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Unit One Book Four Unit 1 Fighting with the Forces of Nature

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1 Unit One Book Four Unit 1 Fighting with the Forces of Nature
Objectives Students will be able to: 1.       grasp the main idea and structure of the text; 2.       do a comparison and contrast between Napoleon’s invasion of Russia and Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union; 3.       master the key language and grammatical structures in the text; 4.       conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of the unit. Time allotment 1st period: pre-reading; while-reading (structure, Parts I and IV) 2nd period: while-reading (Parts II and III) 3rd period: while-reading 4th period: post-reading  check on Ss’ home reading (text B) 5th period: theme-related  language learning tasks Pre-reading tasks 1.       T asks Ss the following questions on the recording: (5 minutes) Where and when did the storm occur? Why did the crew fear the worst would happen to them? (They all knew the dangers of November storms.) 2.       Discussion : Man or nature, which is more powerful? (20 minutes) 1)      Ss are divided into two groups. One group lists instances where man conquers nature; the other group comes up with cases where the forces of nature are powerful to be resisted . 2)      Several Ss from both groups report their respective lists to class. 3)      T solicits opinions from other Ss: man or nature, which do you think is more powerful? 3.       T may move on to Text A by saying: Man changes nature in order to live. However, man must also be careful not to disregard the laws of nature. When Napoleon and Hitler finally realized their arrogance, it was already too late. (2 minutes) While-reading tasks 1.       T draws Ss ’ attention to the subtitle in the text,  then leads them through Text Organization Exercise 1. In this way Ss will have a better understanding of the text structure. (5 minutes) 2.       T explains the language points in Parts I and IV, and has Ss practice them. (see Language Study) (15 minutes) 3.       Ss sum up the main ideas of Parts I and IV respectively. (4 minutes) 4.       T explains the language points in Parts II—III, and has Ss practice them. (see Language Study) (50 minutes) 5.       Ss form groups to analyze the similarities and differences between the two invasions. T may suggest that they make a comparison and contrast analysis in the form of a table. When they finish, some Ss groups report to class. ( see Text Analysis) (35 minutes) 6.       Ss sum up the main ideas of Part II and Part III. ( 4 minutes) Post-reading tasks 1.       T guides Ss through some after-text exercises. (35 minutes) 2.       T checks on Ss’ home reading(Text B). (3 minutes) 3.       Ss do Part IV: Theme-related language learning tasks. (1 period) 4.       T asks Ss to prepare for the next unit: (2 minutes) 1)      do the pre-reading task; 2)      preview Text A  = 2 \* ROMAN II.Text Analysis A Comparison-and-Contrast Analysis of the Two Invasions: invading countryFrance Germany Country invaded Russia Soviet UnionStarter of war Napoleon Hitler Starting time of invasionSpring,18126/22/1941Strength of invading force 600,000The largest land campaign in historyPrediction Quick victory, conquest of Russia in 5 weeksBlitzkrieg(“lightning war),lasting no longer than 3 monthsInitial resistance strategy Refusing to stand and fight; retreating eastwards, burning crops and homes “scorch the earth”, fierce fight to defend major cities Capture the Russian capitalYes No Major battlesSmolensk, Borodino, The Berezina River Leningrad, Stalingrad  Truce offerBy Napoleon, rejected by the CzarnoBiggest enemy for the invading forceSnow, freezing temperatureHeavy rain, “general mud”, snow, freezing temperatureTurning pointOctober 1812,when napoleon ordered a retreat1943,when the Soviet troops pushed the German forces backFate of the invading forceOnly 100,000 survived Heavy lossesWar-starter’s fateNapoleon abdicated and went into exile, his empire at an endHitler committed suicide, his empire collapsing  III. Culture Notes 1.       Background Information Throughout the history of mankind, there have been many conquerors. Chengis khan spent his entire life conquering neighboring peoples and expanding the Mongolian Empire. Many Roman Emperors did the same for the Roman empire---so much so that at one time they ruled modern-day Great Britain. Both the Mongolian and Roman Empires had their rise and fall in the distant past. Yet if we want to examine conquerors, there is no need to go back that far. In 1812, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Russia in a war of conquest. More than a century later, Adolf Hitler launched a massive military campaign against the Soviet Union. 2.       Napoleon Bonaparte ( ): emperor of the French, who consolidated and institutionalized many reforms of the French Revolution. One of the greatest military commanders of all time, he conquered the larger part of Europe. During Napoleon tried to gain control of the whole of Europe. He had great success against all his enemies except Britain, whose navy under Nelson defeated the French navy at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, and whose army fought the Peninsular War against his from 1808 to 1814, making him weaker in his other campaigns. In 1812, Napoleon lost half a million men when he invaded Russia in winter, and in 1814 the British, Russians, Prussians and Australians entered Paris. They sent Napoleon to rule the island of Elba in the Mediterranean, but he collected an army around him and returned to Paris. He was soon defeated again, at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, and was sent to the island of St Helena in the south Atlantic, where he died in 1821. 3.       the Battle of Waterloo: final and decisive action of the Napoleonic Wars, that effectively ended French domination of the European continent and brought about drastic changes in the political boundaries and the power balance of Europe. Fought on June 18, 1815, near Waterloo, in what is now Belgium, the battle ranks as a great turning point in modern history. 4.       Adolf Hitler( ):German political and military leader and one of the 20th century’s most powerful dictators. Hitler converted Germany into a fully militarized society and launched World War  = 2 \* ROMAN II in He made anti-Semitism a keystone of his propaganda and policies and built the Nazi Party into a mass movement. He hoped to conquer the entire world, and for a time dominated most of Europe and much of North Africa. He instituted sterilization and euthanasia measures to enforce his idea of racial purity among the German people and slaughtered millions of Jews, Sinti and Roma(Gypsies), Slavic peoples, and many others, all of whom he considered inferior. 5.       Joseph Stalin( ):general secretary of the Communist Party of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics(USSR)( )and chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR( ). Under his leadership the USSR was built into a modern economic and military power that repelled Hitler’s armies in World War  = 2 \* ROMAN II and rivaled the United States during the Cold War period. 6.       Siege of Leningrad: also known as the 900-Day Siege, blockade by German forces of the USSR’s second largest city during World War  = 2 \* ROMAN II, from September 1941 to January Following the onset of Operation Barbarossa ---- the Nazi plan for conquest of the USSR--- the German Army Group North made rapid progress through the Baltic republic toward its principal target, the city of Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg). By September 4 Leningrad was surrounded by German troops to the south, while Germany’s allies took up positions to the north of the city. Leningrad’s only remaining link with the Soviet interior was across Lake Ladoga. The total destruction of Leningrad was one of Adolf Htler’s major objectives in his Russian campaign and had been specifically mentioned in the Barbarossa directive of December 18, The Nazi leader had described the city as a center of Jewish-Bolshevik intelligentsia. There was to be no place for Leningrad in the Nazi “New Order.” The German strategy was to lay siege to the city and cut all water and power supplies while subjecting the population to merciless air attacks and artillery bombardment. The population of about 3 million was callously left either to starve of freeze to death. By late 1941 the daily bread ration had been cut to 110g per person. To make matters worse, that winter was extremely harsh. Nevertheless, the population showed astonishing courage and fortitude in the face of such adversity. During the winter a road link, popularly known as the “Road of Life,” was established across frozen Lake Ladoga, enabling supplies to be brought in and providing an escape route for more than 500,000 people. The siege was finally lifted by advancing Soviet armies in January 1944, by which time some 1.25 million citizens had perished as a result of the blockade. In 1945 the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet awarded Leningrad the Order of Lenin for its outstanding resistance to the German invaders. 7.       Stalingrad:During World War II, Stalingrad,  a strategically located industrial center, was a vital German objective. A large German force amounted an assault on the city on August 20, 1942, after a period of heavy air raids. A successful Soviet counteroffensive began on November19, and on February 2,1943, the Sixth German Army surrendered, thus ending the German advance into the USSR. German casualties alone totaled more than 300,000, and the Soviet city was almost completely destroyed. Reconstruction began immediately after the war. The city was renamed Bolgograd in Population (1999estimate) 995,800. The five-month battle of Stalingrad, one of the most important battles in history, was a turning point in World War II. The German defeat ended Hitler’s advance into the Soviet Union. After the victory, the Russian army advanced across eastern Europe. Berlin fell on May 2, 1945; five days later, Germany surrendered. 8.       World War II: a war ( ) whose European operations took place between the Axis powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) and the Allies (Britain, France, and later the USSR and the USA). China and many other countries were also involved in the war, fighting against the aggression of Japan in Asia. The war in Europe started when Germany, under Adolf Hitler and the Nazis, invaded and took control of some European countries and the Allies wanted to prevent Berman power growing in this way. Britain declared war on Germany in September 1939 when German troops entered Poland, and soon afterwards Winston Churchill , who in Britain is closely associated with the Allies’ victory in the war, became the British prime minister. In 1940 German air force attacked Britain repeatedly but was not successful, mainly because of the British victory in the Battle of Britain. In 1941,Bermany invaded Russia and Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, an action which brought the US into the war. In 1942 Japan expanded its control over Asia but was later checked by Allied forces in the Pacific. In the same year, at the Battle of El Alamein, Allied forces beganto defeat Germany and Italy in northern Africa. In 1943 the Allies landed in Italy and Russian forces began to advance on Germany from the east. In June1944 the Allies invaded northern Europe with the Normandy landings and began to defeat Germany in Europe. The war ended in May 1945 when the Allies took control of Germany. Hitler killed himself, and Japan was defeated a few months later. Germany and Japan surrendered separately in 1945. IV. Language Study 1.       in the case of: as far as … is concerned Examples: The rise in interest rate will be disastrous in the case           of small firms.          Formal training will take at least 3years in the case of          Interior decoration. 2.       stand/get/be in the way: prevent from doing sth. Examples: Many teachers complain that they can’t make any improvement in teaching methods as the existing exam system is in the way.           I don’t think kids have as much fun as we used to. Fierce competition keeps getting in the way of their development. 3.       raw: cold and wet; not cooked, refined, processed, organized                 or analyzed example:  The events took place on a raw February morning.          This cutting board is only used to cut raw meat. 4.       launch: start; send (sth. ) on its course. Example : Beginning in the early 1960s, humans launched probes to explore other planets.           On October 4, 1957, Soviet scientists launched the world’s first artificial satellite, called sputnik. 5.       campaign: a series of military operations or planned activities             with a particular aim Example: Some people complained that too much money had been spent on political campaign. 6.       efficient: able to work well or producing a satisfactory result without wasting time or resources. Example: Remote terminals in the home, connected to data banks, make the home the most efficient place to work in many cases.         To cut back on fossil fuels, we should build more efficient cars. 7.       conquest: conquering, defeat Example: The year 1939 had witnessed the conquest of Poland by Germany.         Hitler badly miscalculated when he assumed the conquest of the USSR would be simple. 8.       decisive: producing a definite result or conclusion; having or showing the ability to decide quickly Example: Most of the decisive land campaigns of World War I occurred on the continent of Europe.         Lincoln took decisive measures to end slavery. 9.       retreat: move back or withdraw when faced with danger or difficulty Example: After a fierce battle, the troops retreated southward.         We adopted the following strategies: When the enemy advances, we retreat; when they retreat, we pursue. 10.   engage: begin fighting with sb.: (cause to) take part in or do: occupy or attract sb’s interest, etc. Example: I have no time to engage in gossip. engage sb in sth.: (cause to) take part in sth. Example: They are currently engaged in lengthy trade negotiations.           The teacher tried to engage the shy boy in conversation. 11.   be faced with: have to deal with example: The librarians were faced with the huge task of listing all the books.         I am faced with the awful job of breaking the news to the boy’s family. 12.   crucial: very important (followed by to) example: Amazingly, our soccer team won the victory in the crucial final game.         Improved consumer confidence is crucial to economic recovery. 13.   take a gamble: take a risk example: The company took a gamble by cutting the price of their products, and it paid off.         I think she’s taking a gamble investing all her money in stocks. 14. press on/ahead: continue doing sth. in a determined way (used in the pattern: press on/ahead with sth.) Example: Our school authorities are keen to press on with educational reform.         Organizers of the strike are determined to press on. 14.   occupation: the seizure and control of a country or areas: (one’s) trade, profession, or business Example: During the Japanese occupation of China, millions of innocent Chinese people were killed by Japanese soldiers.         Many schools have struggled to meet the educational requirements of new technology-based occupations. 15.   bide one’s time: wait patiently for a chance Example: His political rivals are biding their time for an attack on his policies.         He bided his time until Harvard University offered him a professorship. 16.   minus: below zero; made less by; slightly lower than the mark stated Example: The gross profit of an automobile manufacturer equals the value of its car sales minus the cost of making cars.         I got B minus in the final examination. 17.   drag on: move slowly and with effort; continue endlessly and tediously Example: These compensation cases have already dragged on for one year;          How much longer is the meeting going to drag on? 18.   stroke: any of series of repeated movements; single successful or effective action or occurrence; blow Example: I saw a chance of solving all my problems at a stroke.         He drove in a nail with one stroke of the hammer.         He won a car in the lottery last week. That’s his first stroke of good luck. 19.   limp: walk with difficulty, esp. when one foot or leg is hurt Example: That dog must be hurt------it’s limping.         I injured my ankle and had to limp. 20. alliance: a union or an association formed for mutual benefit, esp. between counties or organizations Example: NATO is considered as the most powerful military alliance in modern history.         Japan and Germany made their formal alliance in 1940. 20.   invasion: an entering or being entered by an attack military force Example: The country remained free from invasion for 60 years.         On Hitler’s orders, the invasion of Poland began on September1, 1939. 21.   declaration: formally announcing, a formal announcement (followed by of) Example: The opening speeches sounded more like declarations of war than offerings of peace.         The Japanese attacked the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941 without a declaration of war. 22.   catch sb. off guard: take sb. by surprise Example: The invitation to his wedding caught me off guard.         The manager didn’t know what to say. It was clear that my question had caught him off guard. 23.   instruct: give orders or directions to sb. Example: The family has instructed solicitors to sue Thomson for compensation.         The professor instructed us that we had one month to conduct the project.         He instructed family members in nursing techniques. 24.   render: cause to be in a specified condition Example: Hundreds of people were rendered homeless by the earthquake.         The drug will render the tiger harmless for up to two hours.         He was rendered unconscious by a blow on the back of the neck. 25.   casualty: a person who is killed or injured in war or in an accident Example: The precise number of casualties in yesterday’s bomb explosion is not known.         First reports of the traffic accident tell of more than 50 casualties. 26.   die from/of : have as the cause of death Example: Some animals died of starvation in the snow.         All the plants were dying from lack of rain. 27.   siege: a military operation in which an army tries to capture a town, etc. by surrounding it and           stopping the supply of food, etc. To the people inside Example: We must do everything possible to lift the siege.         They are hopeful of bringing the siege to a peaceful conclusion.         The city was under siege for six months. 28.   offensive: aggressive action, attack Example: The Red Army bought its winter offensive to a successful conclusion.         In January 1944 a Soviet offensive raised the long siege of Leningrad. a.       used for or connected with attack; causing sb. to feel upset, or annoyed; very unpleasant Example: Faced with the invasion ,they took immediate offensive action.         He made crude jokes that are offensive to women. 29.   thanks to: because of Example: Thanks to her financial support, the two children in the remote village could go to school. Thanks to their tireless efforts, the performance was a great success. 30.   heroic: area Example: when examining a large geographic unit, geographers often divide it into smaller regions.         In recent years increasing numbers of tourists have visited Antarctica to appreciate the region’s majestic scenery and wildlife. 31. reckon: count; consider; think Example: the existence of the U.S. is reckoned from the Declaration of Independence.         Many people reckon him to be a great basketball player.         Looking up at the sun. I reckoned that it must be about three o’clock. be reckoned with: be taken into consideration Example: all these problems had to be reckoned with as they arose.         She is a woman to be reckoned with. 32. toll: the number of people or animals killed or injured in particular circumstances; money paid for the of a bridge or road. Example: the toll of road deaths and injuries is on the rise.         The local government was allowed to charge tolls for the use of the roads. Take its / a toll: cause damage, injuries or deaths (often followed by of /on) Example: the famine took a toll of 3,000,000 lives.         His hard work has taken its toll on his stomach.        High wages have taken their toll on the Swedish economy.

