Presentation on theme: "Remittances and development: Its impact on U.S./Latin American banking/financial institutions Manuel Orozco, Senior Fellow & Project coordinator MIF-IFAD."— Presentation transcript:
Remittances and development: Its impact on U.S./Latin American banking/financial institutions Manuel Orozco, Senior Fellow & Project coordinator MIF-IFAD Remittances and Development Program Washington, DC International Payments Systems, October 7 th, 2004 Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Atlanta, Georgia
Policy dimensions of remittances Dynamics of remittances 1.Benefit to households 2.Distributive nature 1.Rural Sector 2.Country 3.Macro-economico Impact 1.FC source 2.Counter-cyclical role 3.Multiplying effect 4.Tied to finance 5.Part of a broader process: The 5Ts Problems Transaction Costs Limited competition Limited participation of S&C institutions Security No economic policy United States 1.Expand the acceptable forms of identity used by banks: 2.Expand financial services that banks and CUs offer to immigrants 3.Partnerships with community based organizations to create social bridges. 4.Enhance the role of the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) 5.Link financial literacy to the value of remittances. 6.Promote strategic alliances among U.S. and Latin American banks and money transfer businesses. 7.Disclosure Latin America Monitor money transfers, particularly the exchange rate Motivate banks through tax and other rewards to reach out to remittance senders and recipients. Open low-maintenance banking facilities in areas near remittance receiving households Offer first time deposit accounts with varying financial incentives; Attract remittance senders into the home country’s banking system; Allow and enable credit unions, micro-finance institutions, and popular banks as remittance agents and deposit holders. Promote the adoption of new technologies for the poor. Opciones o soluciones
GDP: (X-M) + I + G + C -DOMESTIC SAVINGS - INVESTMENT -FOREIGN SAVINGS - INVESTMENT -FDI: Transnational capital, migrant capital investment -TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER -UNILATERAL TRANSFERS -ODA- BILATERAL & MULTILATERAL -PRIVATE DONATIONS FOUNDATIONS, PPOs, HTAs -WORKER REMITTANCES -Maquila, Tourism, Non-traditional exports -Transportation, Telecommunication, Nostalgic Trade The national income equation in Latin America: a rent seeking and courtesan state?
Immigrant economic practices (annual expenses) Consumption DonationsFamily remittances Capital investment Household economy (US$270) Community (US$10,000 year) Trade and services retail (US$3,000) Property and other I (US$5,000)
Benefit to families
Average amount sent and length of time living in U.S.
Average amount sent and length of time living in U.S. (by country)
Remittances and income distribution
Anti-cyclical nature: Quarterly flows to selected Latin American countries
Guatemala and the coffee crisis
Minutes in phone calls from the U.S. to Central America and the D.R. ( )
Globalization : Percent of people who send remittances and buy home country goods, call regularly home, donate, travel and spend money in their home country Spends up to US$1,000 Cuba79 Colombia46 Ecuador7 El Salvador34 Guatemala50 Guyana33 Honduras55 Mexico22 Nicaragua66 Dominican Rep. 32 Purchase home country goods Cuba81 Colombia29 Ecuador95 El Salvador56 Guatemala50 Guyana82 Honduras74 Mexico76 Nicaragua83 Dominican Rep. 65 Calls over 30 minutes a week Cuba40 Colombia10 Ecuador13 El Salvador59 Guatemala64 Guyana38 Honduras29 Mexico56 Nicaragua26 Dominican Rep. 44 Remittances Visits home country Cuba22 Colombia13 Ecuador38 El Salvador26 Guatemala9 Guyana39 Honduras12 Mexico23 Nicaragua19 Dominican Rep. 68 Donations Cuba5 Colombia Ecuador10 El Salvador3 Guatemala3 Guyana27 Honduras7 Mexico4 Nicaragua4 Dominican Republic3
Source: Central Bank of each country. Estimates for Cuba, Haiti and Nicaragua Crisis bancaria en RD Crisis ec. en Ecuador Crisis del café en Guatemala
Percent of remittance senders who say they visit home country (%) Datos recogidos de la encuesta e inmigrantes enNew York conducida por el autor, administrada por Emmanuel Sylvestre & Assoc. Resultados presentados en Orozco, Manuel (2004), Distant but close: Guyanese transnational communities and their remittances from the United States Inter- American Dialogue, Informe encargado por la U.S. Agency for International Development. Washington, DC. Enero..
