Presentation on theme: "POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC CHANGES IN LATIN AMERICA: 1867- 1917 By: Abby Gordon and Dickie Fairbanks."— Presentation transcript:
POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC CHANGES IN LATIN AMERICA: 1867- 1917 By: Abby Gordon and Dickie Fairbanks
MEXICAN POLITICS AND ECONOMY: CONSERVATISM IN 1860 The president of Mexico was Benito Juarez in 1861. For three years, he was constantly fighting for control of Mexico against Maximilian Von Habsburg. Habsburg was the son of the emperor of Austria, Franz Joseph I. Joseph granted his son emperor of Mexico. (He was approved by Conservative Mexicans) Van Hapsburg and Juarez were constantly fighting each other for political control of Mexico. Von Hapsburg was officially recognized by the conservatives as the emperor of Mexico on April 20 th, 1864.
MEXICAN POLITICS AND ECONOMY: JUAREZ GAINS CONTROL In 1867, Maximillian and his forces were defeated by Benito Juarez after three years of continuous conflict between the two. Juarez denied all pleads for amnesty and had Von Hapsburg executed by firing squad. Immediately after the victory, Juarez set economic and political reforms.
MEXICAN POLITICS AND ECONOMY: POLITICAL REFORM After Benito Juarez was reinstated as president, he adopted a decree on August 14 th, 1867. This called for five constitutional reforms and was a referendum of constitutional reform. Establishes a bicameral legislature that added a Senate. Only the congress can veto the president with a 2/3 majority. Substituting written notice by executive officers for a previous requirement of personal presence. Limiting the powers of the congress committee when congress is not actually in session. To provide method of succession for both president and chief justice. The decree also stated that there must be general elections. From 1867 up until Juarez’s death in 1872, constant controversy arose because the reforms strengthened the executive power.
MEXICAN POLITICS AND ECONOMY: ECONOMIC FOCUS In 1877, Porfirio Diaz revolted against Juarez’s successor Sebastian Lerdo De Tejada. Diaz successfully ruled as dictator of Mexico until 1911. During this time period, Mexico underwent tremendous commercial and economic developments. This was based on Diaz’s encouragement for foreign investment
MEXICAN POLITICS AND ECONOMY: ECONOMIC FOCUS By 1910 most businesses in Mexico were owned by foreign countries. Mostly American or British owners Diaz modernized and industrialized Mexico City, turning it into metropolis The constant inequality of Mexico’s political and economic systems led to growing discontent which ultimately led to revolution.
ARGENTINE POLITICS AND ECONOMY Pelagio Baltasar Luna was an Argentine politician of the radical civic union. He joined the radical youth in 1889 which took part in the armed revolution the following year. In 1916 Luna was elected vice president serving until his death in 1919.
THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION 1910-1920 On November 20 th, 1910, the Mexican Revolution begins when Francisco Madero issues the plan of San Luis Potosi. This promised democracy, federalism, agrarian reform and worker’s rights This plan declared war on the Diaz regime.
THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION 1910-1920 By 1911, Diaz is forced to step aside because Modero was the newly elected president However, conflict and violence continued for the next decade because of leaders such as Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa. These two influential leaders refused to submit to any presidential authority.
THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION 1910-1920 In 1913 after a series of bloody riots, Francisco Modero is overthrown. He is overthrown by a coop led by his own military chief General Victoriano Huerta Huerta declares himself dictator and has Modero murdered. Huerta is finally forced to resign in 1814 as Carranza takes power Villa and Sepata are still continuously waging war against Carranzq.
THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION 1910-1920: INTRO TO WWI From 1917 up until the murder of Zepata in 1919, Carranza grows increasingly cautious. The following year Obregon is overthrown and killed by a group of his more radical generals.