2 Unit Two Unit 2 Smart Cars Objectives Students will be able to:
1.       understand the main idea and structure of the text; 2.       learn some techniques in expository writing(definition, quotes, a mixture of facts and opinions, etc.); 3.       grasp the key language points and grammatical structures in the text; 4.       conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking, and writing activities related to the theme of the unit. Time allotment 1st  period 2nd period3rd period4th period5th periodPre-reading;While-reading(text structure, part I)While-reading(part  = 1 \* ROMAN I, part  = 2 \* ROMAN II)While-reading;Post-reading(definition)Post-reading;Check on Ss’Home reading(Text B)Theme-RelatedLanguageLearning TasksPre-reading task 1.       T asks Ss the following questions on the song: ---According to the song, will the world be a better or worse place in a hundred year’s time? ---According to the song, what are some of the effects of modern science and technology on man in the future? Do you agree? 2.       Free writing (25 minutes) 1)      Ss are given ten minutes to free write, beginning with the sentence: “Even if I could afford a car, I may not actually want to drive one because…” 2)      Ss exchange their papers with at least three fellow Ss, noting down reasons given by the others as to why they wouldn’t drive a car. 3)      T asks several Ss to report to class the reasons for not driving a car given both by him/herself and by others. 3.       T may move on to Text A by saying: Some scientists and engineers have come up with the idea of a “ smart car”. Let’s read to find out what this “ smart car” can do. (2 minutes) While-reading tasks 1.       T leads Ss through the instruction for Text Organization Exercise 1, and tell them that the main ideas will be filled in as soon as they finish studying a part. (3 minutes) 2.       T explains the language points in Part 1 and has Ss practice them. (see Language Study) (10 minutes) 3.       Ss tell sentences that express opinions from factual statements in Part 1. Later, T explains that facts and opinions are often interwoven in expository writing and that one must learn to distinguish them. (see Text Analysis) (8 minutes) 4.       Ss summarize the main idea of Part 1. (2 minutes) 5.       T explains the language points in Part II and has Ss practice them. (see Language Study) (30 minutes) 6.       Ss summarize the main idea of Part II. (2 minutes) 7.       Ss do Text Organization Exercise 2. (16 minutes) 8.       T explains the language points in Part III and has Ss practice them. (see Language Study) (20 minutes) 9.       Ss summarize the main idea of Part III. (2 minutes) Post-reading tasks 1.       Finding out definitions (20 minutes) 1)      Ss work in pairs and re-read the text to provide definitions for “blind spot”, “global positioning system”, “atomic clock”, “telematics” and “automated driver”. 2)      Several pairs report to class 3)      T solicits answers to the following questions ---- By what means did you come up with those definitions? ---- Besides listing facts and using definitions, what other writing techniques are used in this expository piece of writing? ---- Will you use these techniques in your own writing? (see Text Analysis) 2.       T guides Ss through some after-text exercises. (30 minutes) 3.       T checks on Ss’ home reading. (Text B) (3 minutes) 4.       Ss do Part IV: Theme-related Language Learning Tasks. (1period) 5.       T asks Ss to prepare for the next unit: (2 minutes) 1)      do the pre-reading task; 2)      preview Text A II. Text Analysis    What jumps out first at a browser of this text may be those terms in quotation marks or with capitalized first letters----“blind spot”, Global Positioning System, “atomic clocks”, “telematics” and “automated driver”. What do they mean? How do we find out?    An efficient reader knows. He/she can make a guess based on knowledge of word-formation or knowledge of the world or the context. For example, when the reader comes across “ should you make a serious driving mistake (e.g. change lanes when there is a car in your “blind spot”) the computer would sound an immediate warning”, he or she can guess from the context that a blind spot must be a portion of the road behind a car, which a driver can not observe from the rear-view mirror.    What is the Global Positioning System? From the sentence containing this term (“ we already have twenty-four Navstar satellite orbiting the earth, making up what is called the Global Positioning System.”),we know it is a service linked with a satellite. From the following sentence we know its function( “They make it possible to determine your location on the earth to within about a hundred feet.”)    What is an atomic clock? The answer is found in exactly the same sentence. It vibrates at a precise frequency, according to the laws of the quantum theory.    We can guess the meaning of “telematics” from its word formation. The prefix “tele-“ means “distant”, the suffix “-matics” may be the end part of “informatics”. Then the sentence in the text---“GPS is actually but part of a larger movement, called “telematics”----tells us more about it.    What is an automated driver? Sentences directly following the term give a detailed explanation---“ The plan calls for computers, aided by thousands of three-inch magnetic spikes buried in the highway, to take complete control of the driving of cars on heavily trafficked roads. Cars will be bunched into groups of ten or twelve vehicles, only six feet apart, traveling in unison, and controlled by computer.” III. Cultural Notes. 1.       automobile industry: The automobile industry is one of the most important industries in the world, affecting not only economies but also cultures. It provides jobs for millions of people, generates billions of dollars in worldwide revenues, and provides the basis for a multitude of related service and support industries. Automobiles revolutionized transportation in the 20th century, changing forever the way people live, travel, and do business. The automobile has enabled people to travel and transport goods farther and faster, and has opened wider market areas for business and commerce. The auto industry has also reduced the overall cost of transportation by using methods such as mass production (making several products at once, rather than one at a time), mass marketing (selling products with parts made worldwide). Between 1886 and 1898, about 300 automobiles were built, but there was no real established industry. A century later, with automakers and auto buyers expanding globally, automaking became the world’s largest manufacturing activity, with more than 53 million new vehicles built each year worldwide. Automobile manufacturers are among the largest companies in the world. These corporations are often multinational. These companies often share parts, or use parts made in foreign factories. The U.S. automobile manufacturers in the United States--- General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and DaimlerChrysler AG--- provide three-fourths of the industry’s total direct employment in the United States. At the start of the 21st century, the trends of global trade and manufacturing flexibility continue. Computerization continues to be a major part of auto design and manufacture, as do the search for alternative fuels and more efficient automobile designs. 2.       Global Positioning System (GPS): space-based radio-navigation system, consisting of 24 satellites and ground support. GPS provides users with accurate information about their position and velocity, as well as the time, anywhere in the world and in all weather conditions. GPS determines location by computing the difference between the time that a signal is sent and the time it is received. GPS satellites carry atomic clocks that provide extremely accurate time. The time information is placed in the codes broadcast by the satellite so that a receiver can continuously determine the time the signal was broadcast. The signal contains data that a receiver uses to compute the locations of the satellites and to make other adjustments needed for accurate positioning. The receiver uses the time difference between the time of signal reception and the broadcast time to compute the distance, or range, from the receiver to the satellite. The receiver must account for propagation delays, or decreases in the signal’s speed caused by the ionosphere and the troposphere. With information about the ranges to three satellites and the location of the satellite when the signal was sent, the receiver can compute its own three-dimensional position. As of March 1994, 24GPS satellites were in operation. Replenishment satellites are ready for launch, and contracts have been awarded to provide satellites into the 21st century. GPS applications continue to grow in land, sea, air, and space navigation. The ability to enhance safety and to decrease fuel consumption will make GPS an important component of travel in the international airspace system. Airplanes will use GPS for landing at fogbound airports. Automobiles will use GPS as part of intelligent transportation systems. Emerging technologies will enable GPS to determine not only the position of a vehicle but also its altitude. 3.       Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) : advanced electronics, communications, and computer systems that increase the efficiency and safety of highway transportation. Originally known as Intelligent Vehicle/Highway Systems (IVHS), these technologies can provide real-time information exchange between drivers and the roads, giving rise to the terms “smart cars” and “smart highways.” As the technologies have expanded to include public transportation and commercial vehicles, this range of technologies has become known as the Intelligent Transportation System. Increasingly, drivers will have access to up-to-the-minute information on traffic conditions, alternate routes, and directions to unfamiliar destinations. Ultimately, vehicle control may be automated. IV. Language Study 1.       turn sth. into/become a reality: example: Her dream of being a college student has turned into a reality.         Working at home and communicating with fellow workers via their PCs has become a reality for some. 2.       lucrative: producing much money; profitable example: Many ex-army officers have found lucrative jobs in private security firms.         We made a lucrative business deal with the American company on rice imports. 3. manufacture: make goods on a large scale using machinery example: Britain now manufactures approximately 40 percent of Europe’s desktop computers.         Ford has been manufacturing cars for nearly a hundred years. 4.       approximately: fairly correct or accurate but not completely so example: Approximately $150 million is to be spent on improvements on school buildings.         The car accident happened at approximately 7:45 a.m. 5.       eliminate: remove, esp. sb./sth. that is not wanted or needed; get rid of example: The Chinese government approved a new plan to eliminate illiteracy nationwide by 2006.         The curriculum ignored the natural interests of children and so eliminated the children’s motivation.         If you think you may be allergic to a food or drink, eliminate it from your diet. 6.       vapor: a mass of tiny drops of moisture forming a cloud or mist example: The atmosphere always contain some moisture in the form of water vapor.         Pure stem is a dry and invisible vapor. 7.       in the air: in the earth’s atmosphere; uncertain, not yet decided example: There is a peculiar smell in the air.         Hundreds of birds suddenly rose in the air.         Our plans are still in the air. 8.       start up: begin or begin working, running, happening, etc; example: Peter looked in his mirror and started up the engine. Put the key in the ignition and turn it to start the car up. 9.       alert: warn sb. that there may be danger, trouble, etc. example: Why weren’t the police alerted?         The manager alerted the staff to the crisis facing the company.         The teachers alerted the students to the danger of swimming in the river. 10.   lane: a division of a road, street, or highway wide enough for a single line of motor vehicles example: The newly-built highways have two lanes for each direction of travel.         There are many different types of roads, from multilane freeways and expressways to two-way country roads. 11.   prototype: the first model or design of sth. from which other forms are copied or developed example: Bell uttered to his assistant the words, “ Mr. Watson, come here; I want you,” using a prototype telephone.         Toyota released its small-car prototype in 1947. 12.   monotonous: dull and never changing or varying; constant and boring example: Robots are used in repetitive, monotonous tasks in which human performance might degrade over time.         In the 1970s, we had a monotonous diet of rice and vegetables. 13.   hazard: a thing that can be dangerous or cause damage; a danger or risk example: The research has confirmed that tobacco smoke presents a hazard to health.         Smog developed into a major health hazard by the 20th century. 14.   get/be stuck in: be unable to move or to be moved example: I was stuck in the traffic yesterday for about one hour. That’s why I missed the plane.         I was stuck at home with flu. 15.   vibrate: move rapidly and continuously backwards and forwards; shake example: Microwave ovens operate by agitating the water molecules in the food, causing them to vibrate, which produces heat.         The whole house vibrates whenever a heavy truck passes. 16.   frequency: the rate at which sth. happens or is repeated, usu measured over a particular period of time example: Fatal road accidents have decreased in frequency over recent years. My computer broke down with increasing frequency. 17.   convert: change from one form or use to another example: Solar cooking requires a dark pot  to absorb the sun’s and convert them into heat energy.         The signal will be converted into digital code. 18.   correlate: have a mutual relationship or connection, in which one thing affects or depends on another example: Obesity correlates with increased risk of stroke.         A mother’s smoking in pregnancy correlates with low birth weight in her baby. 19. application: the action or an instance of putting a theory, discovery, etc to practical use example: Multimedia applications usually require more computer memory and processing power.         They have made a new invention which will have a variety of application in industry. 19.   be poised to do: be ready to take action at any moment example: The automobile company is poised to launch its new advertising campaign.         It is reported that US forces are poised to attack Iraq. 20. mount:fix in position for use, display or study; put into place on a support Example:Some automobiles were designed with a transmission mounted on the rear axle.          The first gas-powered vehicles looked like horse buggies with engines mounted underneath. 20.   magnetic: having the properties of a magnet example: Rubber is not magnetic.         I have a magnetic trip ID card. 21. take control of:control example: The new manager didn’t know how to take control of his company.         The government has taken control of all the newspapers. 21.   bunch: group together (both active and passive) example: They bunched together to allow others to squeeze into the crowded elevator.         The runners were still bunched together on the track.. 22.   incorporate: make part of a whole example: His newly published book incorporate his earlier essay.         They laid down a health club incorporating a gym, sauna and steam room. 23.   decrease: become or make sth. smaller or fewer example: A single solar cooker can save a ton of firewood per year and decreases carbon dioxide emissions.         To decrease the overall weight of cars, designers are using materials such as aluminum and plastic. 24.   pollution:the process of polluting or the state of being polluted example: One of the greatest challenges caused by air pollution is global warming.         Along with greater mobility and job creation, the automobile has brought noise and air pollution. 25.   expansion: the process of becoming greater in size, extent or importance example:Modern cosmologists are continuously calculating the age, density, and rate of expansion of the universe.          Under heat the metal undergoes considerable expansion.

