Presentation on theme: "Generations A Hidden Source of Diversity"— Presentation transcript:
1 Generations A Hidden Source of Diversity 1Generations A Hidden Source of DiversityKenneth J. Doka, PhDProfessor of Gerontology, The College of New RochelleSenior Consultant, The Hospice Foundation of America
2 Objectives Describe the characteristics of varied generations Formative ExperiencesCore ValuesExplore the implications of generational differencesMedical Care and End-of-LifeCounseling Issues and ConcernsWorkplace Differences
3 Caution! Generational differences are only one source of diversity Others include:Ethnicity and CultureGenderSocial ClassSpirituality/HumanismGeographical
4 The Nature of Diversity 4The Nature of DiversityRemember Sue & Sue’s Asian Proverb – Every person isLike no other personLike some other personsLike all other persons
5 The Value of Cohort Analysis 5The Value of Cohort AnalysisUnderstanding Generations
6 6GenerationsEach generation is unique – shaped by social, historical and demographic (size, composition) forces(Strauss and Howe)
7 7ImplicationSystems of care need to be reassessed and reinvented as each new cohort agesNote such reimagining involves intergenerational considerations – i.e. Baby Boomers managing care of GI Generation Parents
8 Generations Generations are both interactive and reactive Each generation not only interacts with others (despite the fact that industrial societies are more age-segmented) but reacts the experiences shaped by preceding generations
9 9Cohort analysis begins with the size and composition (gender, ethnicity etc.) of a generation
10 It is more than sheer size 1010It is more than sheer sizeEach generation is shaped by context – the historical and social experiences
11 The GI Generation (Born 1901 – 1924) 1111The GI Generation (Born 1901 – 1924)Childhood – a time of prosperityDecline in child laborIncrease in educationDevelopment of mass adolescent organizations (Boy and Girl Scouts)
12 GI Generation Formative Experiences 1212GI Generation Formative ExperiencesExperienced Depression and World War IIGI Bill – Housing and EducationExpected and Valued Government Role
13 GI Generation Formative Experiences 1313GI Generation Formative ExperiencesFirst Aging GenerationFirst generation to benefit from Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security and Aging Network
14 GI Generation Values Respect Authority (and seek respect) 1414GI Generation ValuesRespect Authority (and seek respect)Follow Orders, “Regular Guy”, Team PlayerAltruistic“Can Do”Rigid Sex Role Definitions
15 The Silent Generation (Born 1925-1942) Formative Experiences 1515The Silent Generation (Born ) Formative ExperiencesSandwiched between GI Generation and Boom – a “Transitional Generation”Many fought in career, those on the cusp may have served in VietnamFirst American Generation the declined in numbersGenerally Experienced Prosperity and SecurityDivorce still rare in their childhoodCivil Rights Generation
16 The Silent Generation Values 1616The Silent Generation Values“Fitting in” – The Organization ManEmerging Concern with Inner SelfTransitional – Cultural and Gender Roles
17 The Traditional Generations Often the GI Generation and the Silent Generation are now grouped together as they now share common experiences of later life, GI Generation rapidly dying off, and many formative experiences were not radically different – intact homes, utilized savings accounts, etc.
