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Manual InspectionEnhanced Inspection Design of an Enhanced FOD Inspection System for the Aircraft Production Process Manual Inspection Enhanced Inspection.

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Presentation on theme: "Manual InspectionEnhanced Inspection Design of an Enhanced FOD Inspection System for the Aircraft Production Process Manual Inspection Enhanced Inspection."— Presentation transcript:

1 Manual InspectionEnhanced Inspection Design of an Enhanced FOD Inspection System for the Aircraft Production Process Manual Inspection Enhanced Inspection Foreign Object Debris (FOD) By: Justin Amoyal, Roman Garber, Marwan Karama, Meba Kassahun & Anoosha Koohi 1

2 Agenda Context Fighter Jet Production Overview FOD Overview Current FOD Prevention Process Stakeholder Analysis & CONOPS Approach & System Alternatives Methods & Models Project Management Future Steps 2

3 Fighter Jet Introduction Flyaway cost is one measure of the cost of an aircraft. It values the aircraft at its marginal cost, including only the cost of production and production tools essential for building a single unit. It excludes prior costs such as research and development (treating these as sunk costs), supplementary costs such as support equipment, or future costs such as spares and maintenance 3 F-117 F-35 F-22 _______

4 Case Model – Lockheed Martin F-35 4

5 5

6 F-35 Production Flow 6

7 FOD Overview  Foreign Object Debris (FOD): A substance, debris or article alien to a vehicle or system which would potentially cause damage. According to Boeing, FOD costs the aerospace industry $4 Billion/year 7 ClassificationExamples PanstockWasher, Bolt, Screw, Pin ConsumablesRag, Cap, Bag, Bottle Personal ItemsPens, Key, Change, Paper Tools/Shop AidsWrench, Socket, Hammer Perishables/Expendabl es Clamps, Drill Bits, Apex Tips TrashPlastic Wrap, Used Tape Manufacturing DebrisMetal Shavings, Rivet Tails EnvironmentalRocks/Pebbles, Insects

8 FOD Affect on Current Fighter Jet Production Process 8 FOD Arrival Rate Exponential[.183]

9 Current FOD Prevention Technique 9

10 10 F35 Production with Manual FOD Inspection

11 Agenda Context Stakeholder Analysis & CONOPS Stakeholder Analysis Gap & Problem Mission Requirements Approach & System Alternatives Methods & Models Project Management Future Steps 11

12 ClassTitleExampleObjectives Primary 1.Production Line Personnel 2.FOD Inspectors 3.FOD Associations 4.FOD Inspection Training Personnel 1a. Mechanic/Engineer involved in inspecting/detecting FOD 1b. Mechanic/Engineer involved in FOD related rework and repair 2a. Personnel Scanning for FOD 2b. Personnel documenting instance's of FOD 3a. National Aerospace FOD Prevention Inc. 4a. Personnel responsible for FOD certification/training 1a. Limit FOD inputted 1a.Detect any FOD present 1b. Remove FOD present 1b. Repair Aircraft Component 2a. Detect FOD 2b. Document FOD occurrence 3a. Standardize terms & methods for the prevention of FOD to A/C 4a. Teach FOD prevention to employees Secondary 1.Aircraft Production Corporation 2.Aircraft Customers 3.Aircraft Pilots 1a. Lockheed Martin 2a. 3 US Government Branches 2b. International F35 Customers 3a. Marine Pilot 1a. Eliminate FOD present during Customer Delivery 1a. Limit rework and repair time 1a.Produce A/C as efficiently/quick as possible 2a/2b. Pilot Safety 2a/2b. Advanced AC capabilities 2a/2b. AC delivery in timely manner 3a. Complete mission safely 3a. Test A/C capabilities Tertiary 1.Aircraft Production Stockholders 2.Insurance Companies 3.US Government 4.Foreign Governments 1a. Employees of LMCO with stock & citizens with stock in LMCO 2a. FOD related personnel insurance companies 3a. Department of Defense (DOD) – those in charge of government spending/budgets 4a. Foreign Government contract/budget officials 1a. Maximize Profit 2a. Insure/protect those who may be threatened/affected by FOD 3a. Lowest price for most capable A/C 4a. Most safety with the least amount of FOD 12

13 Stakeholder Wins & Tensions 13

14 Problem & Need 14

15 Gap Analysis  Non-Linear relationship between the time to detect FOD and the costs associated  Fighter Jet Production is growing, yet FOD Inspection techniques have remained Manual  FOD damage is estimated to cost the Aerospace Industry $4 billion a year Years Complexity 15