3 Unit Three Unit3 I. Suggested Teaching plan Objectives
I. Suggested Teaching plan Objectives Students will be able to: 1. grasp the main idea and structure of the text; 2. realize the importance of examples in illustrating one’s points; 3. master the key language points and grammatical structures in the text; 4. conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of the unit. Pre-reading tasks 1.     T asks Ss the following questions on the recording: —Why do you think the wife behaves in the way she does according to the song? (This is open to interpretation. Obviously she is angry with her husband, perhaps for his being lazy,    timid, not trying hard enough, or simply putting all the burden of the family on her shoulders.) —How does the husband feel about his wife’s behavior? (This is also an open-ended question. Maybe he is angry too, or maybe he is helpless, impatient, frightened, or crying for sympathy.) 2.     Group research project: How to Prepare for an Interview 1)     Before class, divide Ss into groups. Each group will search either online or through traditional media, for a recruitment ad related to their major/specialty. 2)     Each group previews Text A and Cloze B and brainstorms how to prepare, as an applicant, for this particular job interview on the basis of the same ad. 3)     Groups make due preparations. 4)     In class, several groups report to class on their preparations: e.g. resume, information on the company, company executives, company products or services, a list of questions likely to be asked and how to answer these questions. Each group may be represented by more than one speaker. 3.     T may move on to the text by saying: All our preparations have been done from the interviewee’s point of view, now let’s study Text A to get the interviewer’s perspective. While-reading tasks 1.     T guides Ss through the instructions for Text Organization Exercise 1 to learn about the text structure. 2.     T explains the language points in PartⅠand has Ss practice them. 3.     Ss summarize the main idea of PartⅠ. 4.     T explains the language points in partⅡ and has Ss practice them. 5.     Ss do Text Organization Exercise2. At the end, T may draw Ss’ attention to the importance of examples by saying: Suggestions without examples are dry and hard to understand; suggestions with examples are comparable to bones covered with flesh. It is also a good idea to start an article with an example that is relevant to readers’ life and interests, like the author did in this text. 6.     Ss summarize the main idea of PartⅡ. 7.     T explains the language points in Part Ⅲ and has Ss practice them. 8.     Ss summarize the main idea of Part Ⅲ. Post-reading tasks 1.     Learning about writing strategy(see Text Analysis) 1)     Ss read quickly through the Writing Strategy part in Unit 4, which is on ways to begin an essay. 2)     Ss look at the beginning of Text A of this unit, and then decide what method is used here to introduce the topic. 3)     Ss then look at the four pieces of advice offered by the author. And decide what ways are used to begin each of them. 4)     Ss form groups to brainstorm different ways to begin this essay (or a new topic introduction for one piece of advice). They may adopt one of the methods described in the Writing Strategy in Unit4, or they may invent some way of their own. 5)     Several groups report to class. 2.     T guides Ss through some after-text exercises. 3.     T checks on Ss’ home reading (Text B). 4.     Ss do Part IV: Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks. 5.     T asks Ss to prepare for the next Unit: 1)     do the pre-reading task; 2)     preview Text A. II Text Analysis According to the Writing Strategy in unit4, there are usually five ways to begin an essay: using a quotation, asking a question, stating the time and place of the event to be described, providing relevant background information, and giving a surprising or interesting fact. Text A of this unit starts with a personal story, which could also be very appealing to readers. Personal experiences sound real. They can also narrow the distance be3tween the author and the reader. Then the author offers four keys to getting hired. All are instructive yet each is begun in a way different from the rest stylistically. Let’s have a closer look at them one by one. Key 1 starts with a quotation ―“If you miss one day of practice, you notice the difference,” the saying goes among musicians. “If you miss two days of practice, the critics notice the difference. If you miss three days of practice, the audience notices the difference.” Key 2 starts with a surprising fact ―“Recently I played a doubles tennis match paired with a 90-year-old.” Key 3 begins with a question ­―“Do you remember the four-minute mile?” Key 4 begins with a personal opinion ―“In my opinion, the majority of New York cabdrivers are unfriendly, if not downright rude. Most of the cabs are filthy, and almost all of them sport an impenetrable, bulletproof partition”. All this makes the article more appealing to the reader. III. Cultural Notes 1. Job interview:       No matter where you went to school, no matter what your GPA is, no matter how much experience you have, no matter who you know – if you aren’t able to interview successfully, you won’t get the job.  Following are some insights designed to help the interviewee successfully interview and get the job he/she wants: Preparing for the Interview 1. Know the exact place and tine of the interview, the interviewer’s full name, the correct pronunciation and his of her title. 2. Learn pertinent facts about the company such as annual sales revenue, principal lines of business and locations. 3. Find out why the hiring manager and/or client representative is interested in your qualifications. 4. Determine how the opportunity will impact your immediate and long-term career development. 5. An interview is a “tow-way street.” Know what questions to ask during the interview. Your questions allow the hiring manager to evaluate your professional and personal needs. Insightful questions help both of you determine if your relationship will be mutually rewarding. Lastly, the better you understand the opportunity, the more you will be able to communicate your interest in the position. 6. Put your best foot forward. Always wear proper attire and greet your interviewer with a firm handshake and an enthusiastic smile. Some “DOs” and “DON’Ts” 1. Do plan to arrive on time or a few minutes early. Late arrival for a job interview is never excusable. 2. If presented with an application, do fill it out neatly and completely. Don’t rely on your application of resume to do the selling for you. Interviewers will want you to speak for yourself. 3. Do greet the interviewer by last name if you are sure of the pronunciation. If not, ask the employer to repeat it. Give the appearance of energy as you walk. Smile! Shake hands firmly. Be genuinely glad to meet the interviewer. 4. Do wait until you are offered a chair before sitting. Sit upright, look alert and interested at all times. Be a good listener as well as a good communicator. 5. Do look a prospective employer in the eye while speaking. 6. Do follow the interviewer’s leads, but try to get the interviewer to describe the position and the duties to you early in the interview so that you can apply your background, skills and accomplishments to the position. 7. Do make sure that your good points come across to the interviewer in a factual, sincere manner. Stress achievements. For example: sales records, processes developed, savings achieved, systems installed, etc. 8. Do always conduct yourself as if you are determined to get the job you are discussing. Never close the door on opportunity. 9. Do show enthusiasm. If you are interested in the opportunity, enthusiastic feedback can enhance your chances of being further considered. If you are not interested, your responsiveness will still demonstrate your professionalism.    10. Don’t smoke, even if the interviewer does and offers you a cigarette. Do not chew gum.    11. Don’t forget to bring a copy of your resume! Keep several copies in your briefcase if you are afraid you will forget.    12. Don’t answer with a simple “yes” or “no.” Explain whenever possible. Describe those things about yourself which relate to the situation.    13. Don’t lie. Answer questions truthfully, frankly and succinctly.    14. Don’t make unnecessary derogatory remarks about your present of former employers. Obviously, there were issues or else you would not have left a prior company or be looking to leave a present employer. However, when explaining your reasons for leaving, limit your comments to those necessary to adequately communicate your rationale.    15. Don’t over-answer questions. And if the interviewer steers the conversation into politics of controversial issues, try to do more listening than speaking since this could be a sensitive situation.    16. Don’t inquire about salary, vacations, bonuses, retirement, etc., on the initial interview unless you are sure the employer is interested in hiring you. If the interviewer asks what salary you want, indicate what you’ve earned but that you’re more interested in opportunity than in a specific salary. 2. Michael Jordan (1963-  ): American professional basketball player, considered by many to be the greatest player in basketball history. The 6 ft 6 in (198cm) shooting guard first became known as an explosive individual scorer, but as he matured as a player he adopted a more team-oriented approach to the game. Jordan led the Chicago Bulls to six National Basketball Association (NBA) championships ( , ). His widespread appeal to fans has helped keep basketball one of the world’s most popular spectator sports. 3. John Michael Landy (1930-  ): Australian athlete, and the second runner, after England’s Sir. Roger Bannister, to break the four-minute mile. He did so in 3 minutes 58 seconds in 1954, two months after Bannister set his mark. 4. Sir Roger Bannister (1929-?):  British physician and the first athlete in history to run a mile in less than 4 min. Born in Harrow, England, he was educated at the University of Oxford and at Saint Mary’s Hospital Medical School. At a meet in Oxford on May 6, 1954, Bannister ran the mile in 3 min 59.4 sec, establishing a world record. This was bettered less than two months later by the Australian athlete John Landy, who set a record of 3 min 58 sec. Bannister defeated Landy in a mile race held at Vancouver, Canada, in August Although neither set a record, both men again ran the mile in less than 4 min. Bannister retired from athletic competition in December 1954 to practice medicine. He wrote an autobiography, Four Minute Mile, published in 1955, and was knighted in 1975. 5. The New York Marathon: in the fall, the largest running event in the U.S., annually attracting 30,000 or more entrants in a race through the five boroughs. IV. Language Study 1.applicant: a person who applies for sth., esp. a post Examples: Graduate schools generally require applicants to submit scores on the Graduate Record Exam (GRE).           With admission criteria ranking among the most selective in the United States, Harvard accepts less than 20 percent of all applicants. 2.interview: question to decide if sb. Is right for a job Examples: We’re going to interview six candidates this afternoon.           John is being interviewed next week for the Chief Executive’s job. 3.grill (line11): (infml)question intensely; cook under or over direct heat (used in the pattern: grill sb. (about/on sth.)) Examples: Tom was grilled by customs officers for several hours.       The senior detective grilled the young suspect about the robbery case.       We could grill the chops on the barbecue. 4.follow up(line15): take additional steps to further(a previous action)(followed by with) Examples: If you make a hotel booking by phone, follow it up with written confirmation.          We are worried that terrorists will follow up their threats with bomb attacks. sb’s hands(line16): in sb.’s possession Examples: All the relevant facts are in my solicitor’s hands.          His father’s company has been in his hands for some years. 6.prospective: likely to become or be Examples: The chief function of direct-mail advertising is to familiarize4 prospective buyers with a product. The college had applications from nearly 200 prospective students. I see it: in my opinion  Examples: As I see it, this is the best book on the subject.            As I see it, this press conference is the most successful one we have ever had. 8.(as) the saying goes: used to introduce a particular phrase that people often say Examples: As an old English saying goes, “if you want to live and thrive, let a spider run alive!”            As the saying goes, “He who laughs last laughs longest.” 9.endeavor(line30): an effort or attempt to do sth.; try (to do sth.) Examples: The government has endeavored to forbid the employment of children under the age of 16. The company endeavors to deal with clients’ complaints as promptly as possible. 10.employment: an occupation, esp. regular paid work  Examples: The automobile industry continues to be an important source of employment in that country. Minorities often face barriers in education and employment. one’s homework: make preparations beforehand  Examples: Before you go near a stockbroker, do your homework.            He had done his homework before he delivered the speech. 12.go after: try hard to obtain Examples: Are you planning to go after Peter’s job when he leaves?            He went after first prize in the English speech contest. 13.close every sale(line39): complete every sale or be successful in every sale. 14.I shouldn’t have(line44): I shouldn’t have worried about having the 90-year-old man as my partner. 15.incidentally(line49): by the way (used when adding more information to what was said before, or when you want to talk about sth. else you have just thought of) Examples: Incidentally, this wine goes particularly well with cheese.          Incidentally, if you want to see her again, let me know. 16.partner: one of a pair or team in a sport or game: person who takes part in an activity with another or others Examples: She is one of the five partners in the firm of lawyers.            He didn’t take part in the contest because his partner was ill.  17.chuckle: laugh quietly Examples: The professor chuckled when we told her that we were afraid of her. She sat reading the comic, chuckling to herself. 18.bracket(line52): a group or category that has a particular range; pieces of metal, wood, or plastic that are fastened to a wall in order to support something such as a shelf Examples: This new car is out of my price bracket.        Women outnumbered men three to two in the over-65 age bracket.        Fix the beam with the brackets and screws.        We need some adjustable wall brackets. 19.physical: of or concerning the body; of or concerning the laws of nature  Examples: Human populations differ in their skin color, eye color and shape, hair color and other physical characteristics.            Regular exercise enhances people’s sense of mental wellbeing along with their general physical health.            It is a physical impossibility to be in two places at once. 20.structure: the way in which sth. Is organized, built or put together   Examples: Morphology is concerned with the structure of words, syntax with the structure of phrases and sentences.            The structure of the family varies from society to society.            The house was a handsome four-story brick structure. 21.take/have a crack(at)(line65): try to do (sth.) Examples: They have decided to have a crack at the doubles championship.          I would like to take a crack at the Olympic title again before I retire. the gun: when a starting gun signaled the start of a race 23.deadline: a time limit by which sth. must be done Examples: Tomorrow is the deadline for the students to hand in their term paper. April 15 is the deadline for tax forms to be mailed. 24.make a difference(line76): change the situation or outlook; have an effect Examples: Having a good teacher has made all the difference for Alex.          Where you live can make such a difference to the way you feel. 25.partition: a thin wall or screen that divides a room or other indoor space  Examples: Glass partitions divided the room into individual offices.            Her taxicab has a thick Perspex partition between the passengers’ seats and the driver. 26.blurt(line89): utter abruptly and thoughtlessly Examples: Peter blurted the secret (out) before we could stop him.          As soon as the teacher put forward the question, he blurted the answer out. 27.pry(line91): try to look into private facts about a person(used in the patterns: pry(into sth.))  Examples: We don’t want people prying into our affairs.          Some reporters like to pry into film stars’ private life. the neighborhood of(line97): about Examples: He has an annual salary in the neighborhood of $40,000.          I am hoping to buy an apartment in the neighborhood of 200/000 yuan. 29.generous: giving or ready to give freely  Examples: It was generous of you to share your food with me.            Peter is very generous to his friends. 30.jet: an aircraft with one or more jet engines Examples: British jet fighters have joined the UN forces. Commercial air transport has experienced massive growth with the advent of jet airliners. 31.As we were taxiing down it(line103): as the jet moved slowly on a runway. Here “taxi” is used as a verb. 32.beyond anyone’s/one’s wildest dreams(line105): more than anyone /one can ever imagine   Examples: Ten years ago it was beyond my wildest dreams that I could afford a car.             Scientists have made an invention which is to change our lives beyond our wildest dreams. 33.sparkle: shine in small bright flashes Examples: The stone sparkles when properly cut. The diamond ring sparkled in the sunlight. 34.from one’s/the standpoint (of): from one’s/the viewpoint (of) Examples: From a human standpoint, all of the world’s physical resources are in finite supply. In recent years, some psychologists have tried to explain intelligence from a biological standpoint.

