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The World of the Heavenly Khan. Neighbors Map of the Tang in the middle of 8 th Century.

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Presentation on theme: "The World of the Heavenly Khan. Neighbors Map of the Tang in the middle of 8 th Century."— Presentation transcript:

1 The World of the Heavenly Khan

2 Neighbors Map of the Tang in the middle of 8 th Century

3 Unlike China’s neighbors during the Northern and Southern Dynasties, new neighbors were states that patterned major elements of their governments on China Unlike China’s neighbors during the Northern and Southern Dynasties, new neighbors were states that patterned major elements of their governments on China Even Tibet borrowed major political features from China Even Tibet borrowed major political features from China

4 Neighbors Northwest: Turks Northwest: Turks North: Uighurs North: Uighurs Allied with Tang, 756-757 Allied with Tang, 756-757 Sacked Luoyang in 762 Sacked Luoyang in 762 Captured Chang’an in 765 Captured Chang’an in 765 Allied with Tang again in 784 Allied with Tang again in 784 Tang depended on it for more than half a century Tang depended on it for more than half a century

5 West: Tibet West: Tibet Rose after 640s and became a major military power after 650s Rose after 640s and became a major military power after 650s In 641, Emperor Taizong married Princess Wencheng off to the Tibetan king Songtsen Gampo In 641, Emperor Taizong married Princess Wencheng off to the Tibetan king Songtsen Gampo Began to encroach on Central Asia and, from 670, into the western edges of China Began to encroach on Central Asia and, from 670, into the western edges of China Between 670 and 680, took several key strategic citadels around the Tarim Basin Between 670 and 680, took several key strategic citadels around the Tarim Basin

6 In 695, defeated a large Chinese army to the west of Chang’an In 695, defeated a large Chinese army to the west of Chang’an In 763, occupied modern Qinghai and Gansu, pushed into Shannxi and pillaged Chang’an In 763, occupied modern Qinghai and Gansu, pushed into Shannxi and pillaged Chang’an Between 637 and 753, Tang sent more than fifty diplomatic missions to northern India in search of both trade and allies against Tibet Between 637 and 753, Tang sent more than fifty diplomatic missions to northern India in search of both trade and allies against Tibet in 765, captured Chang’an again (with Uighurs) in 765, captured Chang’an again (with Uighurs)

7 In 783, Tang recognized Tibet’s conquests of the west of China In 783, Tang recognized Tibet’s conquests of the west of China In 790, Tibet defeated the combined Tang and Uighur forces, occupied northwestern China, and ended China’s control of this area for almost a millennium In 790, Tibet defeated the combined Tang and Uighur forces, occupied northwestern China, and ended China’s control of this area for almost a millennium In 821, Tang and Tibet signed a treaty that recognized the current boundaries and that defined relations between “two fully sovereign states” In 821, Tang and Tibet signed a treaty that recognized the current boundaries and that defined relations between “two fully sovereign states”

8 Southwest: Nanzhao Southwest: Nanzhao Became militarily strong after 650s Became militarily strong after 650s Played Tang China against Tibet Played Tang China against Tibet In 829 invaded Sichuan and reached the outskirt of the capital, Chengdu In 829 invaded Sichuan and reached the outskirt of the capital, Chengdu In 859, attacked the Annan protectorate- general repeatedly and took control of Jiaozhi (Hanoi) until 863. In 859, attacked the Annan protectorate- general repeatedly and took control of Jiaozhi (Hanoi) until 863.

9 Bureaucracy and examination system patterned on the Tang, some customs incorporated elements of Tibetan practice Bureaucracy and examination system patterned on the Tang, some customs incorporated elements of Tibetan practice Converted to Buddhism, adopted Chinese writing system Converted to Buddhism, adopted Chinese writing system Northeast: Khitans Northeast: Khitans Occupied northeastern China (Hebei) in 690s. Occupied northeastern China (Hebei) in 690s. Threatened Tang after rising again before 756 Threatened Tang after rising again before 756 Remained a threat to China until Northern Song. Remained a threat to China until Northern Song.

10  Southeast: Vietnam  Jiaozhou declared independent in 541  Taken by the Sui but became independent again after the Sui fell in 617  The Tang reconquered most of modern Vietnam  In 679, became one of Tang’s “protectorates”  Through out most of the Tang, Jiaozhou remained an orderly region

11  Its capital, Jiaozhi (Hanoi), lost its role in international trade to Panyu ( 番禺 pān yú, modern Guanzhou) of the Tang  Persian and Arab merchants stopped at Jiaozhi earlier  Now went directly to Panyu  In 938, Ngo Quyen (Wu Quan 吳權 ), established an independent state that eventually became Vietnam  Continued to employ Tang script, weights, measures, and coinage. Confucianism and Buddhism continued to flourish.

12  Northeast—Korea  Three kingdoms during the Tang: Koguryo, Silla, and Paekche  The Sui paid a price to launch unsuccessful campaigns against them  All three sent tribute to the Tang  Recognized as independent states by Tang in 622

13  In 640, princes of the Korean states studied at the imperial academy in Chang’an  In 645, 647, and 648, Taizong led expeditions against Koguryo to avenge death of its prince, who had studied in Chang’an and was killed and mutilated by his minister after returning to Koguryo; these expeditions were unsuccessful

14  Under Emperor Gaozong and Empress Wu, Tang allied with Silla, occupied Paekche and launched an expedition against Koguryo, which collapsed after its ruler’s death  In 668, Tang occupied Koguryo.  In 670s, the newly sinicized Silla united most of Korea, which remained a nominal Tang vassal institutionally modeled on the Tang.