Tourism: one of the 5Ts...
Remittance senders: frequency of calls to relatives (%) Datos recogidos de la encuesta e inmigrantes enNew York conducida por el autor, administrada por Emmanuel Sylvestre & Assoc. Resultados presentados en Orozco, Manuel (2004), Distant but close: Guyanese transnational communities and their remittances from the United States Inter- American Dialogue, Informe encargado por la U.S. Agency for International Development. Washington, DC. Enero..
Phone calls to selected Latin American countries Source: Encuesta de inmigrantes en New York; US Census Bureau; 2000 and 2001 International Telecommunications Data, Linda Blake and Jim Lande. Washington, FCC, December 2001, and January * calculo basedo en un promedio de 4 llamadas al mes por 5, 8, 15, 25 y 30 minutos por llamada Formula utilizada es ∑ de llamadas = minutos anuales * Porciento que llama * Porcentaje inmigrantes que remiten (Censo 2000 de pobl.)
Remittance senders who buy home country goods (%) Data reported from survey of immigrants in New York conducted out by the author, administered by Emmanuel Sylvestre and Assoc. Results reported in Orozco, Manuel (2004), Distant but close: Guyanese transnational communities and their remittances from the United States Inter-American Dialogue, Report commissioned by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Washington, DC. January..
Purchase of nostalgic goods by Nicaraguan remittance senders 125,000 personas que gastan $100 anuales en queso: $12.5 millones. Exportación Nicaraguense de queso es aprox. $30 millones.
Goods bought by Guyanese diaspora
Immigrants and bank accounts Source: Data reported from survey of immigrants in Chicago, DC, New York, Los Angeles and Miami commissioned by the author, administered by Emmanuel Sylvestre, Protectora Inc. August 2003.
Why doesn’t have a bank account?
Do you have debit, credit card, or both
Do you have financial obligations (loans)?
Money Transfer Company MTC’s bank MTC’s rec. country Agent Distributor AD’s bank Data Transfer Report (customer’s sending Information) Wire Transfer (cash transfer Amount) MTC’s Agent POS MTC’s Agent POS Remittance sender Remittance recipient Regulatory Environment Compliance Monitoring International money transfer operation MTC: Money transfer company POS: Point of sale AD: Agent distributor (on receiving side) TWO DATA STREAMS Players: MTO, agents at POS, distributing agents, banks Type of MTO player: -Transfer: WT, MO, hand delivery -Scope: National, Regional/country; Financial; CU, unlicensed
Cost comparison between principal amount sent and sending $200
Changes over time in costs to send principal amount
Cost of Remittances to Mexico, May (cost to send US$300)
Cost of remittances and volume
Banks, Remittances and immigrants Identified 100 banks accepting consular ID Building of pricing dataset of 60 banks Qualitative Interviews to 22 banks and credit unions RESULTS-
Banks and offers of remittance transfers
Charges made by banks and credit unions to transfer remittances to Mexico (by method used)
Observed Results InstitutionRemittance TransfersAccounts among remittance senders Commercial Banks – Banco UNO, Central América<10,00020% – Banco Salvadoreño, El Salvador12% market share17,000 – Banco Industrial, Guatemala20% market share30% – Citibank, Wells Fargo, Bank of America<30,00010, ,000 – U.S. Community/local banks[see next page] Government – Red de la Gente, Mexico25,000 month5% (1200) Non-profit: MFIs and Credit Unions – Fedecaces (Credit Union), El Salvador15,000 (US$60M), 3% market share >10% – Santa Cruz, Mixtepec, MexicoUS$250,000>50% – Banco Solidario, Ecuador16,000>30% – Cajas Populares Mexicanas21,000>50%
Banking the unbanked: mainstreaming Latinos as financial agents The interest of financial institutions is not on the transfers, but on making a long term relationship with the sender. Two approaches: –Focusing on specific strategies to the Hispanic market –Use of the same marketing tools to bring Hispanics. –Result: mainstreaming Latinos as financial agents. Two premises: –Realistic approach about what to offer and how. –Accept Mexico’s Matricula Consular as a valid form of identification to open a bank account. Financial services offered Marketing tools Expected results