4 Unit Four Unit 4 The multicultural society I Suggested Teaching Plan
I Suggested Teaching Plan Objectives Students will be able to: 1.       grasp the main idea and structure of the text; 2.       practice their critical thinking ability through in-depth discussions on issues mentioned in the text; 3.       master the key language points and grammatical structures in the text; 4.       conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of the unit. Pre-reading tasks 1.     T asks Ss the following questions on the recorded passage —What happened when Juanita Brooks applied for a job more than 50 years ago?(The school principal offered to keep her biracial background secret.) —What changes enabled Juanita Brooks to claim to be both black and white?(changes in federal guidelines for collecting statistics, allowing    people to identify themselves as of more than one race) 2. Activity: the American collage 1)     In class, Ss form groups to show each other their individual collages, Before class, T explains to Ss the concept of a collage. Probably it would be a good idea if T could show Ss a sample of collage. 2)     Ss carry out an individual assignment out of class. Each makes a collage out of newspaper clippings, magazine pictures, cartoons, his/her own drawings, etc. The collage should represent the United States as they each see it. 3)     and then explain why they chose certain images to represent the U.S. 3. T may move on to Text A by saying: Just now we heard your versions of the American collage. Now let’s look at the American collage in the eyes of an American. While-reading tasks 1.     T draws Ss’ attention to the directions of Text Organization Exercise 1, so that they could understand the text structure. 2.     T explains the language points and has Ss practice them.(see Language Study) 3.     When T and Ss finish each of the three parts, Ss should come up with a summary. 4.     Ss do Text Organization Exercise 2. Post-reading tasks 1. Ss form groups to discuss two out of the three after-text Points for discussion questions. At the end T may want to give a summary and try to convince Ss not to accept anything just because it is printed in black and white, but to think critically. (see Text Analysis) 2.       T guides Ss through some after-text exercises. 3.       T checks on Ss’ home reading (Text B) 4.       Ss do Part IV: Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks. 5.       T asks Ss to prepare for the next Unit: 4)     do the pre-reading task; 5)     preview Text A. II. Text Analysis      People tend to worship things printed in black and white. Yet we would like to cultivate in our students the ability to think critically. They should understand that not everything they read is true. At the same time they need to be able to, and they should be able to, justify their disbelief.      Take Question 1 in the after-text Points for Discussion for example. Is Euro-centeredness really phasing out? The economic and political power still rests with the whites, not the Asian Americans, African Americans, Hispanics, or Native Americans. Has white mainstream America really given up on policing the world? The 9/11/2001 event was tragic and should not have happened, but it does show that there are groups strongly opposed to what they see as the interference of America and the West in affairs beyond their borders.      Let’s look at Question 2. According to the author, Los Angeles is a symbol of the future. Yet he hadn’t anticipated the Los Angeles riots of (The essay was written before they took place.) During the riots, African Americans attacked Asian Americans, especially Korean Americans. Can the Los Angeles of 1992 stand for racial harmony?      Now Question 3. Many Westerners’ idea of the non-Western world is dated. However, nowadays the non-Western world, especially Asia, is developing at a rapid pace. People here have acquired quite a strong sense of time. A good case in point: if you observe the subway patrons in Hong Kong, Tokyo or Shanghai, they walk as fast as commuters in major cities in the West.      In a word, our students must realize that there are always different perspectives. III. Cultural Notes 1. Ryzsard Kapuscinski: Ryzsard Kapuscinski has spent most of the post World War II years reporting on war and revolution in Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. He has written a trilogy on dictators that covers Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia, Idi Amin of Uganda, and the last Shah of Iran. Being away from the United States frequently and being acquainted with social, ethnic and racial conflicts in many cultures has given Kapuscinski a broader perspective on the social pressures facing the United States in the future. In this essay, commissioned by The New Perspectives Quarterly, Kapuscinski finds the changing composition of the American melting pot not a source of social problems but a sign of positive future and of the continuing vitality of the democratic experiment represented by the people and the government of the United States. 2. Pluralism: refers to the acceptance of many different groups in society or many different schools of thought in an intellectual or cultural discipline.         Although America’s culture is becoming more uniform, its society remains a diverse mix of ethnic, racial, and religious groups. The United States is a pluralistic society, meaning it is composed of many nationalities, races, religions, and creeds. Some of the people who immigrated to America embrace the opportunity to leave old cultures behind and to remake themselves unencumbered by traditions and loyalties. Others found that the liberties promised under the Bill of Rights allowed for distinctiveness rather than uniformity, and they have taken pride in preserving and celebrating their origins. Many Americans find that pluralism adds to the richness and str5ength of the nation’s culture. 3. Multiculturalism: a concept with many meanings. But it often refers to acceptance of immigrant and minority groups as distinct communities, distinguishable from the majority population. Like bilingualism, multiculturalism provokes debate. Advocates of multiculturalism believe that members of minority groups should enjoy equal rights in American society without giving up their diverse ethnic cultures. Multicultural education programs, for instance, strive to teach the content of different cultures, to build tolerance of these cultures, and to eliminate discrimination. The hope is to enable students to understand yow other cultures view the world. Multiculturalists reject the idea of a melting pot and assimilation; they dismiss the idea that national identity must be based on a common heritage and values.         Critics argue that multicultural education creates conflict among groups more than it fosters tolerance of one group for another. Cultural pluralism, critics contend, promotes rivalry and divisions. Moreover, they assert, European traditions remain central to American culture and institutions. Some critics find multiculturalism a token gesture designed to hide continuing domination of American culture by the majority group. Others argue that recognition of cultural differences and group identities does not help address social and economic disadvantages. 4. Los Angeles’ population: Los Angeles’s population expanded rapidly during the 1980s as immigration from Asia and Latin America, especially Mexico, boomed and the city continued to draw people from other parts of the country. The population increased from 1,966,850 in 1980 to 3,485,398 in The growth continued in the 1990s, although at a slower pace. The population was 3,694,820 in The Los Angeles-Long Beach metropolitan area reached a population of 9,519,338 in The larger five-country consolidated metropolitan area reached 16,373,645 people.      According to the 2000 census, whites are 46.9 percent of the population, blacks 11.2 percent, Asians 10 percent, native Americans 0.8 percent, native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders 0.2 percent, and people of mixed heritage or not reporting ethnicity 30.9 percent.      Hispanics of Mexico heritage formed the largest ethnic group in Los Angeles in the 1990s. The next largest Hispanic group were Salvadorans, many of whom moved to the city to escape political turmoil in El Salvador. Blacks, at 415,000 in 2000, are the second largest minority in Los Angeles. Blacks began to migrate to Los Angeles in large numbers during the economic boom of World War II ( ), lured to the city by good jobs available in war-production plants. Asians have been immigrating to California since the middle of the 19th century, and many of them have made homes in Los Angeles. In the 1990s the largest groups among those of Asian heritage were Filipino, Korean, Chinese, and Japanese. According to the 1990 census, 38 percent of the city’s residents were born outside the United States. 5. Third World: general designation of economically developing nations. The term arose during the cold war, when two opposing blocs – one led by the United States (first), the other led by the USSR (second) – appeared to dominate world politics. Within this bipolar model, the Third World consisted of economically and technologically less developed countries belonging to neither bloc. Originated by the Martinique-born Marxist writer Frantz Fanon, the designation was essentially negative and not always accepted by the countries concerned. Although political and economic upheavals in the late 1980s and early 1990s marked the collapse of the Soviet power bloc, “Third World” remains a useful label for a conglomeration of countries otherwise difficult to categorize. The countries of the Third World, containing some two-thirds of the world’s population, are located in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Politically, they are generally nonaligned. Some are moving out of their previous situation and may soon join the ranks of industrialized countries. Others, with economies considered intrinsically incapable of development, are at times lumped together as forming a “fourth world.” 6. A nation of immigration: Although the United States has been shaped by successive waves of immigrants, Americans have often viewed immigration as a problem. Established Americans often look down on new immigrants. The cultural habits of immigrants are frequently targets of criticism, especially when the new arrivals come from a different country than those in the established community. Despite such tensions, economic needs have always forced Americans to seek immigrants as laborers and settlers, and economic opportunities have beckoned foreigners. The vast majority of immigrants to the United States have come in search of jobs and the chance to create a better life for themselves and their families. In all of American history, less than 10 percent of immigrants have come for political or religious reasons.       Economic immigrants from Europe, Asia, and Latin America have come to the United States voluntarily. Others, most notably African Americans, were involuntarily transported to North America to do forced labor or to be sold as slaves. Regardless of the reasons they come to the United States, new immigrants typically work in menial, labor-intensive, low-paying, and dangerous jobs __ occupations that most other Americans shun. They are often treated with disdain until they assimilate __ that is, adopt the mainstream American culture established by earlier immigrants.        Although immigrants are expected to absorb the beliefs and standards of the dominant society, most immigrant groups try to maintain their own cultural heritage, language, and religious practices. Some groups, such as the Huguenots (French Protestants) who immigrated during the colonial period, assimilated within one or two generations. Others, such as the German and Irish immigrants of the 19th century, still maintain some aspects of their traditional cultures.        Traditionally the United States has been described as a melting pot, a place where the previous identities of each immigrant group are melted down to create an integrated, uniform society. Since the 1960s, many Americans have rejected the melting pot metaphor in favor of the image of the mosaic, a picture created by assembling many small stones or tiles. In a mosaic, each piece retains its own distinctive identity, while contributing to a larger design. Advocates of the mosaic metaphor assert that it better represents the diverse multicultural society of the United States. Today, many Americans value their immigrant heritage as an important part of their identity. More recent immigrant groups from Asia, such as Vietnamese Americans and Korean Americans, have established communities alongside those populated by the descendants of European immigrants, such as French Americans, German Americans Irish Americans, and Italian Americans. IV. Language Study decline/on the decline(Line2): losing strength; declining Examples: He is still one of the world’s most popular tennis players, but his game is in decline.          As she was getting older, her mental powers were on the decline. 2.debt: a sum of money that you own Examples: He had enough money to pay off his father’s debts. Shrinking economies mean falling tax revenues and more government debt. 3.characteristic: special mark or quality Examples: Genes determine the characteristics of every living thing. A prominent characteristic of language is that the relation between a linguistic sign and its meaning is arbitrary. 4.paralyze(line8): make ineffective; make (sb) lose the ability to move part or all of the body Examples: The explosion killed about two hundred people and paralyzed part of the city’s transportation system.           The explosion killed about two hundred people and paralyzed part of the city’s transportation system. 5.thesis: an idea or theory that tries to explain why sth. Happens; a long piece of writing about a particular subject that you do as part of a university degree such as an MA or a PhD  Examples: Their main thesis is that inflation is caused by increase in the money supply.           He was awarded his PhD for a thesis on industrial robots. 6.historical: concerning past events; based on the study of history Is Macbeth a real historical figure? Examples: Museums collect objects of scientific, aesthetic, or historical importance. Many historical documents and photographs are preserved in the provincial archives in Nanjing. 7.precedent: earlier happening, decision, etc. taken as an example or rule for what comes later Examples: The trial could set an important precedent for dealing with large numbers of similar cases.            The appointment of female commander of a navy warship is without precedent.                                                                                                                     8.have a/the sense that(line14): feel/believe/realize that Examples: As soon as we had the sense that something was wrong, we moved the children away.         We have the sense that one month’s preparation is far from enough if we want to accomplish the project. 9.for the first time: never before Examples: Korea entered into the quarter-finals in the World Cup for the first time. Airplanes were used in a major military campaign for the first time during World War I. 10.leave behind: cause (sth.) to remain; fail or forget to bring or take Examples: I am afraid we’ll have to leave the dog behind at home. I arrived at the meeting to find I’d left my notes behind. 11.mentality(line27): characteristic attitude of mind; way of thinking Examples: Can you understand the mentality of someone who likes to watch animals fighting each other?          Running a business requires a very different mentality from being a salaried employee. 12.plural(line36): involving more than one person or thing or different kinds of people or things Examples: His government has pledged to move the country towards a plural democracy.         A plural form of a noun is the form that is used to refer to more than one person or thing.         Data is the plural form of datum. n. Examples: Dogs is the plural of dog. 13.unbelievable: extremely surprising; very difficult to believe to believe and therefore probably untrue   Examples: Dealers were paying unbelievable prices for her painting.             Her excuse for being late for class was totally unbelievable. 14.immigrant(line37): a person who moves as a settler to another country Examples: Historically, the United States has attracted vast numbers of immigrants from around the globe.          It was estimated that more than 11 out of every 20 New Yorkers were immigrants or the children of immigrants. connected system Examples: The Internet is composed of many interconnected computer networks. Most personal computers communicate with each other and with larger networks such as the Internet, by using the ordinary telephone network. 16.constructive: having a useful purpose; helpful Examples: Criticism is welcome only when it is constructive criticism. After their meeting, both sides described the talks as frank, friendly and constructive. 17.cooperation: working or acting together for a common purpose   Examples: The mission of the United Nations is to maintain world peace, develop      relations between countries, promote cooperation, promote cooperation in solving the world’s problems and encourage respect for human rights.             The European Union is an organization dedicated to economic cooperation among European nations. 18.conception(line86): idea about what sth. is like or understanding of sth; process in which sb. forms a plan or idea Examples: Their conception of love seems to be very different from our own.          I had no conception of the finished product.          The symphony is admirable in conception. 19.destructive(line88): causing destruction Examples: Technology can be conceived as both a creative and a destructive process.           The strong El Nino which occurred between 1982 and 1983 was the most destructive in more than a century. up(line94): put in an appearance; be present Examples: If I don’t show up for class this morning, I’ll be kicked out.           He always shows up in a fancy car. 21.offend: hurt the feelings of; give offence to Examples: Richard was deeply offended that people thought he’d faked the story. He apologized for his comments and said he had no intention of offending the professor. the...sense(line100): as far concerned Examples: In the academic sense, this article is not well written.           In the environmental sense, your plan to build a chemical factory is a disaster, whatever the economic benefits may seem to be. 23.religion: a belief in the life of the spirit and usually in one or more gods; a particular system of this belief and all the ways of expressing your love for your god, ceremonies, and duties that are connected with it Examples: Philosophy comprised all areas of speculative thought and included the arts, sciences, and religion. Christianity is the most widely distributed of the world religions. 24.from the perspective of(line102): from the viewpoint of Examples: From the perspective of women, the article is well worth reading.      The novel Harry Potter is written from the perspective of a child. 25.submerge(line102): (cause to) go under the surface of water; cover or completely hide    Examples: Submarines are designed to submerge and surface, and to maneuver quietly underwater to avoid detection.              Some archeological treasures will be submerged in the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. 26.ethnic: of a race or the races of mankind   Examples: Although America’s culture is becoming more uniform, its society remains a diverse mix of ethnic, racial, and religious groups.             Long-held ethnic tensions escalated into a violent armed conflict. 27.essential: fundamental; most important; necessary (followed by to/for sth.)   Examples: Most teachers agree that play is an essential part of a child’s development.             This alliance is essential for the stability of Europe. Is money essential to happiness?             It is essential that you arrive on time. 28.combination: joining or putting together; state of being joined    Examples: It is the combination of wit and political analysis that makes his articles so readable. All genetic traits result from different combinations of gene pairs, one gene inherited from the mother and one from the father. 29.stagnant: unchanging; still and stale   Examples: Thousands of disputes between management and labor resulted from stagnant wages coupled with inflation.             They tried to drain stagnant pools where mosquitoes breed. 30.destiny(line113): fate   Examples: She wanted to be an artist, but destiny decreed that she should become a doctor.             We are masters of our own destiny. 31.discourage: take away the courage or confidence of   Examples: Michael was so discouraged by repeated failures that he decided to give up his project.             Many people were discouraged by the seemingly endless economic depression.

