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First Turnpike- 1790 Lancaster, PA By 1832, nearly 2400 mi. of road connected most major cities.

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Presentation on theme: "First Turnpike- 1790 Lancaster, PA By 1832, nearly 2400 mi. of road connected most major cities."— Presentation transcript:



3 First Turnpike Lancaster, PA By 1832, nearly 2400 mi. of road connected most major cities.

4 Cumberland (National Road), 1811


6 Conestoga Covered Wagons Conestoga Trail, 1820s

7 Erie Canal System

8 Erie Canal, 1820s Begun in 1817; completed in 1825

9 Robert Fulton & the Steamboat 1807: The Clermont




13 Principal Canals in 1840

14 Inland Freight Rates

15 Clipper Ships: Boston-China Trade

16 400 miles a day



19 The “Iron Horse” Wins! (1830) 1830  13 miles of track built by Baltimore & Ohio RR By 1850  9000 mi. of RR track [1860  31,000 mi.]


21 The Railroad Revolution, 1850s  Immigrant labor built the No. RRs.  Slave labor built the So. RRs.


23 Resourcefulness & Experimentation  Americans were willing to try anything.  They were first copiers, then innovators  41 patents were approved  4,357 “ “ “

24 Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1791 Actually invented by a slave!

25 Eli Whitney’s Gun Factory Interchangeable Parts Rifle

26 Oliver Evans First prototype of the locomotive First automated flour mill

27 John Deere & the Steel Plow (1837)

28 Cyrus McCormick & the Mechanical Reaper: 1831

29 Samuel F. B. Morse 1840 – Telegraph

30 Cyrus Field & the Transatlantic Cable, 1858

31 Elias Howe & Isaac Singer 1840s Sewing Machine

32 Material advance = natural fruit of American republicanism & proof of country’s virtue and promise. Material advance = natural fruit of American republicanism & proof of country’s virtue and promise. The “American Dream” A German visitor in the 1840s, Friedrich List, observed: Anything new is quickly introduced here, including all of the latest inventions. There is no clinging to old ways. The moment an American hears the word “invention,” he pricks up his ears.


34 Boom/Bust Cycles: The blue line shows, for comparison, the price of a year’s tuition at Harvard College. In 1790 it was $24, but by 1860 had risen to $104.

35 Samuel Slater (“Father of the Factory System”)

36 The Lowell/Waltham System: First Dual-Purpose Textile Plant Francis Cabot Lowell’s town

37 Lowell in 1850

38 Lowell Mill

39 Early Textile Loom

40 New England Textile Centers: 1830s

41 New England Dominance in Textiles

42 Starting for Lowell

43 Lowell Girls What was their typical “profile?”

44 Lowell Boarding Houses What was boardinghouse life like?

45 Lowell Mills Time Table

46 Early “Union” Newsletter

47 The Factory Girl’s Garland February 20, 1845 issue.

48 I’m a Factory Girl Filled with Wishes I'm a factory girl Everyday filled with fear From breathing in the poison air Wishing for windows! I'm a factory girl Tired from the 13 hours of work each day And we have such low pay Wishing for shorten work times! I'm a factory girl Never having enough time to eat Nor to rest my feet Wishing for more free time! I'm a factory girl Sick of all this harsh conditions Making me want to sign the petition! So do what I ask for because I am a factory girl And I'm hereby speaking for all the rest!

49 Irish Immigrant Girls at Lowell


51 Early Emancipation in North

52 Missouri Compromise, 1820

53 Characteristics of Antebellum South 1.Primarily agrarian. 2.Economic power shifted from “upper South” to “lower South.” 3.“Cotton Is King!” * 1860  5 mil. Bales yr. (57% of total US exports). 4.Almost no industrialization. 5.Rudimentary financial system. 6.Inadequate transportation system.

54 Southern Society (1850) “Slavocracy” [plantation owners] The “Plain Folk” [white yeoman farmers] 6,000,000 Black Freemen Black Slaves 3,200, ,000 Total US Population  23,000,000 [9,250,000 in the South = 40%]

55 Southern Population

56 Graniteville Textile Co. Founded 1845, South’s first attempt at industrialization: Richmond, VA

57 Southern Agriculture

58 Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation

59 Slaves Using the Cotton Gin

60 Changes in Cotton Production

61 Value of Cotton Exports As % of All US Exports

62 “Hauling the Whole Week’s Pickings” William Henry Brown, 1842

63 Slaves Working in Sugar-Boiling House, 1823


65 Slave Auction Notice, 1823

66 Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856

67 Slave Master Brands Slave Accoutrements Slave muzzle

68 Anti-Slave Pamphlet

69 Slave tag, SC Slave Accoutrements Slave leg irons Slave shoes

70 Slave-Owning Population (1850)

71 Slave-Owning Families (1850)

72 Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.

73 Tara – Plantation Reality or Myth? Hollywood’s Version?

74 A Real Georgia Plantation

75 Scarlet and Mammie (Hollywood Again!)

76 A Real Mammie & Her Charge

77 The Southern “Belle”

78 A Slave Family

79 The Ledger of John White  Matilda Selby, 9, $ sold to Mr. Covington, St. Louis, $  Brooks Selby, 19, $ Left at Home – Crazy  Fred McAfee, 22, $ Sold to Pepidal, Donaldsonville, $  Howard Barnett, 25, $ Ranaway. Sold out of jail, $  Harriett Barnett, 17, $ Sold to Davenport and Jones, Lafourche, $900.00

80 US Laws Regarding Slavery U. S. Constitution: * 3/5s compromise [I.2] * fugitive slave clause [IV.2] 1793  Fugitive Slave Act  stronger Fugitive Slave Act.

81 Southern Slavery--> An Aberration?  1780s: 1 st antislavery society Philadelphia.  By 1804: emancipation laws in all northern states.  1807: the legal termination of transatlantic slave trade.  1820: slavery abolished Mexico.  1833: slavery abolished throughout British Empire.  1861: the serfs of Russia were emancipated.

82 Slavery Was Less Efficient in U. S. than Elsewhere  High cost of keeping slaves from escaping.  GOAL  raise the “exit cost.” Slave patrols. Southern Black Codes. Cut off a toe or a foot.


84 Slave Resistance Refusal to work hard. Isolated acts of sabotage. Escape via the Underground Railroad.

85 Runaway Slave Ads

86 Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route.

87 Slave Rebellions Throughout Americas

88 Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South 1822 Gabriel Prosser 1800

89 Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South: Nat Turner, 1831

90 The Culture of Slavery 1.Black Christianity [Baptists or Methodists]: * more emotional worship services. * negro spirituals. 2.Gullah languages. 3.Nuclear family with extended kin links, where possible. 4.Importance of music [spirituals].

91 Southern Pro-Slavery Propaganda


93 Regional Specialization EAST  Industrial SOUTH  Cotton & Slavery WEST  The Nation’s “Breadbasket”

94 American Population Centers in 1820

95 American Population Centers in 1860

96 National Origin of Immigrants: Potato Famine

97 Know- Nothing Party: “The Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner” Know- Nothing Party: “The Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner”

98 Changing Occupation Distributions:


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