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Development Planning and Its Critics PIA 2501 Development Policy and Management.

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Presentation on theme: "Development Planning and Its Critics PIA 2501 Development Policy and Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 Development Planning and Its Critics PIA 2501 Development Policy and Management


3 Development Planning Under the Microscope  Next Two Weeks  “Going Operational- What that means”  The “What is to be Done Syndrome”  Theory vs. Policy vs. Management


5 Overview  Review of Themes  Limitations of Planning  Review of Structural Changes  Planning Assumptions  The Blue Print Model Problem  The History and Logic of Planning


7 Definitions of Development Planning: Overview Planning is the application of rational ordered choice to social and economic affairs. An Oxymoron?

8 Question  Is this an oxymoron?

9 Review of the Debate- 5 Perspectives Neo-Orthodox View of Planning The Oxymoron Theory

10 Review-1: To what extent is the state planning approach necessary? Expanded government meant specialized planning organizations and the rise of development economics as a discipline Physical and Social Changes Require Strategic Planning Remains Mandated by technical assistance and Donors

11 Review-2: To what extent is the state planning approach necessary? There was rhetoric of a command economy as opposed to a market economy with two extremes and the soft state in-between The issue of grass roots participation was raised The Reality is in-between: Public Private Partnerships

12 Review 3: Limitations of Planning  To what extent is the state planning approach possible? Issue of growth vs. distribution Issue of planning vs. ways in which budget priorities are set Debate about the coordination of planning voluntary vs. hierarchical authority


14 Structural Reforms- Review- 4:  The Change: Overemphasized the Anti-State theme  Result Since 1985, privatization, public sector reform and structural adjustment  New Theories Neo-orthodoxy based upon Public and Social (Rational Choice) ideas  What was “Developmental” in the 1990s?

15 Rational Choice?

16 Contemporary Themes of Development- Review 5:  Except for the Newly Industrializing Countries(NICs), the failure of Development Management as a method  Question: does failure occur as a result of state collapse? (Goran Hyden)  What is the future of Development Planning

17 The Problematic Goal

18 Level of Analysis Issue & Planning  Public Policy Overall decisions to take action  Programs Ongoing areas of activity within a policy area, a nucleus to carry out program  Projects Discrete time-bound, often sector or spatially based activity

19 Contemporary Themes of Development  Problem of government as a negative; a state centric vs. society centric view  How does that translate into public private partnerships? (Robert Bates, Elinor Ostrom)  Issue of "implementation," the neglected component of development policy (Pressman)


21 Contemporary Themes of Development Conflict Mediation Institution building is a pre- requisite Development Policy is environmentally bound; Importance of micro-macro linkages (Kathleen Staudt) Gender

22 Haryana Community Forestry Institution Building Project (India)

23 Development Planning The Blue Print Approach

24 Triumph of the Donor  Need for the "Blueprint" approach- Donors  Donors vs. the Learning Process  The Blue Print problem and Project Management

25 Blue Prints- Six Perspectives  Blueprint Planning Requires Broad Consensus within Society

26 The Blueprint Approach-1 Identification of available resources and setting of financial priorities  Need to distinguish incremental budgeting from capital or development budgets  Capital or Development Budgets are one time investments Key: Built-in (sunken) costs and problem of maintenance and recurrent implications


28 The Blueprint Approach-2  Defined by a series of steps: Identification of or selection of appropriate means (Funding) Formulation of specific activities Provision for plan's implementation

29 Blue Print-3 Secure coordinated action and cooperation  especially in problem of communications Seek funding for projects Make Go/No Go Decision Implementation: Monitoring and Evaluation


31 Location, Location, Location-4 Location of planning Center: Manager of the Blueprints Ultimately a political question- Central Control President or Prime Minister’s Office Ministry of Finance and Development Planning

32 Location, Location, Location-5  Location of planning Center: Manager of the Blueprints Separate Departments or Commissions for Development and Planning Exercises  Depends upon International Technical Assistance  Private or NGO Contractor  Regional and local government  Social Funds


