1 Design of an Enhanced FOD Inspection System for the Aircraft Production Process ManualInspectionEnhancedInspectionManual InspectionEnhanced InspectionForeign Object Debris (FOD)By: Justin Amoyal, Roman Garber, Marwan Karama, Meba Kassahun & Anoosha Koohi
2 Agenda Context Stakeholder Analysis & CONOPS Fighter Jet Production OverviewFOD OverviewCurrent FOD Prevention ProcessStakeholder Analysis & CONOPSApproach & System AlternativesMethods & ModelsProject ManagementFuture Steps
3 Fighter Jet Introduction _______F-117_______F-22F-35Flyaway cost is one measure of the cost of an aircraft. It values the aircraft at its marginal cost, including only the cost of production and production tools essential for building a single unit. It excludes prior costs such as research and development (treating these as sunk costs), supplementary costs such as support equipment, or future costs such as spares and maintenance
7 FOD OverviewForeign Object Debris (FOD): A substance, debris or article alien to a vehicle or system which would potentially cause damage.According to Boeing, FOD costs the aerospace industry $4 Billion/yearClassificationExamplesPanstockWasher, Bolt, Screw, PinConsumablesRag, Cap, Bag, BottlePersonal ItemsPens, Key, Change, PaperTools/Shop AidsWrench, Socket, HammerPerishables/ExpendablesClamps, Drill Bits, Apex TipsTrashPlastic Wrap, Used TapeManufacturing DebrisMetal Shavings, Rivet TailsEnvironmentalRocks/Pebbles, Insects
8 FOD Affect on Current Fighter Jet Production Process FOD Arrival RateExponential[.183]
11 Agenda Context Stakeholder Analysis & CONOPS Gap & ProblemMission RequirementsApproach & System AlternativesMethods & ModelsProject ManagementFuture Steps
12 Title Example Objectives ClassTitleExampleObjectivesPrimaryProduction Line PersonnelFOD InspectorsFOD AssociationsFOD Inspection Training Personnel1a. Mechanic/Engineer involved in inspecting/detecting FOD1b. Mechanic/Engineer involved in FOD related rework and repair2a. Personnel Scanning for FOD2b. Personnel documenting instance's of FOD3a. National Aerospace FOD Prevention Inc.4a. Personnel responsible for FOD certification/training1a. Limit FOD inputted1a.Detect any FOD present1b. Remove FOD present1b. Repair Aircraft Component2a. Detect FOD2b. Document FOD occurrence3a. Standardize terms & methods for the prevention of FOD to A/C4a. Teach FOD prevention to employeesSecondaryAircraft Production CorporationAircraft CustomersAircraft Pilots1a. Lockheed Martin2a. 3 US Government Branches2b. International F35 Customers3a. Marine Pilot1a. Eliminate FOD present during Customer Delivery1a. Limit rework and repair time1a.Produce A/C as efficiently/quick as possible2a/2b. Pilot Safety2a/2b. Advanced AC capabilities2a/2b. AC delivery in timely manner3a. Complete mission safely3a. Test A/C capabilitiesTertiaryAircraft Production StockholdersInsurance CompaniesUS GovernmentForeign Governments1a. Employees of LMCO with stock & citizens with stock in LMCO2a. FOD related personnel insurance companies3a. Department of Defense (DOD) – those in charge of government spending/budgets4a. Foreign Government contract/budget officials1a. Maximize Profit2a. Insure/protect those who may be threatened/affected by FOD3a. Lowest price for most capableA/C4a. Most safety with the least amount of FOD
15 Gap AnalysisNon-Linear relationship between the time to detect FOD and the costs associatedFighter Jet Production is growing, yet FOD Inspection techniques have remained ManualFOD damage is estimated to cost the Aerospace Industry $4 billion a yearComplexityYears
16 Enhanced Inspection System Requirements Requirement DescriptionMR.1.0System shall have a 98% FOD detection rate in all portions of the AircraftMR.2.0System shall support a production rate of 1 plane/dayMR.3.0On-site support shall be provided for 2 weeks per installation location during initial operational phase of equipment.MR.4.0Supplier shall provide 1 week of operator training for 10 operatorsMR.5.0System shall have an ROI of 25% based on LM data sample acquired before the integration of the system and data sample acquired approximately 12 months after system integrationMR.6.0System shall reduce FOD inspection times by 50% based on LM data sample acquired before the integration of the system and data sample acquired approximately 12 months after system integration.MR.7.0Supplier shall develop an integration plan for incorporation of the equipment into the F-35 production plan. Plan shall be approved by LM 30 days prior to installation.
