/B = bearing working pressure ~ 5.0 MPa 

One-to-one relation between C th and W th

Bearing film thickness, h o h max = outlet film thickness under isothermal maximum-load-capacity condition (X =.58 )

Verification with numerical results for square pad

Further development of the theory for finite pads Y. Yan and L. Chang – Tribology Transactions, in press Infinitely-wide padFinite-width pad

h o /h max results

III. Research on gear meshing efficiency L. Chang and Y. R. Jeng Manuscript in review

Meshing of a spur gear pair Meshing loss can be less than 0.5% of input power

Meshing of a spur gear pair

Governing equations Reynolds equation Load equation Film-thickness equation Temperature equation Friction calculated by

Experimental repeatability scatter Test number Pinion speed (rpm) Pinion toque (N- m) 16000413 26000546 36000684 48000413 58000546 68000684 710000413 810000546 910000684 Repeatability amounts to 0.04% of input power

Well, simple is beautiful! Hertz pressure distribution Parallel film gap Numerical solution of temperature equation

Thermal shear localization Cross-film velocity No localization With localization Upper surface Lower surface w

Effects of shear localization on oil shear stress

Effect of load on gear meshing loss

Effect of speed on gear meshing loss

Effect of gear geometry – module

Theory vs. experiment Theory Experiment Test number Pinion speed (rpm) Pinion toque (N-m) 16000413 26000546 36000684 48000413 58000546 68000684 710000413 810000546 910000684

Effect of gear geometry – pressure angle

Effect of gear geometry – addendum length

Oil property – viscosity-pressure sensitivity

Oil property – viscosity-temperature sensitivity

Effect of gear thermal conductivity

w Shear stress reduction with one surface insulated

Summary Clever simple approaches to problem solving can help reveal fundamental insights and/or produce key order-of-magnitude results/trends. It is no small feat to develop a mathematic model that is simple and generally applicable. The significance of a simple model of general validity can be tremendous and long lasting.

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