16 Enhanced Inspection System Requirements MR #Requirement Description MR.1.0System shall have a 98% FOD detection rate in all portions of the Aircraft MR.2.0System shall support a production rate of 1 plane/day MR.3.0On-site support shall be provided for 2 weeks per installation location during initial operational phase of equipment. MR.4.0Supplier shall provide 1 week of operator training for 10 operators MR.5.0System shall have an ROI of 25% based on LM data sample acquired before the integration of the system and data sample acquired approximately 12 months after system integration MR.6.0System shall reduce FOD inspection times by 50% based on LM data sample acquired before the integration of the system and data sample acquired approximately 12 months after system integration. MR.7.0Supplier shall develop an integration plan for incorporation of the equipment into the F-35 production plan. Plan shall be approved by LM 30 days prior to installation. 16

17 Agenda Context Stakeholder Analysis & CONOPS Approach & System Alternatives Implementation & Design Alternatives Functional Breakdown Allocated Architecture – Imaging Component – Analysis Component X-Ray System Alternatives Methods & Models Project Management Future Steps 17

18 Design Alternatives & Implementation 1.Manual/Visual Inspection 2.X-Ray imaging & Differential imaging software Automated system with multi-layer view Automated FOD Identification Software 18

19 19 F35 Production with Enhanced FOD Inspection

20 External Systems Diagram 20

21 Functional Architecture 21

22 Current Problem & Need for a Solution 22

23 Backscatter X-Rays  Both x-ray source and x-ray detectors apparatus are located on one side of the object Transmission X-Rays  Passes an X-Ray beam through an object to a detector on the far side 23 Backscatter & Transmission X-rays

24 X-ray SystemX-ray System SourcePenetration Power (in steel) Power Requirement Scanning Speed DimensionsStart Up TimeRadiation Dose Linear RailBackscatter6.3 mm watts 0.185(m^2/s)x20 minx Robotic ArmBackscatter6.3 mm watts 0.185(m^2/s)x20 minx GantryTransmission- Optional Backscatter 400 mm (m^2/s) Length 36.5m Width 3.0m Height 5.0m 15 min5 mR Z-PortalBackscatter300 mm480x Width 8.9m Height 6.3m 15 min5 mR MobileSarch Backscatter and Transmission 300 mmx9.6(m^2/s) Width 2.5m Height 4.1m 30 min2 mR Z-Backscatter Van Backscatterxx7.2(m^2/s) Length 7.96 Width2.6m Height 2.9m x10 mSv X-ray Alternatives 24

25 Alternatives Per Sub-Assembly 25

26 Differential Imaging 26 Differential Imaging provides the operator with a means of assistance in identifying the FOD items after the Aircraft Components have been scanned and the images are being compared.

27 Try to identify these two object? 27 Aircraft Sub-Assembly Center Fuselage

28 28 Aircraft Sub-Assembly Center Fuselage

29 Agenda Context Stakeholder Analysis & CONOPS Approach & System Alternatives Methods & Models Design Of Experiments System Models – Inspection Time Model – Inspection Reliability Model The Simulation – Simulation Inputs & Outputs – Variables – Assumptions – Flow Diagram Business Model Project Management Future Steps 29

30 Design of Experiments Generate accurate representation of the F35 production process by gathering data Create Instantiated architectures for the system by deciding which X-Ray alternatives are viable for each Aircraft Sub-Assembly Instantiated architectures will be compared based on cost, rework hours, production time per Aircraft 30 Instantiated Architecture Aircraft Sub- Assembly Total Time Per Aircraft Rework & Repair Hours Station Utilization Total Cost (Installation + Rework & Repair Costs) X Ray Alternative Forward Fuselage Time Value and $ Value Time Value and $ Value X Ray Alternative Center Fuselage X Ray Alternative Wing Structure X Ray Alternative Aft Fuselage X Ray Alternative Complete Aircraft

31 Model Interaction 31

32 32 X-ray Inspection Time Model Device Start Up Time Total Time Total Time Per Alternative Total Inspection Time

33 Probability of Detection 33

34 Probability of Detection Variables 34 Absorption coefficient (μ) Quantity that characterizes how easily a material can be penetrated by a beam of x-ray. Density ( ρ ) Steel>Titanium> Aluminum X-ray energy Material  Density  μ  Energy  μ Half Value Layer (HVL) 50% of x-ray radiation is absorbed P =  μ  HVL  HVL  P Inspected component thickness Forward Fuselage AFT fuselage Center fuselage Wing modulus  Thickness HVL   Thickness Penetration 

35 35 Probability of Detection Example

36 The Simulation Tool Discrete Event Simulation Configurable Design – User can add/remove stations, change mean process time per station or even change FOD rate per station – User inputs # of shifts to run the simulation for – User may input # of workers as well as hourly rate per worker 36