18 The Traditionalists Implications for Medical Care and End-of-Life 1818The Traditionalists Implications for Medical Care and End-of-LifeAs a group, often accept the fact that life is unfair – hence accepting of fateGrow up at a time when medical treatments were limited – children died from polio, whooping cough, heart attacks were fatal – hence some may be fatalistic and view medications and hospitals with suspicionYet generally adherent – will seek doctors advice for anything health related; rarely will question physicians
19 The Traditionalists Implications for Medical Care and End-of-Life African-Americans in these generations experienced harsh discrimination and prejudice – themes that may emerge in life reviewBecause of the Tuskegee experiments may be distrustful of medical professionalsThat distrust as well as spiritual values may leads to a reluctance to consider palliative careMany persons may have a pride of survivorship
20 Langston Hughes’ Mother to Son Well son, I’ll tell youLife for me ain’t been no crystal stair.It’s had tacks in it,and splinters,And boards torn upAnd places with no carpet on the floorBare.But all the timeI’se been a-climbin’ on,And reachin’ landin’sAnd sometimes goin’ in the darkWhere there ain’t been no light.So boy, don’t you turn back.Don’t you set down on the steps“Cause you find it kinda hard.Don't you fall now –For I’se still goin, honey,I’se still climbinAnd life for me ain’t been no crystal stair
21 The Traditionalists Implications for Medical Care and End-of-Life Often end-of-life preparation meant wills and other estate planningNow accepting need for healthcare proxies and advance directives – yet ethnic differences existWith increasing dependence they may have conflicts with baby boom caregivers on “downsizing” as they eschew the wastefulness as their boomer children attempt to toss out “clutter”May seriously struggle with difficult decisions regarding savings and assets v. eligibility for governmental programs
22 The Traditionalists Implications for Counselors Tend to be quiet about emotions and feelingsGenerally resistant to therapy as defined as for persons who were “crazy”Even resistant to EAP’s since they first experienced such programs as dealing with occupational alcoholismThough first generation to embrace widow/widower and other grief support groups
23 The Traditionalists Implications for Counselors Often rising rates of alcoholism – these generations tended to exhibit more drinking and alcohol use may increase with retirementYet a rising rate of suicide as this group ages – probably a result of untreated depression, alcoholism, status changes, and cascading issues arising from aging and loss
24 The Traditionalists Workplace Implications Value honesty, loyalty, and hard work – one thing at a timeDetail orientedCommunication more formalWorks well with hierarchy and rules – has a sense of organizational historyHistorically the last generation where males primarily worked and women stayed home or had part- time or traditionally female careersLikely in the leadership of the organization
25 The Traditionalists Attitudes toward Recreation and Leisure 2525The Traditionalists Attitudes toward Recreation and LeisureOften a challenge to redefine themselves distinct from occupational rolesA paradoxical perspectiveRecreational and leisure a reward for productivityYet a reversion to unproductive periods of life albeit deservedIn recreational therapy there is value of explaining rationale behind activityYounger traditionalists may see leisure more productively – elderhostel, “grand” travel etc.
26 The Baby Boom (Born 1943-1960) Formative Experiences 2626The Baby Boom (Born ) Formative ExperiencesSheer Size – Now 73 MillionShaped by Watergate, VietnamA Generation of Worsening Trends(Divorce, Delinquency, etc.)
27 The Baby Boom and Diversity The Baby Boom is a diverse generation both ethnically and spirituallyEthnic diversity and the 1965 Immigration ActSpiritual Diversity – the growth of non- Western Religions
28 The Baby Boom and Diversity The Baby Boom generation experienced the sexual revolution and was active in gay rights movementsThis was the first generation to experience gay marriage and same sex partnerships
29 Boomers Have Changed Every Institution They Have Encountered Schools and CollegesThe MilitaryMusic and MediaPoliticsThe WorkplaceSociety
30 Boomer Legacy Agitated for Civil and Individual Rights Including strong inter- gender support for Women’s RightsCreated a strong and sustained Environmental MovementAging Rights -- The next crusade?
31 Boomer Values 3131 Individualistic Eclectic Spirituality Resource AwareChoice, Creativity and ControlDistrustful of Authority – including governmentTrust persons not positionsSense of EntitlementAging AdverseStrong Emphasis on Health and Wellness
32 Boomer Sense of Justice 3232Boomer Sense of JusticeBoomer’s have a finely tuned sense of “injustice” that can alienate them from businesses that they perceive as greedy or unfairExample – Stewart Shops and the pricing of The NY Times
33 3333Baby BoomersA 2009 study by Martin, Freedman, Schoeni, and Andreski about Boomers approaching 60 did not find major improvements in health over the past generation despite public health successes and generational emphasesThis may reflect greater improvements in diagnosis, subjective expectations of Boomers on how they doing, and other factors such as obesityThe authors note that final conclusions could not be made but “it is perplexing boomers are not doing better”.
34 Aging Boomers On Jan. 1, 2011, the first Boomers turned 65 years old Everyday thereafter 10,000 more will cross that thresholdBy 2030 when all Boomers are over 65, 18% of the US population will be 65 or older.