15  Joined the East Asian Cultural sphere, Confucianism and Buddhism flourished.  Dominated maritime trade with China in the northeast

16 East--Japan Japan began to send embassy to China in the beginning of the 7th century; 4 times during the Sui Japan began to send embassy to China in the beginning of the 7th century; 4 times during the Sui Prince Shōtoku dispatched this official embassy in 607. Dozens of Buddhist monks came along with this mission Prince Shōtoku dispatched this official embassy in 607. Dozens of Buddhist monks came along with this mission

17 Started from 630 AD, 100 to 650 officials, students, and monks joined each mission. Started from 630 AD, 100 to 650 officials, students, and monks joined each mission. Studied Chinese political and rituals systems, school and the civil service examinations system, calendar, law, customs, arts, writing system, calligraphy, painting, sculpture, music, dance … Studied Chinese political and rituals systems, school and the civil service examinations system, calendar, law, customs, arts, writing system, calligraphy, painting, sculpture, music, dance … Prince Shōtoku (16 years old), Kamakura Period, 14 th Century

18 Kentōshi (Qian Tang shi 遣唐使 ): official embassy sent to China 12 times (plus 7 failing missions) during the Tang Kentōshi (Qian Tang shi 遣唐使 ): official embassy sent to China 12 times (plus 7 failing missions) during the Tang 17 Prince Shōtoku ’ s “ Seventeen Article Constitution ” (604) begins with a quotation from the Confucian Analects, which says “ Harmony is to be valued ”

19 Famous monks included Gembō, Kukai, Saichō, Ennin, Enchin Famous monks included Gembō, Kukai, Saichō, Ennin, Enchin Buddhism spread in Japan and the Tiantai (Jpn. Tendai) School of Buddhism became the most prominent school. Buddhism spread in Japan and the Tiantai (Jpn. Tendai) School of Buddhism became the most prominent school.

20 In 649, the Japanese court launched a series of major political reforms to establish a centralized monarchy modeled on the Tang system (Taika Reform, 大化の改新, Taika no Kaishin) In 649, the Japanese court launched a series of major political reforms to establish a centralized monarchy modeled on the Tang system (Taika Reform, 大化の改新, Taika no Kaishin) Legal code, military system, landholding patterns, taxation, Chinese writing and elements of elite culture including costume, poetry, music, painting, calligraphy, Confucianism, Buddhism... Legal code, military system, landholding patterns, taxation, Chinese writing and elements of elite culture including costume, poetry, music, painting, calligraphy, Confucianism, Buddhism... Others included customs, food stuff, agricultural tools, architecture, image making… Others included customs, food stuff, agricultural tools, architecture, image making…

21 Foreigners in Tang China Three keys to the vitality of the Tang Three keys to the vitality of the Tang Eclecticism Eclecticism Cosmopolitanism Cosmopolitanism internationalization internationalization Foreigners according to their social status: Foreigners according to their social status: Envoys, merchants, performers, soldiers, clerics Envoys, merchants, performers, soldiers, clerics

22 Foreigners according to their origins: Foreigners according to their origins: East: Koreans, Japanese East: Koreans, Japanese West: Arabs, Persians, Sogdians, Central Asians West: Arabs, Persians, Sogdians, Central Asians North: Turks, Uighurs, North: Turks, Uighurs, Southwest: Tibetans Southwest: Tibetans Southeast: Vietnamese Southeast: Vietnamese Religions came with them: Religions came with them: West: Islam, Judaism, Manichaeanism, Nestorian Christianity, West: Islam, Judaism, Manichaeanism, Nestorian Christianity, India, Central Asia and Tibet: Buddhism, Tantric Buddhism (Vajrayana Buddhism) India, Central Asia and Tibet: Buddhism, Tantric Buddhism (Vajrayana Buddhism)

23 Goods they brought to the Tang: Goods they brought to the Tang: West: silvers, jewels, musical instruments, textiles West: silvers, jewels, musical instruments, textiles Southeast : rice, spices, rhinoceros horns, elephants tusks, pearls Southeast : rice, spices, rhinoceros horns, elephants tusks, pearls Other things: Other things: wild animals, furs, feathers, rare plants, tropical wood, exotic foods, perfumes, drugs, textiles, dyes, jewels, metals, diverse curios (sacred and secular), books, maps… wild animals, furs, feathers, rare plants, tropical wood, exotic foods, perfumes, drugs, textiles, dyes, jewels, metals, diverse curios (sacred and secular), books, maps… People they brought: People they brought: Slaves, dwarves, entertainers, mercenary soldiers Slaves, dwarves, entertainers, mercenary soldiers

24 Foreigners and their cultures: Foreigners and their cultures: Indians and Central Asians — Buddhism, camels, music, astronomy, astrology, mathematics, Indians and Central Asians — Buddhism, camels, music, astronomy, astrology, mathematics, Tibetans — Tantric Buddhism Tibetans — Tantric Buddhism Turkish — language and clothes, horses, Islam Turkish — language and clothes, horses, Islam

25 Foreign traders in China Uighurs dominated the money-lending profession in Chang’an Sogdians ran wine ships Central Asians provided female entertainers, music and dance Examples of artifacts unearthed in China

26 Gold Coin, Justin II AD 565-578 East Roman Empire Unearthed, 1988 Xianyang Airport Construction site Probably from Byzantine Empire, 3rd-5 th C or East of the Mediterranean Sea, 8 th -9 th C Unearthed 1987, Famen Temple Probably from Central Asia Unearthed, 1987 Famen Temple

27 Bronze Vase Origin unclear Unearthed 1985, Shanxi, Qingshan Temple site


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