5 Unit Five Unit Five Cruelty Objectives Students will be able to:
Objectives Students will be able to: 1.      grasp the main idea and structure of the text; 2.      give reasons when they do the ranking activities and make predictions; 3.      master the key language points and grammatical structures in the text; 4.      conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of the unit. Time allotment 1st period2nd period3rd period4th period5th periodPre-reading; While-reading (title prediction, structure, language points)While-reading(language points, plot predictions)While-reading;Post-reading (pair discussion) Post-reading; Check on Ss’ home reading(Text B)Theme-related Language Tasks  Pre-reading tasks 1.T asks Ss the following questions on the recording: (5 minutes) -         Do some people care too much for people in general but forget the needs of their closest friends? (open question) -         What is the singer complaining about? (Too many people find it all too easy to be cold, to say no.) 2.Ranking activity (25 minutes) 1) T asks Ss at random what they think are the determining forces in shaping human nature (e.g., genes, family, parenting, schooling, peers, socioeconomic factors). 2) T chooses five or six determining forces, and then write them down on the blackboard. 3) Ss form groups to rank these forces in descending order of importance. They must also explain why. 4) T may move on to Text A by saying: We will go on to debate the issue of nature vs. nurture in the fifth period, when we do the Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks. Now let’s turn our attention to the text, to see what Maugham has to say about human nature. (1 minute) While-reading tasks 1.  Ss look at the title, and then predict what the text is about, or what kinds of plot are possible under such a title. (3 minutes) 2.  T helps Ss with the instructions for Text Organization Exercise 1 to have a good knowledge of the text structure. (2 minutes) 3.  T explains the key language points and has Ss practice them. (see Language Study) (55 minutes) 4.  When T and Ss finish studying the language points in one part, Ss sum up its main idea.(9 minutes) 5.      At the end of Paragraphs3, 10, 16, 32 and 45. Ss make predictions on plot development. (see Text Analysis) Para. 3: What could Burton possibly have done? Para 10: Will they discuss the remittance man? Para 16: What is Burton’s story about? Para 32: What was Burton’s idea? Para 45: Did the man swim? (10 minutes) 6.      Ss do Organization Exercise 2. (10 minutes) Post-reading tasks 1.Ss form pairs to discuss the following questions: (see Text Analysis) (20 minutes) -  Which sentence reveals Burton’s vicious nature to the full? -         Now that we have gone through the text, would you interpret the title a bit differently from your earlier prediction? -         Can you list some instances where the writing technique of contrast is used? -         Who narrates Parts I and II, and who narrates Part III? Why is there such a difference? 2.T helps Ss along through some after-text exercises. (35 minutes) 3.T checks on Ss’ home reading. (3 minutes) 4.Ss do part IV: Theme-Related Learning Activities. (1 period) 5.T asks Ss to prepare for the next unit: (2 minutes) 1)      do the pre-reading task; 2)      preview Text A. Text Analysis Maugham, the famous British short story writer, shows us how powerful contrast is in delineating a person’s character. Upon first seeing the title, readers may think: “Oh, no. Another story about how people helped their friend in need!” However, when they finish reading it, readers will find it is an entirely different story: Those who appear to be friendly may turn out to be so evil-minded as to be ready to strike a cruel blow at a friend in need. Almost the entire Part II is devoted to the description of Edward Burton’s kindly appearance and pleasant manners. Neither the “T” in the story nor readers could imagine him hurting a fly. Yet in Part III Burton recounts cold-bloodedly how he destroyed a human life. Part I and Part II are is narrated by “T”, who offers his subjective opinion of Burton’s character. Yet in part III Burton himself takes over the narration to tell what happened between him and a friend in trouble. He sounds cool and objective; just because of this he is shown to be so vicious and so cold-blooded. When contrasts abound, it is hard for readers to easily predict what will happen next. Cultural Notes Maugham, W(illiam) Somerset ( ): English author, whose novels and short stories are characterized by great narrative facility, simplicity of style, and a disillusioned and ironic point of view. Maugham was born in Paris and studied medicine at the University of Heidelberg and at Saint Thomas’s Hospital, London. His partially autobiographical novel Of Human Bondage (1915) is generally acknowledged as his masterpiece and is one of the best realistic English novels of the early 20th century. The Moon and Sixpence (1919) is a story of the conflict between the artist and conventional society, based on the life of the French painter Paul Gauguin; other novels are the Painted Veil(1925), Cakes and Ale (1930) , Christmas Holiday(1939) , The Hours Before the Dawn (1942), The Razor’s Edge (1944), and Cataline: A Romance (1948). Among the collections of his short stories are The Trembling of a Leaf (1921), which includes “Miss Thompson,” later dramatized as Rain; Ashenden: or The British Agent (1928); First Person Singular (1931); Ah King (1933); and Quartet (1948). He also wrote satiric comedies—The Circle(1921) and Our Betters(1923)—the melodrama Easst of Suez (1922),essays, and two autobiographies. Language Study 1.      deceptive: likely to deceive; misleading Examples: The newspapers promised not to run deceptive ads in the future.           The company was charged with deceptive advertising for a number of products.           The play is also an observation about the deceptive nature of appearance. 2.      for sb.’s (own) part /the part of: as far as sb. Is concerned    Examples: For my part I prefer living in the country.              Some young students, for their part, can stay up late playing computer games 3.      definite: clear; that can’t be doubted Examples: I was wandering round the shop with no very definite aim.          Doctors have found a definite link between smoking and lung cancer 4.      (all) of a piece: the same in all parts; the same as sth. else Examples: The style of the book is all of a piece, in both illustrations and text.            The essays he completed in the latter part of his life are of a piece with his earlier work.            The testimony was all of a piece with the professor’s version of events. 5.      wrinkle: tighten the skin of the face into lines or folds Examples: The woman was forty, but looked fifty. Her cheeks were sunken and her skin was wrinkled and yellow.          The skin on her cheeks and around her eyes was beginning to wrinkle. 6.      in accordance with: in agreement or harmony with Examples: Students will be criticized or punished if their behavior is not in accordance with school regulations. Some young people are self-centered, which is not in accordance with Chinese traditional values. 7.      elderly: (of people) rather old; past middle age Examples:Most of the residents in the old district are the elderly as their offspring have moved to new residential areas. 8.      evidently: obviously; it appears that Examples: Evidently our living conditions are much better than before.          He was evidently upset when he learned that he failed in the final examination. 9.      mild: (of people or their manner) gentle and kind; not severe or harsh Examples: Peter is a mild man, never getting angry easily.           She has inherited my husband’s milder nature, I’m glad to say. 10.  spicy: exciting esp. because of being slightly indecent; containing or tasting like spice Examples: You can often read spicy stories about film stars in the local newspaper.          Peple from Sichuan province like to eat spicy food. 11.  something of: to some degree Examples: It’s something of a disadvantage nowadays if you can’t use a computer.          They haven’t got a loan from the bank, which is something of disappointment. 12.  instinct: a tendency that one is born with to behave in a certain way without reasoning or training Examples: It’s the mother’s instinct to protect her children.          He always knew what time it was, as if by instinct.          I know by instinct that he had come to deliver bad news. 13.  clap: strike (the inner surface of one’s hands) together Examples: The noise of conversation rose, and the teacher clapped her hands for silence.           The audience clapped enthusiastically as the singer stepped on to the stage. 14.  oddly enough: used to say that sth. seems strange or surprising Examples: Children’s books, oddly enough, continued to have a big place in retail sales.           Oddly enough, some of the students don’t know how to log on the Internet. 15.  sip: drink (sth.), take a very small amount each time (used in the patterns: sip sth. at / form (sth.))  Examples: Jessica sipped her coffee, listening to the music.            He sipped at the glass and then put it down. 16.  in a way: to a certain extent but not entirely Examples: I agree with you in a way, but there are still some areas on which I can’t see eye to eye with you.            It’s easier for men to get work in a way. 17.  with (a) bad / good grace: unwillingly and rudely / willingly and happily Examples: After I talked to him for an hour, he admitted his mistake with bad grace.                                                 My mentor accepted my invitation to dinner with good grace. 18.  stroke: pass the hand gently over (a surface), usu. several times Examples: At the sight of her husband getting off the train, the woman walked forward and embraced him and stroke his white hair.           I reached out and stroked the baby’s cheek tenderly. 19.  shave: cut (hair) off one’s face, etc. with a razor; cut or scrape thin slices from the surface of Examples: In the Qing Dynasty men shaved the front of the head and wore the hair at the back tied in a queue or pigtail.          He washed and shaved, then hurried out of the house. 20.  transparent: allowing light to pass through so that objects behind can be seen clearly Examples: The cup is made of transparent colored plastic.          Transparent plastic is often used for packaging foods, enabling the consumer to see the product inside. 21.  go broke: have no money; go bankrupt Examples: Many multinational companies went broke during the financial crisis, not to speak of small businesses.           He invested all his money in stocks; unfortunately he made one wrong choice after another and finally went broke. 22.  hitherto: (fml) until now; until a particular time Examples: The Hope Project sent money to students hitherto unable to afford their tuition fees.           The printing press made books available to people hitherto unable to afford them. 23.  stick to: refuse to abandon or change (sth.) Examples: Mike, you just tell the cops what you saw; stick to your story.           The old man stuck to jogging every morning although he was eighty years old. 24.  trim: defeat; make (sth.) neat or smooth by cutting away irregular parts Examples: They were trimmed by 3 goals to 2.           My friend trimmed my hair last week. 25.  down and out: having no money, home, etc. Examples: When he ws down and out, none of his friends gave him a helping hand. 26.  commit: do (sth. illegal or wrong) Examples: It is illegal to commit violations of the copyright.          The man was suspected of committing murder. 27.  be / go (all) to pieces: (of a person) have a breakdown; lose control of oneself Examples: She nearly went to pieces when she heard that her husband was              among those buried in the ruins of the World Trade Center. 28.  insane: (infml) very foolish Examples: You would be insane to refuse the invitation to attend the conference. 29.  drive at: be trying to say Examples: The teacher didn’t mention the word “cheating” but I knew what he was driving at. 30.  current: continuous flow of water or air in a particular direction Examples: Swimming against the current is energy-consuming.          I felt a current of cool air blowing in my face. 31.  be take aback: be shocked or surprised Examples: She was taken aback when a man answered the phone. 32.  in bad / good condition: in bad / good health Examples: In spite of the surgery he is still in bad condition. 33.  turn up: arrive; make one’s appearance Examples: He didn’t turn up until the end of the examination. 34.  funk: (infml) avoid because of fear Examples: They were given a chance of taking part in the speech contest, but funked it. 35.  constitution: condition of a person’s body with regard to health, strength, etc. Examples: A boxer must have a strong constitution. 36.  trifle: a thing, a matter or an activity that has little value or importance Examples: My daughter always waste her money on trifles. 37.  candid: not hiding one’s thought; frank and honest (followed by about, with) Examples: Nancy is candid about the problems she is having with Steve. 38.  rub: move one’s hand, an object, etc. backwards and forwards repeatedly on a surface while pressing Examples: Coat the shoes with polish, then rub hard with a soft cloth to give a shine. He looked tired and sat rubbing his eyes. 39.  vacancy: unfilled position or post Examples: The company has a vacancy in the accounts department. He didn’t want to fill the short-term vacancy in the office. The college has no vacancies for professors.

