Presentation on theme: "America as a World Power,"— Presentation transcript:
1 America as a World Power, 1899-1914 WARNING: The following presentation contains copyrighted material. Either the material is in the public domain or we have received permission to use the material from its owner. Further use or reproduction is prohibited.
2 By 1899, America… Controlled Cuba American Possessions in the Pacific, 1899Controlled CubaOwned Hawaii, Guam, Puerto Rico and the PhilippinesGained control of several Pacific islandsAnd had become a WORLD POWER!Glencoe, p. 415
3 From 1899 to 1914, American imperialism took a variety of forms: Negotiation and diplomacyEconomic incentivesMilitary mightSometimes all three at once!
4 Open the Word document America as a World Power, 1899-1914 When you see this icon,go to the document andanswer the questions.As you go through the slides think, how did America justify her actions?
5 CHINABy 1894, Japan had defeated China in a war and gained territory in Manchuria. In response, European countries demanded that China lease exclusive territory to each of them.Leasing a territory meant that it would still belong to China, even though a foreign government would maintain overall control in that region.
6 China Sphere of Influence Each lease became known as a An area where a foreign nation controlled economic development such as railroad construction and mining
7 A French cartoon from the late 1890’s What are the kings and queens of Europe holding in their hands?What are they doing to CHINE?What does the expression on the face of the Chinese man tell you?China Imperialism
8 Open Door PolicyAmerican businessmen wanted to expand into China’s vast markets, but had no way to enter them! European nations already had carved out their pieces.President McKinley and Secretary of State John Hay both supported what they called an Open Door Policy, in which all countries should be allowed to trade with China.Department of Commerce and Labor: Children’s Bureau. View of the Gorenflo Canning Co. taken at 7 A.M., 03/06/ Retrieved June 29, 2009 from
9 Boxer RebellionSecret societies in China resented foreign domination of their economy and Western attempts to convert Chinese citizens to Christianity.They began plotting to force the foreigners out of China.Westerners called these groups “Boxers” because many of them practiced martial arts.A Chinese "Boxer," 1900.Chinese Boxer in the boxer rebellion circa 1900(NARA 111-SC-83087) 1900Part
10 Boxer RebellionIn 1900, the Boxers attacked foreign embassies in Beijing, killing over 200.The event became known as the Boxer Rebellion.
11 Boxer RebellionAn international force, including U.S. troops, ended the rebellion.China was forced to pay reparations (war damages), but avoided being divided into colonies.The Open Door Policy remained in effect.Boxer TroopsWestern and Japanese Navy troopsduring the Boxer Rebellion, 1900.U.S. Marines in Boxer Rebellion. Circa nara.gov.html
12 Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt On September 6, 1901, President McKinley was shot by an anarchist and died a few days later.Theodore Roosevelt , age 42, became the youngest American president.Reece, B. Carroll. Theodore Roosevelt, ca ca Retrieved June 29, 2009 from
13 Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt Roosevelt believed that being a world power would keep America strong and prosperous.He also believed that America had a duty to civilize third world countries.In his typical active fashion, Roosevelt took steps to increase American power.
14 Big Stick Diplomacy Roosevelt was fond of this African proverb: “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far.”His foreign policy became known as the Big Stick Diplomacy or Gunboat Diplomacy.
15 Roosevelt CorollaryWhen some European nations threatened to send troops to the Caribbean and Latin America to collect debts, Roosevelt announced the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine in A corollary is an addition.The Roosevelt Corollary said that the U.S. would intervene in foreign affairs in the Western hemisphere, if necessary, to maintain peace.
16 Roosevelt Corollary Roosevelt collected the debts for the European countries.The Corollary made the US. the policeman of the Western Hemisphere!Uncle Sam, the Debt Collector
17 Big Stick or Gunboat Diplomacy He believed that showing American military power would keep world peace.This is one of the reasons he sent the “Great White Fleet” (the US gunboat Fleet) on a world tour.
18 20 ports of call, including Japan The Great White FleetThe Great White Fleet was 16 battleships that went on a 43,000 mile , 14 month trip around the world.20 ports of call, including JapanThis was Big Stick ( Gunboat) Diplomacy in action!Concord (Gunboat 3). Starboard bow, Retrieved June 29, 2009 from
19 Teddy RooseveltOn your worksheet list three examples of how Teddy Roosevelt expanded America’s involvement in foreign affairs.Overall, was Roosevelt more of a bully or a peacemaker? Explain your answer.You might want to talk about his receiving the Nobel Peace Prize for helping to settle the Russo-Japanese war in 1905.
20 President TaftTaft continued Roosevelt’s policies but preferred to focus on economics, not the military.Taft tries on Big Stick Diplomacy
21 President TaftHe advocated using dollar diplomacy: encouraging American business expansion to underdeveloped countries, which would make both countries prosperous.It would also lessen the motivation for a country to go to war with the America.Give an example of dollar diplomacy.Taft vowed to support U.S. businesses with military support, if necessary
22 President WilsonWilson opposed imperialism and believed that America must set a good example for the world by promoting democracy abroad.He based his foreign policy on his moral ideology.Department of Defense. Woodrow Wilson, ca – Retrieved June 29, 2009 from
23 Woodrow Wilson Nonetheless, Wilson intervened twice in Mexico! In 1914, he sent American troops to Mexico to try to overthrow the new leader, a dictator named Victoriano Huerta.To his surprise, anti-American riots broke out!
24 Backlash to US Interference In Mexico In 1916, the Mexican folk hero Pancho Villa led a raid on Columbus, New Mexico.Fourteen American soldiers were killed.Wilson ordered 10,000 soldiers into Mexico to find Villa.
25 Woodrow WilsonThe hunt was unsuccessful, and Wilson had to recall the troops to prepare for the looming hostilities in Europe.Villa was never captured.“I’ve Had About Enough ofThis”, by Clifford Berryman, 1916
26 How did America justify her foreign policy? Team player ?Policeman ?Bully ?Review your notes on the foreign policy spectrum, if needed!
27 Create a cartoon for each of the following: Open Door PolicyBoxer RebellionRoosevelt Corollary
28 Works CitedAppleby, Joyce, and Brinkley, Alan. The American Republic Since st. New York:Glencoe/McGraw Hill, 2003.Berryman, Clifford. "I've had about enough of this." Berryman Political Cartoon Collection Jul 2008 <http://arcweb.archives.gov/arc/digital_detail.jsp?&pg=45&rn=45&tn=306140&st=b&rp=details&nh=100>.Chinese Boxer in the boxer rebellion circa 1900(NARA 111-SC-83087) 1900Part"China Imperialism.13 May Jul 2008"Taft Tries on Big Stick Diplomacy." Theodore Roosevelt Collection Dickinson State University. 23 Jul 2008 <http://www.theodorerooseveltcenter.com/Cartoon_Enlarge.asp?ID=79>."Uncle Sam, the Debt Collector." Theodore Roosevelt Collection Dickinson State University. 22 Jul 2008 <http://www.theodorerooseveltcenter.com/Cartoon_Enlarge.asp?ID=14>.“U.S. Marines in the boxer rebellion” circa 1900(NARA 111-SC-83087) 1900PartWoodrow Wilson: