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A / AS Psychology.. Key Studies Abnormal Psychology Key study Sigmund Freud (1909)

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Presentation on theme: "A / AS Psychology.. Key Studies Abnormal Psychology Key study Sigmund Freud (1909)"— Presentation transcript:

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2 A / AS Psychology.. Key Studies Abnormal Psychology Key study Sigmund Freud (1909)

3 Analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy

4 The psychoanalytic theory Sigmund Freud The tripartite structure of human personality Tripartite means - in three parts

5 The tripartite structure of personality The earliest part of the human personality THE ID (the biological part) (instincts & drives) Present at birth Driven by the pleasure principle

6 The second part of the human personality to develop THE EGO (the executive part) years Driven by the reality principle

7 The tripartite structure of personality The third part of the human personality to develop THE SUPEREGO (the moral part) years Driven by the anxiety principle

8 The tripartite structure of personality The psychic apparatus ID>>>neurotic>EGO

9 The tripartite personality ID >>> EGO <<< SUPEREGO DEVELOP DURING THE FIVE psychosexual stages of development

10 The FIVE psychosexual stages The Oral (Birth - 1 year) The Anal (1 - 3 years) The Phallic (3 - 5/6 years) The Latent (6 - puberty) The Genital (adulthood)

11 Stage 1 - the ORAL stage Mouth (sucking) is the source of pleasure The ID is in control

12 In the ORAL stage ……. Fixation caused by Over indulgence symptoms include selfishness, dependency, compulsive talking Frustration Symptoms include nail biting, sarcasm, thumb sucking, greed

13 Stage 2 - the ANAL Stage Elimination of faeces is the source of pleasure The EGO develops (the reality principle)

14 In the ANAL stage …. Fixation (a) Anal expulsive: symptoms: giving to charity, potters, gardeners, (sublimating the wish to smear) Fixation (b) Anal retentive symptoms: miserly, thrifty, orderly, obstinate

15 Stage 3 : The PHALLIC stage The Superego develops Driven by the anxiety principle The Oedipus conflict (boys) The Electra conflict (girls)

16 In the PHALLIC stage…. Fixation caused by failure to resolve the Oedipus / Electra conflict Symptoms include: homosexuality, curiosity, exhibitionism –a surgeon may be sublimating hostile feelings towards same sex parent – Writer of pornography may be sublimating sexual preoccupations All pseudo-patients wished to be discharged immediately BUT - they waited until they were diagnosed as fit to be discharged

17 Read the Oedipus / Electra conflict (Cardwell pp 551) The analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy THE CASE STUDY of LITTLE HANS (Sigmund Freud 1909)

18 Little Hans This is the ONLY case study of a child undertaken by Freud Freuds ideas about infant sexuality were based on his work with adult women (and his own self analysis)

19 Little Hans The CASE STUDY (psychoanalytic therapy) was carried out by correspondence and interviews with Hans father First reports when Hans was three

20 Little Hans Hans was interested in his widdler His mother told him not to play with your widdler.. or else she would call the doctor to come and cut it off Hans mother threatened to leave him

21 Little Hans Hans baby sister was born - he was told the stork had brought the baby Early jealousy of sister Continued interest in his widdler, according to father his dreams and fantasies were of widdlers and of widdling

22 Little Hans When Hans was five - father wrote to Freud Hans is afraid of horses, afraid a horse will bite him in the street, this fear seems to be connected to his being frightened by a large penis

23 Little Hans Freud & father try to make sense of what Hans was experiencing and to resolve his phobia of horses Freud noted that Hans fear of horses developed after the child had anxiety dreams of losing his mother AND after he has been warned not to play with his widdler

24 Little Hans Hans dreams about a giraffe were explained as fear of big penis (long neck = big penis) Freud theorised that Hans fear of horses was really fear of father Horse = symbolic for father

25 Little Hans READ THE STUDY Freuds conclusion Little Hans phobia of horses was really fear of father (castration fear) during resolution of the Oedipus Conflict –Fear resolved when Oedipus conflict resolved

26 Little Hans: Criticisms Hans is analysed by the father who is emotionally involved Father is biased as he already admires the work of Freud and may have believed that the boy was in the Oedipal (phallic stage) Father put words into Hans mouth

27 Daddy I thought something: I was in the bath, and then the plumber came and unscrewed it. Then he took a big borer and stuck it into my stomach. – Hans Interpretation Hans remembers father having intercourse with mother whilst in her womb. Hans understands that he was created by father having sex with mother.

28 Hans The plumber came, and first he took away my behind with a pair of pincers, and then gave me another, and then the same with my widdler. He said: Let me see your behind! And I had to turn round and he took it away; and then he said: Let me see your widdler! Interpretation – Hans has identified with father

29 Finally Hans says he would like his dad to be granddad so that he can marry mum and have children. But, much of this was the boy agreeing to his fathers leading questions.

30 Little Hans: Criticisms The case study seems to be both scientific evidence and treatment These should be separated because If we treat what we are investigating how can it remain unchanged to be investigated?

31 Little Hans: Criticisms BUT Freud did deal with real people & their problems Not neat & tidy but has ecological validity

32 Little Hans: Criticisms AND unlike adult case studies No searching through past memory Hans father simply asked Hans!

33 Little Hans: Other explanations Perhaps Hans dreams about widdlers & widdling were caused by his fear that his mother might cut off his penis? But - Freuds theory was that mothers were the primary love object of little boys, (not that Mother could be feared)

34 Little Hans: other explanations Erich Fromm (& Social Learning Theory) –It was because Hans father took such an interest in him, that Hans identified with his father and wished to be like him Bowlby –Hans may have been afraid of being separated from his mother (separation anxiety) –thus feared horses (as main mode of transport)

35 Little Hans: other explanations Learning Theory Hans had seen a horse fall down in the street (equivalent to road accident today) He learned to be afraid of horses!

36 Little Hans - Ethical issues Treatment not very child friendly (and included leading questions) Freuds theory of the Oedipus/Electra conflict is proposed by some psychologists as the reason why people are reluctant to believe children who report sexual abuse

37 Little Hans - Ethical Issues Hans was interviewed when he was 19 He had no recollection of any of the discussions - No long term effects Hans said when he read the case study it came as something from the unknown

38 Sigmund Freud The Case study of Little Hans List three ways in which people show unconscious wishes in their behaviour How can you criticise Freuds method of collecting data? What differences are there between the attitudes of Hans parents and the attitudes of parents today?

39 Sigmund Freud - LITTLE HANS The analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy A Case study The Oedipus Conflict & its resolution by psychoanalysis (therapy)

40 Sigmund Freud Have YOU resolved your Oedipus or Electra conflict?? How can you tell?


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