35 Aging Boomers Boomers generally consider old age begins at 72 Most feel near a decade younger than their actual ageImplications for marketing and programming
36 Baby Boom Generation Implications for Medical Care and End-of-Life 3636Baby Boom Generation Implications for Medical Care and End-of-LifeBoomers will expect to be actively involved in determining their medical careBoomers are heavy consumers of alternative medicines including chiropractors, acupuncture, herbal and natural treatments, vitamins
37 3737Boomer Drug UseBoomers had a high rate of experimentation with recreational drugsA certain percentage have continued drug use as they ageHealth consequences of life-long use are still unclear, and likely vary dependent on the drug of choicePolicy issues?
38 Baby Boom Generation Implications for Medical Care and End-of-Life Boomers value “death with dignity”, as well as effective pain management – they were in the forefront of the hospice movement so that portends well for hospice useOn the other hand, control and options might make hospice more attractive if it offers concurrent careKatz and Wright (2011) recount a case where a woman opted out of hospice since it did not offer life- extending treatment nor nutritional support – patient wanted to survive till daughter’s wedding
39 Baby Boom Generation Implications for Medical Care and End-of-Life Boomer focus of control may lead to some interesting ethical dilemmasSome boomers have stated in advance directives that if they do not know enough to eat – do not feed them!
40 Baby Boomers Implications for Counselors As a generation, grew up with guidance counselors so not adverse to therapy (mediated by other variables)Embraced self-help movements – especially as self-help turned from prohibitory to enhancing
41 Baby Boomers Institutional Care 4141Baby Boomers Institutional CareBoomers value privacy, dignity, and autonomyPrivate rooms will be in demandCost analysis indicates that such use of space is viable even at Medicare rates in about 7.5 years (Calkins & Cassella, 2007)In addition, remember the opportunity costs – double rooms are more likely to stay empty
42 Boomers will demand 4242 Individuality (Matching Environments) Freedom to chooseContinuity in life stylesPersonal belongingsPrivacy – including private roomsContact with grandchildren (children- friendly facilities)Internet and technologySafety
43 Boomer Concerns for Parents 4343Boomer Concerns for ParentsReshaped Adult Care MarketEmphasizing continuum of careAssisted LivingAmenities for well older persons such as spas and gyms
44 Baby Boomers Implications for Funeral Service 4444Baby Boomers Implications for Funeral ServiceBoomers will demand greater options – choice including products, servicesBoomers will wish options for creative ritualsInternet savvy – video streaming, Internet Memorials and Sign in’sDiversity – language cards etc.
45 The Baby Boom Recreation and Leisure 4545The Baby Boom Recreation and LeisureThe generation that refused to grow!Boomers value recreation, activity, and leisureSee it as essential to good physical and mental healthEmbrace the premises of recreational and activity therapy (relation of leisure to life satisfaction)Caveat – Sensitive to activities considered demeaning or attitudes perceived as disrespectful
46 The Baby Boom Recreation and Leisure 4646The Baby Boom Recreation and LeisureFirst generation with widespread technological literacy (first generation to fully experience computers as routine in the workplace – yet still digital immigrantsGender roles not as rigidBoomers have a strong outdoor emphasisAquatic programs are valued – especially for fitness (rather than play)
47 Baby Boomers Workplace Implications The retirement of the Baby Boom Generation will create job shortages in many fields as 73 million boomers will need to be replaced by 49 million in the next generationSkewing the dependency ratio
48 Aging Boomers Retirement and Work 70% of Boomers say they plan to work beyond retirement age.While there are financial reasons for this, Boomers also cite the need for mental and social stimulation, and physical activityMany Boomers, especially professionals define themselves by their careersYet about half do retire at 65 – for reasons of health, age discrimination or a declining economy
49 Generation X (1961 –1981) Formative Experiences 4949Generation X (1961 –1981) Formative ExperiencesStrauss & Howe call them “The Thirteenth Generation”Raised in a time of terrorism, environmental disasters, disease (AIDS)See Boomers childhood as carefree – more aware of consequencesBoomer parents – friendship valued, high divorce rateHigher percentage of latch key childrenEconomically “a depression of the young” as houses seem hard to afford, etc.