37 Simulation Variables Probability of Detection & Inspection Time per Alternative derived from physical models Inverse CDF method for Random Number generation Station Process Times – Under the assumption of Flow-To-Tact manufacturing all stations take an equal amount of time to process each part – Triangular Distribution with min = 4 hours, max = 8 hours, & mode = 6 hours FOD Arrival Rate – Exponential Distribution with λ = 0.183/hour FOD Rework Time – Weibull Distribution with α= and β=

38 Simulation Variables 38 VariableRandom Number Generator Using Inverse CDF Method Distribution Graph Station Process Times Triangular Distribution (4,6,8) FOD Arrival Rate Exponential Distribution (0.183) FOD Rework Time Weibull Distribution (0.262, 0.221)

39 Model Assumptions There are 18 total Assembly stations – Process Time, determined by Random number generator – Chance to leave FOD (Exp) FOD Inspection modeled as Bernoulli Distribution based on Probability of Detection Model – With p = Probability of detection – Each Station has a chance to detect FOD (By Eye) If FOD is detected, rework time is determined by Random number generator (WEIB) 39

40 Simulation Flow Diagram 40

41 Analysis of Results (Decision Analysis) Research Decision Analysis

42 2. Physical Model Decision Analysis 42

43 3. Simulation Output Decision Analysis 43

44 Agenda Context Stakeholder Analysis & CONOPS Approach & System Alternatives Methods & Models Project Management Work Breakdown Structure Timeline & Critical Path Risk Management Project Budget & Performance Indices Future Steps 44

45 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 45

46 Project Timeline & Critical Path 46

47 Critical TasksForeseeable RisksMitigation Routes 1.Define Requirements 2. Times for Production Stages 3. Times for FOD Inspection 4.Retrieve Costs of Different X-RAY System Alternatives 5. Establishing Distributions of discrete events 1a. Receiving definitive feedback from Lockheed Martin 1b. Verification of specific requirements from lack of quantitative data. 2a. Data not received from LMCO in sufficient time 3a. Data not received from LMCO in sufficient time 4. Failure to receive data from X-RAY vendors. 5a. Dependent upon receiving data in a timely fashion 1a: Define requirements based on the capabilities of the system with correlation to the goals and objectives of Lockheed Martin 1b. Use “dummy variables” in simulation and verify requirements based on output 2a. Ask for average times per stage from Lockheed Martin and apply a random number generator as a multiplier to obtain multiple data points 3a. Ask for average FOD inspection times per stages or position 3aa. Establish a percentage of time per shift spent searching and apply this to the simulation 4a. Estimate costs from available research 5a: Establishing “dummy variables” will enable our team to run multiple simulations, graph the output and establish these distributions 5aa. Obtaining these averages from Lockheed Martin and applying a random number generator as a multiplier will create multiple data points which can then be run through the simulation and graphed to find the various distributions. 47

48 48

49 49

50 50

51 Agenda Context Stakeholder Analysis & CONOPS Approach & System Alternatives Methods & Models Project Management Future Steps 51

52 Plans for the near future Results Modeling False Alarms Analysis of Results ROI Analysis Sensitivity Analysis Tying together GUI with Java code Conclusions and Recommendations 52

53 Questions? 53

54 Bibliography 1. American Science and Technology, “Z BACKSCATTER VAN,” AS&E, Massachusetts, USA, Tech. Report. ZBVDATA_080307, American Science and Technology, “MOBILESEARCH HE,” AS&E, Massachusetts, USA, Tech. Report. MSHEDATA_012711, American Science and Technology, “Omniview Gantry High-Performance Inspection System,” AS&E, Massachusetts, USA, Tech. Report. OVDATA_101711, American Science and Technology, “Z PORTAL,” AS&E, Massachusetts, USA, Tech. Report. ZPORTALDATA_052510, Batchel, B “Foreign Object Debris and Damage Prevention” [Online] Available: 6. Callerame,, "X-Ray Back scatter Imaging: Photography Through Barriers". Retrieved September, 2014 Available: 7.”CTOL SWBS Manufacturing Sequence Flow” [Online] Availablhttp://information2share.wordpress.com/2011/05/25/ctol-swbs-manufacturing-sequence- flow/http://information2share.wordpress.com/2011/05/25/ctol-swbs-manufacturing-sequence- flow/ 8. Garber, M, Diagnostic imaging and differential diagnosis in 2 case reports, J Orthop Sports Phys Ther., vol 35, no, p.745 – Gemini® 7555". Retrieved September, 2014 Available: solutions/parcel-inspection/gemini solutions/parcel-inspection/gemini Fessle, C J,, "Physics of Projection Radiography ". RetrievedSeptember, 2014 Available: Radiography". RetrievedSeptember, 2014 Available: FOREIGN OBJECT DAMAGE PREVENTION. [Online]. Available: d.pdf 12. FOD PREVENTION GUIDELINE [Online]. Available: nafpiguideline.pdf 54