6 Unit Six Book Four Unit Six The Pace Of Life Objectives
Objectives 1.      grasp the main idea and structure of the text; 2.      learn to distinguish supporting facts from opinions, and to use both in their own writings; 3.      master the key language points and grammatical structures; 4.      conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and and writing activities related to the theme of the unit. Time allotment 1st period2nd period3rd period4th period5th periodPre-reading; While-reading (structure, Part I)While-reading(Part I, Part II)While-reading;Post-reading (facts and opinions) Post-reading; Check on Ss’ home reading(Text B)Theme-related Language Learning Tasks  Pre-reading tasks 1.      T asks Ss the following questions on the recording: (5 minutes) - How does the singer treat his diary? Why? (He treats it as a friend, to whom he can pour out his inmost feelings.) -Can we infer what attitude the singer takes towards the pace of life today? (It’s unwise for people to be always in a rush, so much so that they don’t have time either for each other or for themselves.) 2.      Hour-by-hour logs (20 minutes) 1)      Before class, Ss are asked to keep an hour-by-hour log of their activities for three consecutive days. It may be a good idea for T to do the same. The log must be kept in English. 2)      In class, Ss form groups to discuss their logs with each other. They will find similarities and differences in how they spend their time. 3)      A few Ss groups report to the class the similarities and differences. 3.      T may move on to the text by saying: We all seem to be so busy. But you are still college students, what will happen when you step into the word, where there are more concerns for each of you? Will Father Time become a terror for you? (1 minute) While-reading tasks 1.  T draws Ss attention to Text Organization Exercise 1, and then dictates to them the main ideas of each of the four parts. (7 minutes) 2.       Ss scan Part I to under the three reasons why wee feel so time-pressed today. (The topic sentences are in Paras. 2, 7 and 11.) They should make a note of the transitional devices used here. (6 minutes) 3.       T explains the language points in Part I and II, and has Ss practice them. (see Language Study) (30 minutes) 4.       Ss scan Part III to find out three reactions to time famine. (The topic sentences are in Paras. 19, 21 and 22). They must also make a note of the transitional devices used here. (6 minutes) 5.       T explains the language points in the remaining parts of the text, and has Ss practice them. (see Language Study) (25 minutes) 6.       Ss re-read the text, circle all phrases containing a hyphen, and then explain their meanings. T may first offer an example, such as “ever-increasing quantities of time” in Para. 1. (20 minutes) Post-reading tasks 1.      Opinions and supporting facts (25 minutes) 1)      Ss do Text Organization Exercise 2 individually. 2)      Ss are divided into 6 groups; each group finds out supporting facts for one opinion in While-reading Tasks 2 and 4 (i.e. the 3 reasons why we feel so time-pressed today; the 3 reactions to time famine). 3)      Groups report to class. 2.      T helps Ss along through some after-text exercises. (30 minutes) 3.      T checks on Ss’ home reading. (3 minutes) 4.      Ss do Part IV: Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks. (1 period) 5.      T asks Ss to prepare for the next unit: (2 minutes) 1)      do the pre-reading task; 2)      preview Text A. Text Analysis    In many ways, the style of this piece is typical of a certain variety of journalism. It is clearly not a news story, but nonetheless belongs within the pages of a newspaper. Such writing finds its home in the editorial or comment section where journalists and others contribute regular or occasional columns reflecting on topic issues. Unlike news stories where reporters are expected to confine themselves to the facts, such columns are intended to give free range to the expression of personal opinion. At the same time, particularly in the more serious papers (and the paper from which this comes, the Financial Times, certainly belongs to this category) the writer is expected to display his familiarity with the complexity of the problem under discussion. This is frequently achieved by employing concession. Thus, here the writer, having outlined the problem of the pressure of time, goes on to concede that not everybody is affected to the same extent. He then details the differences that exist before returning to his more general point and concluding with his solution, another characteristic ingredient of such editorial articles. His general conclusion is hardly new, having been advice offered by philosophers for as far back as one cares to go, but gains novelty set against the context of recent technological developments. Although not a news story, the article nevertheless shares with newspaper reporting in general a taste for seeking support from the use of direct quotations from a number of different people. These quotations are provided together with the name of the person and background information on them. These details add human interest and support the argument by reference to the utterances of someone who would appear to be in a position to know. As the quotations record spoken rather than written English, the tone of language is often colloquial. The frequent peppering of an article with this type of direct quotation stands in contrast to what is usual in a more purely academic essay. Cultural Notes 1. Richard Tomkins: Consumer industries editor of the Financial Times, where he has been a member of the editorial staff since He is currently based at the company’s London headquaters, where he leads a team of journalists covering the consumer goods sector and writes about consumer trends. Tomkins was born in Walsall, England, in His formal education ended at the age of 17. Before becoming a journalist, he was a casual laborer, a factory worker, a truck driver, a restaurant cashier, a civil servant, and an assistant private secretary to a government minister. He left government service in 1978 to hitchhike around the world, and on returning to the U.K. in 1979, joined a local newpaper as a trainee reporter. He joined the Financial Times as a sub-editor four years later. In this selection, he discusses the time squeeze that many people are experiencing and offers a way of combating the problem. 2. Technology: general term for the processes by which human beings fashion tools and machines to increase their control and understanding of the material environment. The term is derived from the Greek words, tekhne, which refers to an art or craft, and logia, meaning an area of study; thus, technology means, literally, the study, or science, of crafting. Many historians of science argue not only that technology is an essential condition of advanced, industrial civilization but also that the rate of technological change has developed its own momentum in recent centuries. Innovations now seem to appear at a rate that increases geometriform traditional cultural systems, frequently with unexpected social consequences. Thus technology can be conceived as both a creative and a destructive process. Technology has always been a major means for creating new physical and human environments. It is possible to ask today whether technology will also destroy the global civilization that human beings have created. 3. Stress in the work place: It seems that more and more the most complain from the American worker is that he or she is under a large number of work related stress. This is no surprise as surveys show that companies expect each worker to do more with less and work longer doing it! With our fast paced world everyone wants something done instantly. We eat at fast food restaurants, we often stop at corner convenience stores, we carry beepers and cellular phones to stay in touch, we ship overnight, we all have deadlines and everyone is always in a rush… It is no wonder that health problems among the American workers are on the increase. Stress has been shown to be one of the leading causes of health problems and under high stress conditions for an excellent period of time stress can result in serious health problems and even premature death in an individual. While a certain amount of stress is good for a person and builds character, extended stress not only causes health problems but reduced work performance in an individual. Everyone’s job has periods of high stress as would be expected. However, extended periods of stress cause burnout in an individual. As the stress continues that individual performs his job less efficiently and mistakes begin to be made. Stress associated with extended hours of working complicates the problem even further when those extended hours cut into a person’s rest and relaxation time. Stress can even cause an employee to quit their job despite the money that they are making! If we are to survive in an ever-accelerating world, it is imperative that we learn to cope with the increasing pressures of change. If we do not, it is more than probable that we will find ourselves sucked into a downward spriral, desperately trying to manage in an increasingly unmanageable world. Breakdowns and burnouts will become the norm. And society will head yet faster towards its own collapse. Language Study 1.       on the go: (infml) very active or busy Examples: I’ve been on the go all week, preparing my thesis.           I was on the go all day and went home at about 10 o’clock in the evening. 2.       cope: deal successfully (with sb. / sth. difficult) Examples: Health psychologists study how people cope with stress.           People who attempt suicide usually suffer from extreme emotional distress and feel unable to cope with their problems. 3.       set about: begin (a task); start (doing sth.) (used in the pattern: set about sth./doing sth.; no passive)    Examples: The school authorities must set about finding solutions to the campus security problems.              My mom and I set about clearing up after the guests left. 4.       quantities / a large quantity of: large amounts/a large amount of  Examples: In cold weather most animals must eat large quantities of food to obtain the energy needed to carry on normal body activities. 5.       eat into: gradually reduce the amount of (sth. valuable); damage or destroy Examples: All these car expenses are eating into our savings.             Acid eats into the metal, damaging its surface. 6.       aircraft: (plural unchanged) vehicle which can fly, for example an aero plane or a helicopter  Examples: The goal of air traffic control is to minimize the risk of aircraft collisions.            The Boeing Company is the world’s largest manufacturer of commercial airplanes and military aircraft. 7.       in reality: in actual fact; really  Examples: He is much smaller in reality than he looks on the television. 8.       multiply: increase in number or quantity; add a number to itself a particular number of times  Examples: The weeds just multiplied, and before long the garden was a jungle.            Multiplying large quantities in one’s head has become a lost art since            The arrival of the calculator. 9.       burden: heavy load  Examples: Many pupils find homework a burden.            Some farmers are complaining about the heavy burden of taxation. 10.   fraction: small part, bit, amount or proportion (of sth.)  Examples: Only a small fraction of the population lived in that remote area. 11.   pour in: go into a place quickly and in large numbers  Examples: Tourists poured into Shanghai on National Day.           Many football fans poured into the stadium to have a look at their favourite footbal players. 12.   a handful of: a small number of; the amount of sth. that you can hold in your hand  Examples: Only a handful of graduates have not found jobs so far.            She scooped up a handful of snow and pressed it hard to make a ball. 13.   comparative: involving comparison or comparing  Examples: Some sociologists have carried out large-scale historical-comparative studies. 14.   amount to: be equal to; add up to  Examples: In 1959 the combined value of U.S. imports and exports amounted to less than 9 percent of the country’s gross domestic product. 15.   minute: very small in size or amount  Examples: Only a minute amount of money is needed.            Studies show that water contains minute quantities of lead. 16.   frontier: (usu. pl) the extreme limit of an area of knowledge or a particular activity; the border between two countries  Examples: Our passports were inspected at the Czech frontier. 17.   stress: pressure or worry resulting from mental or physical distress, difficult circumstances, etc. (followed by on)  Examples: There is enough evidence to suggest that job stress may increase a man’s risk of dying from heart disease.            Population growth and pollution place enormous stress on the world’s supply of usable water. 18.   prosperity; state of being economically successful; state of being successful or rich  Examples: War brings no prosperity to the great mass of ordinary citizens. 19.   oblige: do sth. for (sb.) as a favor or small service (used in the pattern: oblige(sb.) (with sth./by doing sth.))  Examples: We are happy to oblige.            Please oblige me by leaving me alone. 20.   abundance: quantity that is more than enough; plenty (followed by of)  Examples: The visitor to Oxford has an abundance of sights to see. in abundance    Examples: There was good food in abundance, far more than we could ever hope to eat. 21.   confusion: bewilderment or embarrassment  Examples: There is still confusion about the number of casualities.            We always left our manager’s office in a state of confusion. 22.   forecast: tell in advance; predict  Examples: The means of forecasting natural disasters, such as floods, and hurricanes, have improved immensely as science and technology have advanced. 23.   volunteer: person who offers to do sth. without being compelled or paid Examples: Some students served as volunteers to help the old and disabled in   the community in their spare time. 24.   perception: way of seeing or understanding sth.; ability to notice and understand things  Examples: Our teachers also taught us how to increase the powers of perception. 25.   nurture: care for and educate (a child); encourage the growth of (sth.); nourish Examples: Parents want to know the best way to nurture and raise their child to     adulthood.           The local government has taken measures to nurture the state-run factories. 26.   offspring: (plural unchanged) child or children of a particular person or couple Examples: Heredity is the process of transmitting biological traits from parents to              offspring through genes. 27.   appliance: instrument or device for a specific purpose  Examples: The Energy Department has set efficiency standards for new home appliance. 28.   distribution: the way in which people, buildings, etc. are arranged over a large area; the act of giving things to a large group of people or delivering goods to companies  Examples: The study of animal distribution is called zoogeography.            Distribution of the goods is handled by local companies. 29.   famine: (instance of) extreme scarcity of food in a region  Examples: China has succeeded in feeding its people; national attention to equity, agriculture, and birth control have significantly reduced the threat of famine. 30.   widespread: found or distributed over a large area  Examples: The landscape ot the American West was dramatically altered during the 20th century as a result of the widespread construction of dams along major rivers.            The corrosive nature of acid rain causes widespread damage to the environment. 31.   provoke: cause (sth.) to occur or arouse (a feeling, etc.)  Examples: They argued that NATO enlargement could provoke Russian hostility and lead to regional instability. 32.   a verity of: a lot a particular type of things that are different from each other Examples: China has a great variety of mineral resources.              My students come from a variety of different background. 33.   streamline: make (sth.) more efficient and effective; give a streamlined form to (sth.) Examples: Some racing cars are streamlined for speed and are single-seated. 34.   growth: (process of) growing; development  Examples: Statistics show that the pace of population growth may continue to increase. 35.   domestic: of the home, household or family; of or inside a particular country Examples: GDP stands for Gross Domestic Product. 36.   forum: an assembly, place, radio program etc. the discussion of public matters or current questions  Examples: The school authorities will provide a forum where problems can be discussed. 37.   spring up: appear, develop, grow, etc. quickly or suddenly  Examples: A strong wind seemed to have sprung up from nowhere.           Fast food restaurants are springing up all over the city. 38.   futile: producing no result; useless; pointless  Examples: It was futile to continue the negociations.          I knew that it was futile to try and persuade her once she had made the decision. 39.   divert: turn (sb./sth.) aside from a course, direction, etc. into another  Examples: There had been an accident and traffic was being diverted by the police. 40.   arise: appear; become evident Examples: A financial crisis has arisen in the multinational corporation.          Some birds attack crops when the opportunity arises. 41.   shortage: lake of sth. needed; deficiency Examples: Some African countries have acute food shortages requiring emergency assistance. 42.   switch off: disconnect (electricity, etc.) Examples: Be sure to switch off the lights when you leave home.          He parked the car and switched the engine off. 43.   be doomed to: (sth.) be certain to happen, and you can do nothing to prevent it (used in the patterns: be doomed to sth.; be doomed to do sth.) Examples: Their plan seemed to be doomed to failure.            He thought that he was doomed to spend the rest of his life in a wheelchair.