50 Generation X Values 5050 Technologically advanced and aware Independence and self-reliantEntrepreneursSavvy consumers and distrustful of work organization’s commitmentNon-ideologicalMusic and dress as a dividerDecline in college graduation (especially for males) compared to BoomersReactive – trying still to see what they believe and where they fit in
51 Generation X Implications for Medical Care and End-of-Life With the oldest members approaching 50, just beginning to struggle with an awareness of mortalityValue speed, efficiency and a consultative style in medical providersMore open to non-traditional forms of careOften seek information from the Internet including costsBeginning to be parental caregiversMore critical of medical care than Baby Boomers or Generation Y – perhaps reflecting they are relatively new to negotiating the system
52 Generation X Implications for Counseling Open to counseling, responsive to coaching, they embrace an expansive and enhancing view of counselingOften both genders have tried to cultivate support systems based on friendship bonds “urban tribes”Depression, anxiety, and eating disorders are the major psychological issues that this generation experiencesSubstance abuse (outside of smoking) is not major – entered the workforce when drug-testing is common
53 Generation X Implications for the Workplace Entrepreneurship valued as is a more equalitarian and horizontal work environmentPrefer flexible options – including flextime, working remotely as an optionExpect voice to be heard, opinions solicited, and disputes conciliatedWant to balance life and work
54 Generation X Implications for Health Care Seeking a sense of balance has created generational shifts in medicineGeneration MD’s are more likely to be female, technologically savvy, want stability, and balance“I am not bothered by older doctors saying ‘we worked harder.’ Instead I pity them for justifying their misery.”
55 Generation X Recreation and Leisure Emphasis on balance offers opening to leisureOften leisure is focused on self-development, inner growth, nurturing relationships, and keeping fitBecause of economic challenges, cost is a factor in the activities chosen
56 5656Generation Y “The Millennial Generation” ( ) Formative ExperiencesBorn in a time where there is a deep interest in youth – education, health, etc.Late Boomer parents seeking not to repeat mistakes – civic virtues emphasizedTolerant generation (Diversity emphasized)Technologically advancedPragmatic and non-ideologicalMost “medicated”generation – now relatively high rates of underage alcohol, illegal drug use and trading of prescription medications
57 Generation Y Formative Experiences 5757Generation Y Formative ExperiencesThe first internet generationDigital natives – rather than digital immigrantsAccentuated differences between “the know” and “know nots”Strong technological connections to parents – texting etc.Emerging adulthood – a lengthened period of dependencyThe “virtual” community – where things are not always what they seem!
58 Generation YA “wanted” generation as abortion is legal and parenthood valued as a choiceA “nurtured” generation – social promotion, self- esteem valued, trophies for participationScholars feel that their high and perhaps unrealistic expectations may be dashed as they enter a highly competitive world in adulthood
59 Generation Y Values Accept diversity including more accepting of LBGT Self expression valued more than self controlAdapt easily to change and technologyRespect must be earned – not based on age, authority, or title
60 Generation Y Implications for Medical Care and End-of-Life Little experience for most with anything but routine medical careMost have yet top experience serious illness or the deaths of parentsAny experiences with death likely to traumaticQuestionable as to whether media has desensitized persons to death (Kastenbaum)
61 Generation Y Implications for Counselors In a generation used to transparency on the web, confidentiality will have to be carefully explainedExpect that you, as counselor, will be googledDevelop a policy, in the consent form, on social networking sites – “to friend or not to friend”Multitasking is common in this generation – consent forms may need to address use of cell phones, texting (both in general and in session) etc.