55 Bibliography Butler, Amy. "F-35 Deal Targets Unit Cost Below $100 Million." Aviation Week. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov F35.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Oct "BAE Systems completes 150th aircraft for F35 fighter programme". "BAE Systems completes 150th aircraft for F35 fighter programme" King, Samuel Jr. "First F-35 arrives at Eglin." U.S. Air Force, 15 July Retrieved: 20 July 2011."First F-35 arrives at Eglin." Pae, Peter. "Stealth fighters fly off the radar". Los Angeles Times, 23 April Retrieved 27 April 2008."Stealth fighters fly off the radar"Los Angeles Times "Iraq Accepts First Lockheed Martin F-16 Aircraft · Lockheed Martin". Retrieved 13 September "Iraq Accepts First Lockheed Martin F-16 Aircraft · Lockheed Martin" Davies and Dildy 2007, p. 249 "Iraq Accepts First Lockheed Martin F-16 Aircraft · Lockheed Martin". Retrieved 13 September "Iraq Accepts First Lockheed Martin F-16 Aircraft · Lockheed Martin" "McDonnell Douglas F-15 Streak Eagle fact sheet".National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved 24 September "McDonnell Douglas F-15 Streak Eagle fact sheet" "Analysis of the Fiscal Year 2012 Pentagon Spending Request." Cost of war, 15 February Retrieved: 31 August "Analysis of the Fiscal Year 2012 Pentagon Spending Request." 55

56 Fighter Jet Slide References Butler, Amy. "F-35 Deal Targets Unit Cost Below $100 Million." Aviation Week. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov F35.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Oct "BAE Systems completes 150th aircraft for F35 fighter programme". "BAE Systems completes 150th aircraft for F35 fighter programme" King, Samuel Jr. "First F-35 arrives at Eglin." U.S. Air Force, 15 July Retrieved: 20 July 2011."First F-35 arrives at Eglin." Pae, Peter. "Stealth fighters fly off the radar". Los Angeles Times, 23 April Retrieved 27 April 2008."Stealth fighters fly off the radar"Los Angeles Times "Iraq Accepts First Lockheed Martin F-16 Aircraft · Lockheed Martin". Retrieved 13 September "Iraq Accepts First Lockheed Martin F-16 Aircraft · Lockheed Martin" Davies and Dildy 2007, p. 249 "Iraq Accepts First Lockheed Martin F-16 Aircraft · Lockheed Martin". Retrieved 13 September "Iraq Accepts First Lockheed Martin F-16 Aircraft · Lockheed Martin" "McDonnell Douglas F-15 Streak Eagle fact sheet".National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved 24 September "McDonnell Douglas F-15 Streak Eagle fact sheet" "Analysis of the Fiscal Year 2012 Pentagon Spending Request." Cost of war, 15 February Retrieved: 31 August "Analysis of the Fiscal Year 2012 Pentagon Spending Request." 56

57 BACK UPS 57

58 Inspection Probability Of Detection Model 58

59 59

60 WBS

61 WBS

62 WBS

63 WBS

64 WBS

65 WBS

66 Differential Imaging Requirements 66 DIR #Requirement Definition DIR.1.O Supplier shall provide LM the capability to customize the Differential Imaging Software. DIR.2.0 A site license for all software required for LM to customize the system Differential Imaging Software shall be submitted for approval 6 months prior to installation on LM intranet assets. DIR.3.0 Installation on LM intranet assets will occur 90 days prior to installation. DIR.4.0 Two training courses to educate LM employees in the customization of the Differential Imaging Software. DIR.5.0 Each class shall be for 10 or less lM employees and conducted immediately after the training at the LM Fort Worth Facility. DIR.6.0 Differential Imaging software shall support the use of multiple algorithms to detect images

67 X-Ray Safety Requirements o Radiation Exposure Limits o Personnel Monitoring o Exposure Records o Posting Notices o Inspections o X-Ray Exams of Pregnant or Potentially Pregnant Women o Pregnant Authorized Users 67 XR Radiation workers shall not receive a dose in 1 calendar quarter over the following limits: o Deep Dose Equivalent1250 millirem (mrem) o Lens Dose Equivalent3,750 mrem o Shallow Dose Equivalent (skin)12,500 mrem o Shallow Dose Equivalent (extremities)12,500 mrem XR.1.0 – System occupational exposure shall be in accordance with OSHA requirements. Supplier shall provide an X-Ray Exposure Protection Plan that addresses the following areas. XR The Plan shall be approved by LM 90 days prior to installation. Approach & System Alternatives


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