34 Location, Location, Location-6  Location of planning Center: Manager of the Blueprint  Use and overuse of inter- departmental committees Afghanistan, 2005- Office of President

35 Central to Project

36 Or The Concept of the Pork Barrel

37 Intermission  Ten Minute Break

38 Development Planning: Origins  Prologue: The European and Colonial Origins of Planning Soviet Union--New Economic Period in the 1920s and the use of the five- year plan British India--1930s. National planning and industrialization

39 Development Planning GOALS

40 Prologue: Planning (Cont.) Eastern vs. Western Europe after WWII Britain in the 1950s--Labour Party flirts with plans Two varieties: Command vs. Keynesianism

41 John Maynard Keynes, (1883- 1946)

42 Extreme Planning: Command Economies Soviet Union Under Stalin Mao’s China Albania before 1989 Cuba North Korea

43 Symbols of Industrialization

44 Development Planning: An Overview- Four Themes  Planning Defined  Planning Goals  Anti-Planning  Post-Planning


46 Definitions of Development Planning: Government Function  Development planners and development administrators are action-oriented and goal- oriented civil servants striving to promote economic and social development

47 Definitions of Development Planning  Development planning is the setting of priorities for the use of scarce resources

48 Goals of Development Planning  Foster economic growth  Strengthen human and organizational capacities  Plan and develop physical infrastructure (roads, dams, railways, buildings, etc.)


50 Goals of Development Planning, continued  Promotion of greater equality in distribution of opportunities  Provide framework for wider participation in the economic system  Support social capital development in the form of stronger families, communities, interest associations and grass- root institutions

51 Social Capital?

52 Development Planning as a Process  Goal is to change societal behavior: At the center: original goal planning the National Plan  monitoring and managing the economy  includes setting targets and achievement of goals

53 Russian Five Year Plan

54 Development Planning and Organization  At the center, overall goals are set through National Plan (the wish list) and through monitoring and “managing” the economy  planners set targets and measure goals  Key emphasis placed on local government authorities, extension services, and district administrations for service delivery  Integrated Rural Development Schemes

55 Rural Planning in Bangladesh

56 Development Planning: Local Level In regions and districts, planner has a coordination responsibility that includes in some cases social mobilization (Forced Labor?) At regional and local level, goals are regional planning, coordination and mobilization Overall--government agents or their contractors act as change agents, and provide “stimulus” to society

57 Forced Labour Convention ILO Poster

58 Controversy over the nature of planning  Cadre of Economists, budget specialists and project analysts  Informal ties with planner/economists in other ministries and Departments  Special issue of foreign international expatriate planners  Planning as shopping list for donors (pork barrel projects)  Politicos emphasis on physical planning infrastructure--problem of maintenance

59 Ruth Prawer Jhabvala and Carlos Fuentes

60 Discussion: Case Studies of the Week  Carlos Fuentes, “The Cost of Living”  Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, “The Interview”

61 Kushwant Singh  1950s  Contemporary

62 Kurban Said- The Controversy Lev Nussimbaum (Baku, 1905- (Positano, 1942) was a prolific writer, journalist and orientalist, an Azerbaijani Jew from Baku, who successfully reinvented himself as a Muslim prince.

63 Books of the Week Kushwant Singh, Train to Pakistan Kurban Said, Ali and Nino 1. What do these books warn us about? 2. What are the strengths and weaknesses? 3. What do they tell us about development issues?

64 Discussion

65 Discussion- Next Week What Does the Reading (Thus Far) Tell Us About Development Policy and Management?  John Seitz  Michael Edwards  John Rapley

66 Next Week Phd : What Is Worth Reading?  Goran Hyden, No Shortcuts to Progress  Jennifer M. Brinkerhoff, Partnership for International Development  Arturo Escobar, Encountering Development

67 Author of the Week: Arturo Escobar  What Does Escobar say about the concepts Development Economics and Planning?  How does he "Deconstruct" development? What does that mean?

68 Question of Next Week: PhD level "What Is To Be Done?" according to Escobar.

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