Presentation on theme: "A / AS Psychology.. Key Studies"— Presentation transcript:
1 A / AS Psychology.. Key Studies Abnormal PsychologyKey studySigmund Freud (1909)
2 Analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy Sigmund Freud (1909)Analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy
3 The psychoanalytic theory Sigmund Freud The tripartite structure of human personalityTripartite means - in three parts
4 The tripartite structure of personality The earliest part of the human personalityTHE ID (the biological part) (instincts & drives)Present at birthDriven by the pleasure principle
5 The tripartite structure of personality The second part of the human personality to developTHE EGO (the executive part)1 - 3 yearsDriven by the reality principle
6 The tripartite structure of personality The third part of the human personality to developTHE SUPEREGO (the moral part)3 - 5 yearsDriven by the anxiety principle
7 The tripartite structure of personality The psychic apparatusID>>>neurotic>EGO<moral<<<SuperEGOconflict conflictCONFLICT RESOLVED BYDREAMSNEUROTIC SYMPTOMSDEFENCE MECHANISMS
8 The tripartite personality ID >>> EGO <<< SUPEREGO DEVELOP DURING THEFIVE psychosexual stages of development
9 The FIVE psychosexual stages The Oral (Birth - 1 year)The Anal (1 - 3 years)The Phallic (3 - 5/6 years)The Latent (6 - puberty)The Genital (adulthood)
10 Stage 1 - the ORAL stage The ID is in control Mouth (sucking) is the source of pleasureThe ID is in control
11 In the ORAL stage ……. Fixation caused by Over indulgence Frustration symptoms include selfishness, dependency, compulsive talkingFrustrationSymptoms include nail biting, sarcasm, thumb sucking, greed
12 Elimination of faeces is the source Stage 2 - the ANAL StageElimination of faeces is the sourceof pleasureThe EGO develops(the reality principle)
13 In the ANAL stage …. Fixation (a) Anal expulsive: symptoms: giving to charity, potters, gardeners, (sublimating the wish to smear)Fixation (b) Anal retentivesymptoms: miserly, thrifty, orderly, obstinate
14 Stage 3 : The PHALLIC stage The Superego developsDriven by the anxiety principleThe Oedipus conflict (boys)The Electra conflict (girls)
15 In the PHALLIC stage….Fixation caused by failure to resolve the Oedipus / Electra conflictSymptoms include: homosexuality, curiosity, exhibitionisma surgeon may be sublimating hostile feelings towards same sex parentWriter of pornography may be sublimating sexual preoccupationsAll pseudo-patients wished to be discharged immediatelyBUT - they waited until they were diagnosed as ‘fit to be discharged’
16 Read the Oedipus / Electra conflict (Cardwell pp 551) The analysis of a phobia of a five year old boyTHE CASE STUDY of LITTLE HANS(Sigmund Freud 1909)
17 Little Hans This is the ONLY case study of a child undertaken by Freud Freud’s ideas about infant sexuality were based on his work with adult women(and his own self analysis)
18 Little Hans The CASE STUDY (psychoanalytic therapy) was carried out by correspondence and interviews with Hans’ fatherFirst reports when Hans was three
19 Little Hans Hans was interested in his ‘widdler’ His mother told him “not to play with your widdler .. or else she would call the doctor to come and cut it off”Hans’ mother threatened to leave him
20 Little HansHans’ baby sister was born - he was told the stork had brought the babyEarly jealousy of sisterContinued interest in his widdler, according to father his dreams and fantasies were of widdlers and of ‘widdling’
21 Little Hans When Hans was five - father wrote to Freud “Hans is afraid of horses, afraid a horse will bite him in the street, this fear seems to be connected to his being frightened by a large penis”
22 Little HansFreud & father try to make sense of what Hans was experiencing and to resolve his phobia of horsesFreud noted that Hans’ fear of horses developed after the child had anxiety dreams of losing his mother AND after he has been warned not to play with his widdler
23 Little HansHans dreams about a giraffe were explained as ‘fear of big penis’(long neck = big penis)Freud theorised that Hans’ fear of horses was really fear of fatherHorse = symbolic for father
24 Little Hans READ THE STUDY Freud’s conclusionLittle Hans phobia of horses was really fear of father(castration fear) during resolution of the Oedipus ConflictFear resolved when Oedipus conflict resolved
25 Little Hans: Criticisms Hans is analysed by the father who is emotionally involvedFather is biased as he already admires the work of Freud and may have believed that the boy was in the Oedipal (phallic stage)Father ‘put words into Hans’ mouth’
26 ‘Daddy I thought something: I was in the bath, and then the plumber came and unscrewed it. Then he took a big borer and stuck it into my stomach’. – HansInterpretationHan’s remembers father having intercourse with mother whilst in her womb. Han’s understands that he was created by father having sex with mother.
27 Hans ‘The plumber came, and first he took away my behind with a pair of pincers, and then gave me another, and then the same with my widdler. He said: ‘Let me see your behind! And I had to turn round and he took it away; and then he said: ‘Let me see your widdler!’Interpretation – Hans has identified with father
28 Finally Hans says he would like his dad to be granddad so that he can marry mum and have children. But, much of this was the boy agreeing to his father’s leading questions.
29 Little Hans: Criticisms The case study seems to be bothscientific evidence and treatmentThese should be separated becauseIf we ‘treat’ what we are investigating how can it remain unchanged to be investigated?
30 Little Hans: Criticisms BUTFreud did deal with real people & their problemsNot neat & tidy but has“ecological validity”
31 Little Hans: Criticisms AND unlike adult ‘case studies’No searching through ‘past memory’ Hans father simply asked Hans!
32 Little Hans: Other explanations Perhaps Hans dreams about widdlers & widdling were caused by his fear that his mother might cut off his penis?But - Freud’s theory was that mothers were the primary love object of little boys, (not that Mother could be feared)
33 Little Hans: other explanations Erich Fromm (& Social Learning Theory)It was because Hans’ father took such an interest in him, that Hans identified with his father and wished to be like himBowlbyHans may have been afraid of being separated from his mother (separation anxiety)thus feared horses (as main mode of transport)
34 Little Hans: other explanations Learning TheoryHans had seen a horse fall down in the street(equivalent to road accident today)He ‘learned to be’ afraid of horses!
35 Little Hans - Ethical issues Treatment not very child friendly(and included leading questions)Freud’s theory of the Oedipus/Electra conflict is proposed by some psychologists as the reason why people are reluctant to believe children who report sexual abuse
36 Little Hans - Ethical Issues Hans was interviewed when he was 19He had no recollection of any of the discussions - “No long term effects”Hans said when he read the case study“it came as something from the unknown”
37 Sigmund Freud The Case study of Little Hans List three ways in which people show unconscious wishes in their behaviourHow can you criticise Freud’s method of collecting data?What differences are there between the attitudes of Han’s parents and the attitudes of parents today?
38 Sigmund Freud - LITTLE HANS The analysis of a phobia of a five year old boyA Case studyThe Oedipus Conflict & its resolution by psychoanalysis (therapy)
39 Sigmund Freud Have YOU resolved your Oedipus or Electra conflict?? How can you tell?