Presentation on theme: "Spanish present tense. Spanish verbs In Spanish there are 3 types of infinitive verb endings: -ar (hablar) –er (comer) –ir (vivir) An infinitive is the."— Presentation transcript:
Spanish present tense
Spanish verbs In Spanish there are 3 types of infinitive verb endings: -ar (hablar) –er (comer) –ir (vivir) An infinitive is the base form of a verb e.g to speak (hablar), to eat (comer) and to live (vivir) A verb is made up of 2 different parts; the stem and the ending. For example: Habl…ar = Hablar Com…er = Comer Viv…ir = Vivir
Conjugating Conjugation is the process of changing the infinitive form of the verb to suit who or what is doing the action. In regular present tense verbs this relates to changing the ending of the word (–ar –er –ir), but in irregular present tense verbs the stem is changed as well as the ending.
Regular verbs – drop the ending & replace with who is doing the action. Who (English)Who (Spanish)-AR-ER-IR IYo+o YouTú+as+es He/She/ItÉl/Ella+a+e You (formal)Usted+a+e WeNosotros/as+amos+emos+imos You (all)Vosotros/as+áis+éis+ís TheyEllos/Ellas+an+en You (all – formal) Ustedes+an+en Task: Translate – We look, They learn and I open
List of regular verbs pasar to pass, to pass on, to spend (time), to happen deber to owe, must, should, ought to quedar to stay, remain hablar to speak llevar to carry, bring dejar to leave, abandon, to let, allow llamar to call, to name tomar to take, drink vivir to live tratar to treat, handle mirar to watch, look at esperar to hope existir to exist entrar to enter, go in, come in trabajar to work ocurrir to occur, happen recibir to receive, to welcome, greet terminar to finish, end permitir to permit, allow necesitar to need, require resultar to turn out (to be) cambiar to change presentar to introduce crear to create, to make considerar to consider acabar to finish, end
Irregular verbs (stem changers) Some Spanish verbs (irregulars) are called stem changes because when conjugated the stem changes. They still have the same ending as any regular infinitive. Like the endings in regular verbs (AR, ER & IR) there are 3 types of stem changes that can be made. This depends what letter the infinitive form of the irregular verb has. If it includes an O then it us replaced with UE, an E replaced with IE and sometimes an E replaced with I. In each grouping of stem changing verbs the stem changes except for the nosotros and vosotros forms of the verb for example; tener - to havevenir - to come tengo tienes tiene tenemos tenéis tienen vengo vienes viene venimos venís vienen
List of irregular verbs Competir to conceive despedir to fire impedir to impede medir to measure pedir to ask for Poder one can repetir to repeat servir to serve teñir to color, dye, stain vestir to dress
Ser & Estar In Spanish, there are two verbs that can be translated as "to be." These two verbs are ser and estar. estarser estoy estás está estamos estáis están soy eres es somos sois son
When to use ser & estar? Ser is used to express: 1.the hour, day, and date 2.place of origin 3.occupation 4.nationality 5.religious or political affiliation 6.the material something is made of 7.possession 8.relationship of one person to another 9.certain impersonal expressions 10.where an event is taking place 11.essential qualities Estar is used to express: 1.geographic or physical location 2.state or condition 3.many idiomatic expressions 4.progressive tenses
Ser & Estar cntd. When the verb "to be" is followed by a noun, the verb ser is always used. When the verb "to be" is followed by an adjective, the verb used depends upon the meaning. When referring to an essential characteristic, use ser. When referring to a state or condition, use estar. When the verb "to be" is followed by an adjective, the verb can actually change the meaning of the adjective. El profesor está aburrido;The professor is bored//El profesor es aburrido; The professor is boring. To tell where something is located right now, use estar. To tell where an event is taking place, use ser.