23 Backscatter & Transmission X-rays Backscatter X-RaysBoth x-ray source and x-ray detectors apparatus are located on one side of the objectTransmission X-RaysPasses an X-Ray beam through an object to a detector on the far side
24 X-ray Alternatives X-ray System X-ray System Source Penetration Power (in steel)Power RequirementScanning SpeedDimensionsStart Up TimeRadiation DoseLinear RailBackscatter6.3 mmwatts0.185(m^2/s)x20 minRobotic ArmGantryTransmission- Optional Backscatter400 mm9.6(m^2/s)Length 36.5mWidth 3.0mHeight 5.0m15 min5 mRZ-Portal300 mm480Width 8.9mHeight 6.3mMobileSarchBackscatter and TransmissionWidth 2.5mHeight 4.1m30 min2 mRZ-Backscatter Van7.2(m^2/s)Length 7.96Width2.6mHeight 2.9m10 mSv
26 Differential ImagingDifferential Imaging provides the operator with a means of assistance in identifying the FOD items after the Aircraft Components have been scanned and the images are being compared.
27 Aircraft Sub-Assembly Center FuselageTry to identify these two object?
29 Agenda Context Stakeholder Analysis & CONOPS Approach & System AlternativesMethods & ModelsDesign Of ExperimentsSystem ModelsInspection Time ModelInspection Reliability ModelThe SimulationSimulation Inputs & OutputsVariablesAssumptionsFlow DiagramBusiness ModelProject ManagementFuture Steps
30 Design of Experiments X Ray Alternative Complete Aircraft Instantiated Generate accurate representation of the F35 production process by gathering dataCreate Instantiated architectures for the system by deciding which X-Ray alternatives are viable for each Aircraft Sub-AssemblyInstantiated architectures will be compared based on cost, rework hours, production time per AircraftInstantiatedArchitectureAircraft Sub-AssemblyTotal Time Per AircraftRework & Repair HoursStation UtilizationTotal Cost(Installation + Rework & Repair Costs)X Ray AlternativeForward FuselageTime Valueand$ ValueCenter FuselageWing StructureAftFuselageX RayAlternativeComplete Aircraft
32 Scan Time per Sub-Assembly: X-ray Inspection Time ModelScan Time per Sub-Assembly:Scan Speed of X-Ray Alternative (V)Surface Area of Sub-Assembly (A)Image Analysis Time (X)𝑇= 𝐴 𝑉 + XDevice Start Up TimeTotal Inspection TimePer AlternativeTotalTime
34 Probability of Detection Variables Absorption coefficient (μ)Quantity that characterizes how easily a material can be penetrated by a beam of x-ray.Density ( ρ )Steel>Titanium>AluminumX-ray energyMaterialDensity μEnergy μHalf Value Layer(HVL)50% of x-ray radiation is absorbedP =μ HVLHVL PInspected component thicknessForward FuselageAFT fuselageCenter fuselageWing modulusThickness HVLThickness Penetration
35 Probability of Detection Example AircraftSub-AssemblyMaterial (Highest Density)Thickness(inch)Center FuselageSteel4’’X-Ray MachinePower (Watt)Gantry300
36 The Simulation Tool Discrete Event Simulation Configurable Design User can add/remove stations, change mean process time per station or even change FOD rate per stationUser inputs # of shifts to run the simulation forUser may input # of workers as well as hourly rate per worker
37 Simulation VariablesProbability of Detection & Inspection Time per Alternative derived from physical modelsInverse CDF method for Random Number generationStation Process TimesUnder the assumption of Flow-To-Tact manufacturing all stations take an equal amount of time to process each partTriangular Distribution with min = 4 hours, max = 8 hours, & mode = 6 hoursFOD Arrival RateExponential Distribution with λ = 0.183/hourFOD Rework TimeWeibull Distribution with α= and β= 0.221
38 Simulation Variables Variable Random Number Generator Using Inverse CDF MethodDistribution GraphStation Process TimesTriangular Distribution (4,6,8)FOD Arrival RateExponential Distribution (0.183)FOD Rework TimeWeibull Distribution (0.262, 0.221)
39 Model Assumptions There are 18 total Assembly stations Process Time, determined by Random number generatorChance to leave FOD (Exp)FOD Inspection modeled as Bernoulli Distribution based on Probability of Detection ModelWith p = Probability of detectionEach Station has a chance to detect FOD (By Eye)If FOD is detected, rework time is determined by Random number generator (WEIB)
47 Critical TasksForeseeable RisksMitigation Routes1.Define Requirements2. Times for Production Stages3. Times for FOD Inspection4.Retrieve Costs of Different X-RAY System Alternatives5. Establishing Distributions of discrete events1a. Receiving definitive feedback from Lockheed Martin1b. Verification of specific requirements from lack of quantitative data.2a. Data not received from LMCO in sufficient time3a. Data not received from LMCO in sufficient time4. Failure to receive data from X-RAY vendors.5a. Dependent upon receiving data in a timely fashion1a: Define requirements based on the capabilities of the system with correlation to the goals and objectives of Lockheed Martin1b. Use “dummy variables” in simulation and verify requirements based on output2a. Ask for average times per stage from Lockheed Martin and apply a random number generator as a multiplier to obtain multiple data points3a. Ask for average FOD inspection times per stages or position3aa. Establish a percentage of time per shift spent searching and apply this to the simulation4a. Estimate costs from available research5a: Establishing “dummy variables” will enable our team to run multiple simulations, graph the output and establish these distributions5aa. Obtaining these averages from Lockheed Martin and applying a random number generator as a multiplier will create multiple data points which can then be run through the simulation and graphed to find the various distributions.