7 Unit Seven UNIT 7 TOURISM 1 Suggested Teaching Plan (5 periods)
1 Suggested Teaching Plan                    (5 periods) 0bjectives Students will be able to: 1.grasp the main idea of the text; 2.appreciate the characteristics of a familiar essay; 3.master the key language points and grammatical structures in the text; 4.conduct a series of reading ,listening ,speaking and writing activities related to the theme of the  unit. Time allotment 1st period2nd period 3rd period4th period5th periodPre-reading;While-reading(titleinterpretation)While-reading(languagepoints)While-reading;Post-reading(familiar essay)Post-reading;Check on Ss’Home reading (Text B)Theme-RelatedLanguageLearning Tasks  Pre-reading tasks 1.       Tasks Ss the following questions on the reading:(5 minutes) ___How many planes were hijacked on September 11,2001? What were their targets? (4 planes were hijacked. Their targets were the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and probably the White House.) ___Why do you think the plane crashed? (Passengers on board tackled the hijackers in order to prevent more killings. 2.       Pair work: dialogue(29 minutes) 1)      Ss form pairs to prepare a dialogue between the wife of Todd Beamer (the brave passenger mentioned in the recording ) and their child / parent/ friend/ or a psychiatrist after the Sept.11 event. The dialogue may be about: ____What happened during the flight? ____What were the reactions of the wife and their child/ parent/friend/psychiatrist? ____What is their outlook for the future? 2)      A few Ss pairs report to the class . 3.       T may move on to the text by saying: Just now, we role-played a dialogue between the Todd Beamer’s wife and their child / parent / friend or a psychiatrist. However, how do the rest of Americans react to this event? Let’s read Text A to find out. (1 minute) While-reading tasks 1.       Title interpretation (10 minutes) 1)      Ss read the title and subtitle ,then define “nightmare”, “dream, and “the subconscious”. 2)      Without going through the text, Ss predict what each of the three terms refers to in the text.( open interpretation) 3)      Tasks Ss to check their interpretation against the text as they read on. 2.       T explains the language points in the text and has Ss practice them. . (see Language Study ) (60 minutes) 3.       Ss do Text Organization Exercise 2. (15 minutes) Post-reading tasks 1.       Getting to know what a familiar essay is. (see Text Analysis) (25minutes) 1)      Task Ss if they were confused about the text structure. (most like the answer is “yes”) 2)      T explains the main characteristics of familiar essays. 3)      T and Ss work together to find out examples in the text that embody those main characteristics. 2.       T helps Ss along through some after-text exercises. (30 minutes) 3.       T checks on Ss’ home reading (Text B). (3minutes) 4.       Ss do Part IV: Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks. (1period) 5.       T asks Ss to prepare the next unit: (2minutes) 1)      do the pre-reading task; 2)      preview Text A. II. Text Analysis Characteristics of the familiar essay: 1.       Marked by informality: the familiar essay is short literary composition of reflective, interpretive kind, usually dealing with its subject from a limited, personal point of view in a nontechnical, often unsystematic way. All this determines its style: informal, colloquial, very often conversational.(Text A begins with a paragraph telling how “I felt hot all yesterday” .) 2.       Using concrete, often subtle details to convey abstract ideas and inmost feelings. (In Text A, careful selection of incidents to show people’s changes in attitude, behavior, mental state, etc. For example, how an African American and the author greeted each other in a friendly way, how her friend turned away when answering questions about the “9/11” event.) 3.       Searching for meaning: the purpose of the familiar essay is usually a search for meaning in the everyday context. (e. g. in Text A, why were so many people wearing I.D. tags? Why was there a baby boom?) The way to dig out the true meaning of something includes: to give facts that illuminate and illustrate; to analyze cause and effect; to examine history and possibility; to consider what others have said about it. 4.       Use of figurative language: metaphor, simile; symbols; imagery; metonymy (using part of something to refer to the whole), etc. (In Text A, “we feel as if we were faxed” __ simile; the Brooklyn Bridge as a symbol of beauty, freedom and technological wonder) 5.       The role of audience: through movement from concrete to abstract and back again, the familiar essay often gets the reader involved in interpreting matters. A good familiar essay may create in the reader an empathetic attitude to what’s happening, marking him/her a partaker rather than just an onlooker of the events described. 6.       no set structure: but will move from the abstract to the concrete and back again. III. Cultural Notes 1.       The Wall Street Journal: the leading financial newspaper in the US. It was first published in 1889 by Charles H Dow and Edward D Jones and is still owned by Dow Jones & Company, which also publishes the Dow Jones Average . Although its main concern is business and economic news, the Journal also carries full-size articles about political and general topics. 2.       Terrorism: use of violence, or the threat of violence, to create a climate of fear in a given population. Terrorist violence targets ethnic or religious groups, governments, political parties, corporations, and media enterprises. Organizations that engage in acts of terror are usually small publicity and fear generated by their violence, they seek to magnify the influence and power to affect political change on either a local or an international scale. 3.       September 11 Attacks: coordinated terrorist strike on the United States in 2001 that killed more than 3,000 people and shook the nation to its core.         On the sunny morning of September 11,2001,19 terrorists, working in teams of 4 or 5, hijacked four commercial jetliners and turned them toward targets chosen for destruction. Two Of the planes, loaded with fuel and passengers, were flown at full speed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in the financial district of New York City. The buildings burst into flame and then collapsed, killing thousands. A third terrorist crew smashed their plane into the Pentagon, headquarters of the U.S. military in Arlington, Virginia. The hijackers of the fourth airliner apparently intended to hit another target in the Washington, D.C., area, but passengers on the plane realized what was happening and fought back.. This airplane crashed in a field in rural Pennsylvania. Almost immediately after the September 11 attacks, suspicion centered on Osama bin Laden as the person responsible .As the leader of a terrorist organization known as al-Qaeda, Arabic for “the camp,” bin Laden had long advocated violence against the United States and its citizens. “To kill Americans and their allies--civilians and military—is an individual duty for every Muslin who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it,” bin Laden declared in a published communiqué in As the heir to much of his father’s fortune, bin Laden had access to hundreds of millions of dollars, and he had used the money to build an international terrorist network with cells in several countries. Evidence had linked al-Qaeda operatives to four previous attacks on U.S. interests: a bomb in an underground World Trade Center parking garage in 1993 (the first attempt to destroy the twin towers) that killed 6people;an attack on a U.S. military housing complex in Saudi Arabia in 1996in which 19 U.S. soldiers were killed; the bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998 that killed more than 200 people; and a suicide attack on the USS Cole, a Navy destroyer, off the coast of Yemen in the fall of 2000, that killed 17 U.S. sailors Federal, local, and state government agencies in the United States found themselves suddenly redefining national security to include the defense of U.S. soil against foreign attack, a new and unfamiliar idea. In a speech before a joint session of Congress nine days after the September 11 attacks, U.S. president George W. Bush said he was creating a new cabinet-level position, the Office of Homeland Security. The new department was to coordinate the work of more than 40 federal agencies, including the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), in order to prevent and to future terrorist attacks on U.S. territory.  In the same speech to Congress, Bush suggested that the top priority of his administration would be a campaign to end terrorism.. He affirmed that all the evidence collected at that point indicated that al-Qaeda was the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks, and he promised that a U.S.-led war on terrorism would begin with a drive to eliminate that organization. But in a key expansion of U.S. antiterrorism efforts, Bush said the United States would not only target the terrorist organizations themselves, but also those governments that support them. “Every nation in every in every region now has a decision to make,” Bush said. “Either you are with us or you are with the terrorists. From this day forward, any nation that continues to harbor or support terrorism will be regarded by the United States as a hostile regime.” 4.       New York (city) : the largest city in the United States, the United Nations, and the center of global finance, communications, and business. New York City is unusual among cities because of its high residential density, its extraordinarily diverse population, its hundreds of tall office and apartment buildings, its thriving central business district, its extensive public transportation system, and its more than 400 distinct neighborhoods. The city’s concert houses, museums, galleries, and theaters constitute an ensemble of cultural richness rivaled by few cities. In 2000the population of the city of New York was 8,008,278; the population of the metropolitan region was 21,199,865. 5.       Manhattan (New York): borough of New York City, coextensive with New York County, southeastern New York, at the head of Upper New York Bay. The main economic hub of New York City, Manhattan is one of the world’s leading commercial, financial, cultural, manufacturing, medical, and tourist centers. Manhattan Island, which makes up a; most all of the borough, is bounded on the north and northeast by Spuyten Duyvil Creek and the Harlem River, which separate it from the borough of the Bronx; on the east by the East River, which separates it from the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn; on the south by Upper New      York Bay; and on the west by the Hudson River, which separates it from New Jersey. The borough, about 80 sq km (about 31 sq mi) in area, also encompasses a small exclave (Marble Hill) on the Bronx mainland; several islands in the East River, including Franklin D. Roosevelt Island (the site of a large modern housing complex), Randalls Island, and Wards Island; and Governors Island in Upper New York Bay. 6.       Hepburn, Katharine ( ): American actress, winner of four Academy Awards for best actress, noted for her unique combination of patrician beauty and spunky earthiness. Born in Hartford, Connecticut, she was educated at Bryn Mawr College. She scored a notable success on Broadway in 1932 in The Warrior’s Husband; other stage roles included those in The Philadelphia Story (1939), As You Like It (1950), etc. She also starred in the motion-picture version of Morning Glory (1933), for which she received her first Academy Award, Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner (1967), for which she won her second Academy Award, and The Lion in Winter (1968), for which she shared an Academy Award with American actress Barbra Streisand. Later films include The Trojan Women (1972) and On Golden Pond (1981), for which she won her fourth Academy Award. Hepburn’s autobiography, Me: Stories of My Life, was published in 1991 and became a bestseller. 7.       Tracy Spencer( ): US actor, known for playing calm, reliable characters. He won Oscars for his parts in Captains Courageous (1937) and Boys Town (1938). He and Katherine Hepburn made nine films together, including Adam’s Rib (1949), Pat and Mike (1952) and his last, Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner (1967). His other films include Father of the Bride (1950), Bad Day at Black Rock (1955), The Old Man and the Sea (1958) and Inherit the Wind (1960). 8.       Powell, Colin L (uther)(1937): United States military leader and secretary of state under President George W. Bush (2001-). He is the first black secretary of state in U.S. history.         The son of Jamaican immigrants, Powell was born in New York City and attended City College of New York as a cadet in the Reserve Officers Training Corps. After serving two tours of duty in the Vietnam War (1962—1963,1968—1969), he held a succession of important military and civilian positions, becoming national security adviser to President Ronald Reagan in Promoted to the rank of four-star general in April 1989, Powell was named chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in August, the first black officer to hold the nation’s highest military post. Powell played a pivotal role in planning and executing the invasion of Panama in 1989 and the Persian Gulf War (1991). He retired from the military in September 1993.In 1995 Powell published his autobiography, My American Journey, and went on a national book tour to promote the book. During the book tour, there was speculation that Powell would run for president in the 1996 election. However, in November 1995 Powell announced that he would not pursue any political office in In December 2000 President-elect Bush appointed Powell to oversee the Department of State. IV. Language study 1.       reflect on / upon: think deeply about, remind oneself of (past events) Examples: It’s a good habit to reflect on what you have done in the past.          We agree that a central purpose of drama has always been to provide a means for a          society to reflect upon itself and its beliefs. 2.       fax: transmit printed matter or an image by electronic means Examples: Traveling businesspeople can send and receive electronic mail and fax messages in some airports.          To deal with stiffer competition, hotels and motels offer better services, such as faxing and photocopying for business travelers.  n. Examples: Telegrams have been largely replaced by other forms of telecommunications, such as fax machines and electronic mail ( ).           Mother has a network of 66 low-orbiting satellites designed to permit transmission of voice, data, fax, and paging signals any where on E      arth. 3.       Span: extend across in space or time Examples: Travelers will be able to walk across a footbridge that spans the Huangpu River by 2010.          The film, spanning almost a quarter-century, tells the story of the Kennedy family. 4.       I am struck…: I am impressed… 5.       jog: run slowly for physical exercise; push slightly Examples: Running at a slow pace is sometimes called jogging .          Peter jogged my arm and made me spill my tea. 6.       Hike: go for a ling walk Examples: We are panning to hike in the country on Sunday.          Helen had hiked across Europe in his youth. 7.       For nothing: without payment, free; with no reward or result Examples: I know the cyber bar manager so I always get in for nothing.           All that hard work for nothing! 8.       Maintenance: maintaining or being maintained Examples: Concrete pavements have a ling life and require little maintenance.          Our research focuses on using computers, instrumentation, automation, and new           materials to improve bridge design, construction, and maintenance. 9.       Contend: struggle or compete (usu. Followed by with, or for) Examples: When I suggested a drink, she gave me a disapproving look.          She has had a lot of problems to contend with. 10.   Disapproving: showing disapproval          When I showed m newly-bought suit to her, she cast a disapproving look at it. 11.   Hold up: put (sb. / sth.) forward as an example, show Examples: This school is being held up as a model for other middle schools in the city.          My sister was always held up to me as a model child. 12.   Pertinent: to the point; related (followed by to) Examples: If you intend to be a teacher, you have to obtain knowledge and skills pertinent to classroom teaching.          His remarks were not pertinent to the matter we were discussing. 13.   Suffering: pain of body or mind; (pl) feeling of pain, sorrow, etc. Examples: Euthanasia is a practice of mercifully ending a person’s life in order to release the person form an incurable disease and intolerable suffering.          According to the Bile, Christians must accept humility, suffering and self-sacrifice.          Extreme poverty can cause terrible suffering and death. 14.   Settle for: accept (sth. That is seen as not quite satisfactory) Examples: I would like a job in banking, but jobs so scarce at the moment I would settle for anything.           Virginia was a perfectionist. She was just not prepared to settle for anything mediocre. 15.   Come out: be produced or published; become known, be revealed Examples: The dictionary has just come out on CD-ROM.          My daughter bought F4’s new album on the day it came out.          The truth is beginning to come out about what happened.          It will come out that he has covertly donated considerable sums to the terrorists. 16.   Tag: a small piece of paper, plastic, etc, fixed to something to show what it is, who owns it, what it costs, etc. Examples: Staff were required to wear name tags at work.          Whoever enters the building must were an identity tag . Vt. Fasten a tag onto (sth.); go somewhere with someone, especially when they do not want you to Examples: The most important trees were tagged to show they were under special protection.          Tag the bottles now or we’ll forget which one is which.           Mom,. I can’t do anything will her tagging along all the time. 17.   String: thin cord; a series of things put together on a thread Examples: The parcel was tied up with string.          She wore a string of pearls around her neck. Vt. hang sth. Up between two or more objects Examples: He had strung a banner across the wall.          People strung decorations on the fronts of their homes to celebrate Christmas. 18.   Ponder: think about carefully and for a long time (used in the patterns: ponder sth..; ponder on/ over sth. ; ponder + wh) Examples: I found myself constantly pondering the question: “What’s the meaning of life?”          My parents pondered on when to send me abroad for study. 19.   all of a sudden :suddenly Examples :All the kids were quietly asleep ,when ,all of a sudden , the bell rang. The students were singing and dancing cheerfully .All of a sudden , all the lights went off. 20.I am not just blowing through life :I am not just living my life without any sense of purpose 21obscure :not easily seen or understood ;not well-known Examples :The letter is written in rather obscure language .          The message of a dream is often rather obscure .          The music was written by an obscure Greek composer . Vt. Examples: when a total lunar eclipse occurs, the moon is obscured for about 2 hours. Dust obscures our view of distant parts of our own galaxy. 22. boom: sudden increase or growth Examples: As workers born during the baby boom of have aged, the work force in the United States has grown progressively older. People with houses to sell are benefiting from the boom in property prices. Example; High –technology industries are booming and attracting larger numbers of scientists. 23..mortality :the state of being unable to live for ever ;the rate of deaths among a certain kind of people Examples: The nation’s infant mortality rate has reached a record low.          Although it has a huge population, China has successfully reduced both fertility and mortality. 24.statistical: meal of shown by statistics Examples: The teacher made a statistical analysis of how frequently certain words are used in speech and writing.          The report was based heavily on primary statistical information regularly collected by governments. 25.back up: support; make a copy of (a disk) Examples :Only a few employees backed him up in the election.            I often back up the files stored on my computer just in case. 26.envelop: enclose with a covering Examples: The lake was enveloped in mist.           Walling in the forest, we felt the rich fragrant smell of the forest enveloping us . 27.adolescent: a young person between childhood and adulthood  Examples: Historically, the task of instructing adolescents about sex has been seen as the responsibility of the parents.          Among adolescents, imitating the fashion, hairstyle, or speech of prominent public figures is an attempt to secure charisma and success. 28.send in: send (sth.) to a place where it will be dealt with.  Examples: Applicants are asked to send in a CV and a covering letter.           I hope that readers will send in their ideas for saving money. 29.recur: happen again or regular intervals.   Examples: Eclipses recur at regular intervals  Although he was not caught cheating on the exam .the dealings of guilt recurred over and over again. 30.unusual; not usual, exceptional Examples: A profusion of Japanese cherry trees is an unusual feature of the garden.          American culture possesses an unusual mixture of patterns and forms forged form among its diverse peoples 31.weave: make threads into cloth by crossing them under and over each other on a loom, or make cloth in this way, invent a complicated story or plan. Examples: In The Emperor’s New Clothes, the two strangers declare they can weave the finest stuff anyone can imagine.          In West Africa, men weave certain kinds of prestigious textiles.          He was good at weaving elaborate plots. n. Examples: Fabrics with a close weave are ideal for painting. 32. imagination: the ability to imagine ;sth. Only imagined and not real. Examples; Einstein’s genius was characterized equally by logical clarity and creative imagination           The teacher should let his students’ imagination go as far as it can.

