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**Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus**

Chapter 5 Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus

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**Introduction Relational algebra & relational calculus**

formal languages associated with the relational model Relational algebra (high-level) procedural language Relational calculus non-procedural language. A language that produces a relation that can be derived using relational calculus is relationally complete

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Relational Algebra Relational algebra operations work on one or more relations to define another relation without changing original relations Both operands and results are relations Output from one operation can be input to another Allows nested expressions Closure property

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**Relational Algebra Five basic operations**

Selection, Projection, Cartesian product, Union, and Set Difference Perform most required data retrieval operations Additional operators Join, Intersection, and Division Can be expressed in terms of 5 basic operations

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**Selection (or Restriction)**

predicate (R) Works on single relation R Defines relation that contains only tuples (rows) of R that satisfy specified condition (predicate)

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**Example - Selection (or Restriction)**

List all staff with a salary greater than £10,000. salary > (Staff)

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**Projection col1, . . . , coln(R) Works on a single relation R**

Defines relation that contains vertical subset of R Extracts values of specified attributes Eliminates duplicates

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Example - Projection Produce a list of salaries for all staff, showing only staffNo, fName, lName, and salary details. staffNo, fName, lName, salary(Staff)

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Union R S Defines relation that contains all tuples of R, or S, or both R and S Duplicate tuples eliminated R and S must be union-compatible For relations R and S with I and J tuples, respectively Union is concatenation of R & S into one relation with maximum of (I + J) tuples

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Example - Union List all cities where there is either a branch office or a property for rent. city(Branch) city(PropertyForRent)

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Set Difference R – S Defines relation consisting of tuples in relation R, but not in S R and S must be union-compatible

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**Example - Set Difference**

List all cities where there is a branch office but no properties for rent. city(Branch) – city(PropertyForRent)

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Intersection R S Defines relation consisting of set of all tuples in both R and S R and S must be union-compatible Expressed using basic operations: R S = R – (R – S)

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**Example - Intersection**

List all cities where there is both a branch office and at least one property for rent. city(Branch) city(PropertyForRent)

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**Cartesian product R X S Binary operation**

Defines relation that is concatenation of every tuple of relation R with every tuple of relation S

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**Example - Cartesian product**

List the names and comments of all clients who have viewed a property for rent. (clientNo, fName, lName(Client)) X (clientNo, propertyNo, comment (Viewing))

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**Example - Cartesian product and Selection**

Use selection operation to extract those tuples where Client.clientNo = Viewing.clientNo. sClient.clientNo = Viewing.clientNo((ÕclientNo, fName, lName(Client)) (ÕclientNo, propertyNo, comment(Viewing))) Cartesian product and Selection can be reduced to single operation Join

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**Relational Algebra Operations**

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**Join Operations Join - derivative of Cartesian product**

Equivalent to performing Selection, using join predicate as selection formula, over Cartesian product of two operand relations One of most difficult operations to implement efficiently in an RDBMS One reason RDBMSs have intrinsic performance problems

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**Join Operations Various forms of join operation Theta join**

Equijoin (a particular type of Theta join) Natural join Outer join Semijoin

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**Theta join (-join) R FS**

Defines relation that contains tuples satisfying predicate F from Cartesian product of R and S Predicate F is of the form R.ai S.bi where may be comparison operators (<, , >, , =, )

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Theta join (-join) Can rewrite Theta join using basic Selection and Cartesian product operations R FS = F(R S) Degree of a Theta join Sum of degrees of operand relations R and S If predicate F contains only equality (=) Equijoin

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Example - Equijoin List the names and comments of all clients who have viewed a property for rent. (clientNo, fName, lName(Client)) Client.clientNo = Viewing.clientNo (clientNo, propertyNo, comment(Viewing))

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Natural join R S Equijoin of relations R and S over all common attributes x One occurrence of each common attribute eliminated from result

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Example - Natural join List the names and comments of all clients who have viewed a property for rent. (clientNo, fName, lName(Client)) (clientNo, propertyNo, comment(Viewing))

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Outer join Used to display rows in result that do not have matching values in join column R S (Left) outer join Tuples from R that do not have matching values in common columns of S included in result relation

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**Example - Left Outer join**

Produce a status report on property viewings. propertyNo, street, city(PropertyForRent) Viewing

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Semijoin R F S Defines relation that contains tuples of R that participate in join of R with S Can rewrite Semijoin using Projection and Join: R F S = A(R F S)

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Example - Semijoin List complete details of all staff who work at the branch in Glasgow. Staff Staff.branchNo=Branch.branchNo(city=‘Glasgow’(Branch))

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**Division R S Expressed using basic operations: T1 C(R)**

Defines relation over attributes C that consists of set of tuples from R that match combination of every tuple in S Expressed using basic operations: T1 C(R) T2 C((S X T1) – R) T T1 – T2

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Example - Division Identify all clients who have viewed all properties with three rooms. (clientNo, propertyNo(Viewing)) (propertyNo(rooms = 3 (PropertyForRent)))

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**Relational Algebra Operations**

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