54 Bibliography1. American Science and Technology, “Z BACKSCATTER VAN,” AS&E, Massachusetts, USA, Tech. Report. ZBVDATA_080307, 2007.2. American Science and Technology, “MOBILESEARCH HE,” AS&E, Massachusetts, USA, Tech. Report. MSHEDATA_012711, 2011.3. American Science and Technology, “Omniview Gantry High-Performance Inspection System,” AS&E, Massachusetts, USA, Tech. Report. OVDATA_101711, 2011.4. American Science and Technology, “Z PORTAL,” AS&E, Massachusetts, USA, Tech. Report. ZPORTALDATA_052510, 2010.5. Batchel, B “Foreign Object Debris and Damage Prevention” [Online] Available:6. Callerame, , "X-Ray Back scatter Imaging: Photography Through Barriers". Retrieved September, 2014 Available:7.”CTOL SWBS Manufacturing Sequence Flow” [Online] Availablhttp://information2share.wordpress.com/2011/05/25/ctol-swbs-manufacturing-sequence-flow/8. Garber, M , Diagnostic imaging and differential diagnosis in 2 case reports , J Orthop SportsPhys Ther. , vol 35 , no , p.745 – 7549. Gemini® 7555". Retrieved September , 2014 Available:10. Fessle, C J, , "Physics of Projection Radiography ". RetrievedSeptember , 2014 Available: Radiography". RetrievedSeptember , 2014 Available:11. FOREIGN OBJECT DAMAGE PREVENTION. [Online]. Available:12. FOD PREVENTION GUIDELINE [Online]. Available: nafpiguideline.pdf
55 BibliographyButler, Amy. "F-35 Deal Targets Unit Cost Below $100 Million." Aviation Week. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 NovF35.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Oct"BAE Systems completes 150th aircraft for F35 fighter programme".King, Samuel Jr. "First F-35 arrives at Eglin." U.S. Air Force, 15 July Retrieved: 20 July 2011.Pae, Peter. "Stealth fighters fly off the radar". Los Angeles Times, 23 April Retrieved 27 April 2008."Iraq Accepts First Lockheed Martin F-16 Aircraft · Lockheed Martin". Retrieved 13 September 2014.Davies and Dildy 2007, p. 249"McDonnell Douglas F-15 Streak Eagle fact sheet".National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved 24 September 2010."Analysis of the Fiscal Year 2012 Pentagon Spending Request." Cost of war, 15 February Retrieved: 31 August 2013.
56 Fighter Jet Slide References Butler, Amy. "F-35 Deal Targets Unit Cost Below $100 Million." Aviation Week. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 NovF35.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Oct"BAE Systems completes 150th aircraft for F35 fighter programme".King, Samuel Jr. "First F-35 arrives at Eglin." U.S. Air Force, 15 July Retrieved: 20 July 2011.Pae, Peter. "Stealth fighters fly off the radar". Los Angeles Times, 23 April Retrieved 27 April 2008."Iraq Accepts First Lockheed Martin F-16 Aircraft · Lockheed Martin". Retrieved 13 September 2014.Davies and Dildy 2007, p. 249"McDonnell Douglas F-15 Streak Eagle fact sheet".National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved 24 September 2010."Analysis of the Fiscal Year 2012 Pentagon Spending Request." Cost of war, 15 February Retrieved: 31 August 2013.
66 Differential Imaging Requirements DIR #Requirement DefinitionDIR.1.OSupplier shall provide LM the capability to customize the Differential Imaging Software.DIR.2.0A site license for all software required for LM to customize the system Differential Imaging Software shall be submitted for approval 6 months prior to installation on LM intranet assets.DIR.3.0Installation on LM intranet assets will occur 90 days prior to installation.DIR.4.0Two training courses to educate LM employees in the customization of the Differential Imaging Software.DIR.5.0Each class shall be for 10 or less lM employees and conducted immediately after the training at the LM Fort Worth Facility.DIR.6.0Differential Imaging software shall support the use of multiple algorithms to detect images
67 X-Ray Safety Requirements XR.1.0 – System occupational exposure shall be in accordance with OSHA requirements. Supplier shall provide an X-Ray Exposure Protection Plan that addresses the following areas.XR The Plan shall be approved by LM 90 days prior to installation.Radiation Exposure LimitsX-Ray Exams of Pregnant or Potentially Pregnant WomenPersonnel MonitoringExposure RecordsPregnant Authorized UsersPosting NoticesInspectionsXR Radiation workers shall not receive a dose in 1 calendar quarter over the following limits:Deep Dose Equivalent millirem (mrem)Lens Dose Equivalent 3,750 mremShallow Dose Equivalent (skin) 12,500 mremShallow Dose Equivalent (extremities) 12,500 mremApproach & System Alternatives