62 Generation Y Implications for the Workplace 6262Generation Y Implications for the WorkplaceNatives too to the information ageVery open and sharingNot hierarchical – so will often skip chain of commandWill often, for example, share salary information with friends to assess their own salariesExpect quick and positive feedbackWill avoid or leave positions that limit access to the Internet
63 Generation Y (Millennials) Workplace Attitudes 6363Generation Y (Millennials) Workplace AttitudesWant to be treated as specialOften remain close to parents – may even bring them to interviewsNeed structure and desire feedbackMay be dependentTeam and collaboration oriented rather than competitiveDesire long-term careers with few risks and with benefitsLikely to remain loyal to supportive companiesHowe, 2010
64 Generation Z (2001- ?) 6464 New generation emerging Most technologically connected – many have TV’s, DVD’s in rooms, cell phones likely as they ageWill likely be technologically connected, multi-taskersHeavily influenced by Disney images – Hanna Montana, The Suite Life etc.Possible the “New Silent Generation”
65 6565Generation ZCyber community and cyber interaction
66 Generations at Work A Summation 6666Generations at Work A SummationSilent Generation – Value loyalty and discipline, respect authority and hierarchyBoomers entered work force at a competitive time – self-motivated, often hard workersGeneration X – entrepreneurship valued, prefer a more flexible and horizontal structure. Strong sense that disputes should be conciliatedGeneration Y – First digital natives, individualistic, value autonomy, horizontal structures. Little loyalty or expectation of life- long employment. Often loyalty is more based on personal relationships
67 Generational Differences Career Goals 6767Generational Differences Career GoalsSilent Generation – Build a legacyBoomers – Build a stellar career (Competitive)Generation X –Build a portable career – showing many areas of competence and achievement
68 Generational Differences Retirement 6868Generational Differences RetirementSilent Generation – Retirement as a rewardBoomers – Retirement as an opportunity for retooling, possible second career
69 Generational Differences Changing Jobs 6969Generational Differences Changing JobsSilent Generation – Shows disloyaltyBoomers – Puts you behind in your careerGeneration X & Y – A necessary move to keep current and advancing (the moving shark analogy)
70 Some Programs Can Transcend Cohorts 7070Some Programs Can Transcend CohortsLife Review and Reminiscence ProgramsIntergenerational ProgramsEven here, themes and activities must be cohort-sensitive
71 The Value of Reminiscence 7171The Value of ReminiscenceEnhances moodEstablishes time and role parityBolsters self-esteemEstablishes a continuity of identityAs therapeutic toolPart of later life developmentCreates and bolsters community
72 7272Danger of Life ReviewCan resurface earlier losses and traumas
73 Life Review Differences with Reminiscence 7373Life Review Differences with ReminiscenceReminiscence focuses on positive memories and experiencesPersonal history – including positive and negative experiencesCareful observation by therapistAttribution of meaning
74 Life Review May Not be Useful with Highly Narcissistic Troubled Life 7474Life ReviewMay Not be Useful withHighly NarcissisticTroubled LifeAlienated RelationshipsPersons Unable or Unwilling to Reflect
75 Life Review Problematic Populations Drawing life’s lessonsWhat lessons would I like to pass on to others?
76 Techniques for Life Review and Reminiscence 7676Techniques for Life Review and ReminiscencePhotographs and memorabiliaMusic and filmCreative expressionsGenealogies and genogramsReunionsPilgrimages
77 Use all senses Sound Sight Touch and texture Taste Smell and aromas 7777Use all sensesSoundSightTouch and textureTasteSmell and aromas
78 7878Ethical Wills: A Tool for Legacies, Remembrances and Inter-Generational Dialog“Legal wills bequeath valuables, ethical wills bequeath values.” (Baines, 2002)
79 Age Lines A Life Review Technique 7979Age Lines A Life Review TechniqueChart significant points in one’s lifeIdentify the challenges faced along the wayDiscuss strategies used to overcome these challenges
80 Intergenerational Programs 8080Intergenerational ProgramsCan involve older persons assisting younger, younger assisting older, or mutually beneficial programs – perhaps joint service to the communityIntergenerational programs can offer new stimulations, friendships, experiences, decrease isolation and loneliness, and raise self-esteem
81 Re-Packaging Programs 8181Re-Packaging ProgramsOther programs may still be used but will have to repackaged to meet generational interestsThe value of Bingo – hand/eye coordination, stimulation etc.Selling wellnessOffering choices
82 Everything Old Is New Again 8282Everything Old Is New AgainTruth of Cohort Analysis – We constantly reinvent systems of care and modify counseling approaches with each new generation