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Crash Course Psychology The Power of Motivation

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1 Crash Course Psychology The Power of Motivation
Video: The Power of Motivation

2 Discussion questions: Why is motivation important. What motivates you
Discussion questions: Why is motivation important? What motivates you? What are Intrinsic and external motives? When is external motivation needed? When is internal motivation needed? How can teachers motivate you?

3 Definition: Motivation is literally the desire or willingness to do something.
(3) Aspects of Motivation: Biological drives Learned motives Needs (desires)

4 Instinct Theory Instinct Theory states that motivation is the result of biological, genetic programming – which means that all members of a species share the same motivations. At the heart of this theory is the motivation to survive, and therefore everything we do is based around surviving and/or helping others survive.

5 Instinct Theory (continued)
Examples: All birds of the same species, even those raised in captivity, build nearly identical nests – there wasn’t a more experienced bird that taught them how. A human mother will stay awake with a crying infant all night long trying to provide comfort; Instinct Theory suggests that she is programmed to behave this way. Other examples:

The study of genetic and evolutionary bases of behavior in all organisms, including humans. This view spawned from instinct theory, but it is not purely an instinct theory. Sociobiology states that natural selection favors social behaviors that maximize reproductive success. Thus, the primary motivating force for living organisms (including humans) is to pass on our genes from one generation to the next.

7 Sociobiological Theory
This theory, inspired by Charles Darwin, argues that in the last 15 million years the human species has evolved socially as well as physically. Through the process of natural selection, individuals who were even slightly predisposed to engage in adaptive social behaviors were the "fittest" and tended to survive longer and to be more successful in passing their genes along to future generations. This perspective explains competition and aggressive behaviour.

8 A Drive is an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should (hopefully) reduce this tension. Most organisms seem to try and maintain Homeostasis - a state of physiological equilibrium. For example, we have a homeostatic body temperature of 98.6F. If temperature increases, you perspire. If your temperature decreases, you shiver. When you experience a drive, you are motivated to reduce this state of tension and pursue actions that will lead to a drive reduction (reduce the state of tension). For Example - hunger leads to physical discomfort (internal tension - drive), which leads to the motivation to get food, which leads to eating, which leads to a reduction in physical tension (drive reduction), which finally leads to the restoration of equilibrium. Drive Theory

9 Incentive Theory An incentive may be defined as an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior. This does not mean that it will always motivate behavior, only that it can. Now, we get to a situation in which we can see a difference with previous theories: Drive theory acts by an internal state pushing you in a specific direction. However, incentive theory acts when an external stimulus pulls you in a certain direction.

10 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy
This Humanistic perspective is a blend of biological and social needs and is a sweeping overview of human motivation. Because Maslow believed that all needs vary in strength, he arranged them in a pyramidal form to indicate which have more strength. The most basic needs (like shelter and food) are vital to daily survival, and are at the bottom, while needs that are less important to staying alive are higher on the pyramid. We may define the Need Hierarchy as - a systematic arrangement of needs according to priority, which assumes that basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused. Thus, like stage theories, we must meet one need before we move on to the next.


12 Learned Helplessness a mental state in which an organism is forced to bear aversive stimuli, or stimuli that are painful or otherwise unpleasant, becomes unable or unwilling to avoid subsequent encounters with those stimuli, even if they are “escapable,” presumably because it has learned that it cannot control the situation. “I can’t…….”

13 Why do some people persevere, and others give up?

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