8 Unit Eight Unit 8 I Suggested Teaching Plan
ObjectivesStudents will be able. to 1.       understand the main idea and structure of the text ; 2.       appreciate the fluid and sensual writing style 3.       grasp the key language points and grammatical structures in the text 4.       conduct a series of reading ,listening ,speaking and writing activities Time allotment 1st period2nd period 3rd period 4th period 5th period Pre-readingWhile-reading ( text structure)While-reading(text structure,parts I and II) While-reading Post-reading Check on Ss home reading (text b)Theme-related Language Learning zTasks  Pre-reading tasks  1.T asks Ss the following questions on the recording (5minutes)   where is the author living? (the Niagara region )   how did the author feel when he /she decided to stop by and take a look at Niagara Falls through the eyes of a tourist ? (awed ,mystified ,a sense of wonder  ) 2. the appeal of some place far away (25minutes) 1)      Ss divide into three groups. each group may further divide into smaller units 2)      Each group discusses one of the following three questions What are some distinctive features of an out-of-the-way, inaccessible place such as a jungle, desert, or remote mountainous area? Why would such a place appeal to many people today? What are the characteristics of those people who are attracted to such places?   3) A few Ss groups report to the class 3. T may move on to the text by saying: Few of us have had the chance to visit a remote place. Would such a trip be worthwhile? Annie Dillard figured it would. (1minute) While-reading tasks  1.       Understanding text structure: (20 minutes) 1)      Ss go over the to see if there is any natural division of parts. 2)      Ss turn to Text Organization Exercise 1. T then dictates to them the main idea of each part. 3)      Ss read the last sentence of Para 1, then the last paragraph. What is the function of the two phrases “out of the way” and “in the way”? (see Text Analysis) 2.       T explains the language points in Part I and has Ss practice then. (see Language Study) (15 minutes) 3.       Ss find out the sensory impressions in Part I. (see Text Analysis) (5minutes) 4.       T explain the language points in Part II and has Ss practice them. (see Language Study) (5 minutes) 5.       Ss find out the sensory impressions in Part II. (see Text Analysis) (5minutes) 6.       T explains the language points in Part III and has Ss practice them. (see Language Study) (30 minutes) 7.       Ss find out the sensory impressions in Part III. (see Text Analysis) (5 minutes) 8.       A matter of fluidity (10 minutes) 1)      Ss follow the author’s track to find out her whereabouts in each part. 2)      Ss re-read Part II to identify the linking devices used by Dillard to achieve coherence. 3)      T urges Ss to model their own descriptive writings after Dillard’s fluid style. (see Text Analysis) Post-reading tasks 1.       Ss move around the classroom, find a partner, recite or read aloud to each other their favorite sentences from the text, explain why, the move on to find another partner. They will not stop until T announces that time is up. (15 minutes) 2.       T helps Ss along though some after-text exercises. (25 minutes) 3.       T checks on Ss’ home reading (Text B). (4 minutes) 4.       Ss do Part IV: Theme-Related Language Tasks. (1 period) II. Text Analysis The text is beautifully written. That’s why we arrange a post-reading activity simply for students to favorite sentence with each other. It may be true the functional use of English will dominate in their life, but it pays to expose them the aesthetic side of English. There is an abundance of sensory impressions in the essay. All of our five senses are appealed to here the songs of birds, insects and children. We feel the coolness of drinks and of the night. We smell the sweetness in the air. We observe the wonderful sights and graceful movements on the river, on the lake and in the jungle. We taste the delicious village food. Not only does the author move effortlessly from one sensory impression to another, but she also handles the changes in time and place in a smooth, seamless way. In Part II, the first writes about what happened “later that night”, then moved back to narrate the incidents of “that afternoon”, finally back to “now”. She was sitting on a tree stump on the river bank near a palm-thatch village in Part I, then the sat in a camp in Part II. Went on a journey away from the river into the jungle and finally returned to a riverside village in Part III. All through these movements there is overall coherence. There is an echo—“It would e worth it”, “The Napo River: it is not out of the way. It is in the way”. III. Cultural Notes 1.       Amazon (river): river in northern South America, largely in Brazil, ranked as the largest in the world in terms of watershed area, number of tributaries, and volume of water discharged. Measuring 6,400 km (4,000 mi) from source to mouth, it is second in length only to the Nile among the rivers of the word. With its hundreds of tributaries, the Amazon discharges between 34 million and 121 million liters (9 million and 32 million gallons) of water per second and deposits a daily average of 3 million tons of sediment near its mouth. The annual outflow from the river accounts for one-fifth of all the fresh water that drains into the oceans of the world. The outpouring of water and sediment is so vast that the salt content and color of the Atlantic Ocean are altered for a distance of about 320 km (about 200 mi) from the mouth of the river. 2.    Ecuador: republic in northwestern South America, bounded by Colombia on the north, by Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific Ocean on the west.. The country also includes the Galapagos Islands (Colon Archipelago) in the Pacific, about 965 km (about 600 mi) west of the mainland. Ecuador straddles the equator (Ecuador is the Spanish word for “equator”) and has an area of 272,045 sq km (105,037 sq mi). Quito is the country’s capital.         Ecuador has a diverse population composed of people of European, Native American, and African descent. The majority are mestizos, individuals of mixed European and Native American ancestry. Most of the Native Americans live in poverty in the highlands region, where a small elite of European descent controls most of the land and wealth.        Ecuador was a Spanish colony until 1822, when independence forces won a decisive victory over Spain. Ecuador has had a democratically elected government since 1979, but historically the government has alternated between civilian rule and military dictatorship. Most political conflicts involved squabbles among groups within the upper classes who controlled the nation’s wealth. 3.       Andes: the principal mountains of South America and one of the greatest mountain systems of the world. The Andes include some of the world’s highest peaks. More than 50 of them soar higher than 6,100 m (20,000 ft) above seal level. Only the Himalayas of South central Asia are higher. The lofty plateaus and high mountain valleys of the Andes contain some of the highest permanent human settlements in the world. The Andes are the longest system of high mountain ranges on earth.. They extend for more than 8000 km (5000 mi) in a narrow belt along the western edge of the South American continent, from the coast of the Caribbean Sean in the north to the island of Tierra del Fuego in the extreme south. Along almost its entire length, the Andes rise abruptly from the Pacific coast. The mountains reach into seven countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. IV. Language Study 1. In the heart of: in the center of   Examples: The metropolitan museum is located in the heart of the city.          Apartments in the heart of the city are too expensive to purchase 2. Hush: be or become silent   Examples: Hush, you’ll wake up the baby            Having cried for half an hour, the little boy hushed 3.illumine:  shine light on  Examples: The sky was illumined by flashes from the volcano.           My balloon was illumined by the sun that was just rising.  4now –now-:  at one time-at another time Examples The junior officer who came into the room looked nervous; his eyes swiveled quickly, now this way, now that, as if he were scanning the room for danger. Now soft, now loud, now cheerful, now sorrowful, the voice of Uncle Tom told as much    Of the tale as his words did. To our right were mountains, with clouds swiftly passing along their heights and we could see the road, hugging the coast and curving now left, now right. (all / complete) silence: with (complete) absence of sound or noise  Examples: The kids were listening to the music in the classroom, in complete silence           The soldiers stood in the glaring sun as the minutes ticked away, in all silence. Note: students should be advised that “in all silence” is rather literary and can sound odd in normal contexts. Simply “in silence” or  “in complete silence” is safer for them to use. 6.tangle: catch in or as in a net, trap; mix together or intertwine in a confused mass  Examples: The bushes were tangled with vines.           I have the sort of hair that tangles easily. 7.Trail: extend over a surface  Examples: Roses trailing over the walls made her garden so beautiful.           The strawberry is a trailing plant belonging to the rose family. 8.Loop: from or bend into a loop   Examples: The man looped the rope over the wooden pole.            She looped the scarf round her neck and went out into the cold night air. 9.Mute: reduce or stop the sound of  Examples: At the sight of their teacher walking into the classroom, they muted their voices.           The string are muted throughout the closing bars of the symphony. 10.Dissolve: fade away, disappear Examples: The panda ate the bamboo rapidly and then dissolved into the shadows.          The characteristics of gases vary widely. Some gases are transparent, some dissolve in water, and some have a string smell. 11.Loose: untie, release Examples: The hunter loosed the arrow without warning.          It’s not a healthy habit to loose your belt when you are full. 12.Slump: sit or fall down heavily    Examples: Kennedy had been hit and slumped to the floor of the automobile. He slumped into a chair, completely exhausted. 13.Be dying to do sth. / for sth. : desire (to do) sth. Eagerly    Examples: She was dying to tell them the good news that she had won first prize in the speech contest. Having worked in the sun for four hours, I was dying for a cup of tea. 14.Get one’s hands on: catch hold of, find or get (sth.) (same as lay one’s hands on)   Examples: I wish I could get my hands on a copy of Harry Potter.            I need to get my hands in a good computer.            The book’s here somewhere, but I don’t seem to be able to get my hands on it just now. 15.Take apart: separate into its different parts    Examples: When I was young, my parents never blamed me for taking my toys apart.            When my computer broke down, I took it apart, found what was wrong, and put the whole thing together again 16.Spectacular: extraordinary; very attractive or impressive Examples: The British Museum, one of the most spectacular museums in the world, is renowned for its extensive and diverse collections.          The Sun’s movement can produce spectacular sunsets under the right atmospheric conditions. 17.Fringe: the outer edge or limit of sth.    Examples: Near the outer fringes of the solar system lies dark blue Neptune, a gas giant that probably has no true surface. With the new suburbs springing up on the fringes of the city, the urban life has changes completely. 18.Hollow: a space sunk into something   Examples: The explorer fell into a muddy hollow while walking in the forest. Water gathers in a hollow and forms a pond. 19.In detail: with specifics Examples: The police asked the victim of the robbery to describe what happened to him in detail. To maintain their place in the media world, newspapers try hark to cover news events in greater detail than television and radio do. 20.   Opaque: not clear enough to allow light through Examples: Usually transparent, glass can nonetheless also be opaque.          Milk is often stored in opaque containers to prevent vitamins from being destroyed by light. 21.   Smear: make (sth.) dirty; spread (a thick liquid, etc.) over a surface (used in the patterns: smear on / over sth. /sb.; smear sth. / sb. With sth. Examples: Don’t smear the glasses; I’ve just polished them. The boy’s face was smeared with mud. My sister smeared herself with suntan oil as she sat by the swimming pool. 22.   Flock: a group of certain animals Examples: Large flocks of geese pass this way in autumn, searching for a resting place. The police are warning motorists that a flock of sheep has / have escaped onto the road. In flocks: in groups Examples: Many small birds feed in flocks. Penguins are gregarious birds and are found in flocks even at sea. 23.   Dart: move suddenly and rapidly Examples: The lizard darted out its tongue at a fly.         The boy darted behind the sofa as his father stormed into the living room. 24.   Repute: believe, consider (If you say that something is reputed to be true, you mean that people say it is true, but you don’t know if it is definitely true; often used in passive; a formal word.) Examples: Mohammed Atef was reputed to be over twenty years younger than her husband. Maradona is reputed to earn over two million pounds a year. 25.   Strip: a long narrow region of land or body of water; a long narrow piece Examples: About 30 million people live along the Californian coastal strip. Our pay slips used to be printed on long strips of paper. 26.   Paddle: move (a canoe) through the water using a paddle Examples: Canoes can be paddled by one or more persons. One of the things you will be taught at the training school is how to paddle a canoe. 27.   Out of sight: no longer in view Examples: When out of sight of land , ancient seafarers used to derive clues about their location by observing the position of the Sun. The woman didn’t go into the house until her daughter drove away and slowly faded out of sight. 28.   Striped: marked with or having strips Examples: She looked slim in her green and white striped shirt. The room was decorated with striped wallpaper. 29.   Clatter: vi. Move quickly and noisily; (cause to) make continuous loud noises by hitting hard objects against each other Examples: She dropped the bucket and it went clattering down the stairs.          His boots clattered on the stone floor, attracting our attention. 30.   Fuss: bustle about; give too much attention to small and unimportant maters (often followed by around / about / over) Examples: As soon as they saw the manager the waiters began fussing around the tables. My wife was fussing over the food we were going to take. 31.   Slap: shoot, throw with force; hit with something flat Examples: The pinch hitter slapped the ball.         Catherine responded to the man’s attempt by slapping him.         “ If you tell lies again I’ll slap your face,” the woman said. 32. Out of range: too far away to be reached, seen or heard    Examples: We thought that we were out of range of their rifles until the bullets started kicking up the dust in front of us.         It was said the flying object was well out of range of their rockets. 33.   Thrash: move wildly or violently (followed by about/ around) Examples: The swimmers were thrashing about in the water.          The dog thrashed around trying to break free. 34. Heap: an untidy pile of something; plenty of, a lot of (usu. In plural)    Examples: He left his books in a heap on the floor.           There is heaps of time before I take the examination. 35.   Glide: move quickly and silently with ease; fly though the air without power Examples: At the sight of me she glided across the dance floor to greet me.          The waiters glided between tightly packed tables bearing trays of pasta.          The flying snake can’t actually fly but glide considerable distances. 36.   Swarm: move in a crowd Examples: A dark cloud of bees came swarming out of the hive.          Panic-stricken, people swarmed to the shops, buying up everything in sight.          The crowd was swarming out though the gates. 37.   Hop: (of a person) jump on one food; (of a bird or other animals) jump with two or all feet at once) Examples: He hopped down the steps like an athlete.          The birds hopped about and pecked the earth briskly, looking for seeds and insects.

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