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Toxics Use Reduction Institute Facility Maintenance Using Bio-based Materials Opportunities to Green Your Company Dr. Jason Marshall Laboratory Director.

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Presentation on theme: "Toxics Use Reduction Institute Facility Maintenance Using Bio-based Materials Opportunities to Green Your Company Dr. Jason Marshall Laboratory Director."— Presentation transcript:


2 Toxics Use Reduction Institute Facility Maintenance Using Bio-based Materials Opportunities to Green Your Company Dr. Jason Marshall Laboratory Director Surface Solutions Lab (978)934-3133

3 Why Biobased Products May 2002, Section 9002 of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act (Public Law 107-17) –Federal agencies are mandated by this law to purchase and promote the purchase of biobased products United States Department of Agriculture –Memorandum in January of 2005 –Establishing the USDA biobased procurement program –Intent to increase the purchase and use of biobased products by Federal Government

4 What is Biobased A biobased product as defined by the Secretary of Agriculture –To be a commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that is composed, in whole or in significant part, of biological products or renewable domestic agricultural materials (including plant, animal, and marine materials) or forestry materials.'s_Memo.pdf

5 Whole or Significant Part What does that really mean? Lab set up four categories –Whole100% –Significant≥50% –Partial≥25% –Minimal<25% must be greater than 0% This is where we want to be

6 Biobased Sources General source of materials in products –Soy –Corn –Plant –Citrus –Other

7 Compare Current Products with Alternatives Evaluate traditional cleaning products for performance under controlled setting Evaluated bio-based alternatives under laboratory conditions as well –Green Seal GS37 certification process Industrial and Institutional Cleaners –Green Seal GS40 Industrial & Institutional Floor-Care Products

8 Find Out What Your Potential Applications Are Identify potential areas for using biobased products –All purpose cleaning –Hard surface cleaning –Glass Cleaning –Carpet Cleaning –Floor finish & stripping –Vehicle maintenance

9 Start Small Pilot on One Possibility –Floor Stripping and Cleaning

10 Process Phase I Product Identification Lab Testing Field Testing Evaluate EH&S Evaluate Economics Recommendations for Change

11 Product Identification Floor Finish Stripping

12 Biobased Product Identification Floor Finish Stripping Existing floor strippers –Not many out there Lab’s website: –Wax removal –Coating removal Web Search

13 Lab’s Website

14 Partial List of Possible Floor Finish Strippers

15 Product Profile

16 Laboratory Testing Floor Finish Stripping

17 Lab Testing Floor Finish Stripping Bench scale testing –P–Preliminary screening –M–Manual wipe –M–Mechanical abrasion –S–See handouts Pre-pilot testing –F–Floor stripping machine

18 Screening Floor Finish Stripping Have identified over 50 possible biobased products Established a screening process to aid in the identification of products that may be effective –Necessary as many of the identified products were not manufactured for floor stripping applications –Generally designed to remove other types of coating systems

19 Screening Results Floor Finish Stripping Reduced the number of possible products down to 20 –Half of were very effective –Half were partially successful

20 Bench Testing Floor Finish Stripping Vinyl composition floor tile Scrub pad Stripping was performed at 175 rpm –Using pad attached to variable speed drill 15 effective products –Some had strong odors

21 Bench Testing Results Floor Finish Stripper ManufacturerProduct Franmar ChemicalSoy Strip Franmar ChemicalSoy Gel SoySafeSoySafe Graffiti Remover Vertec BioSolventsHousehold Paint Stripper SpartanGreen Solutions SpartanGreen Solutions The Clean Environment CoCycle-Strip EcolinkSafe Strip Inland Technologies IncEP 921 Finger Lakes ChemicalPine Strip Green ProductsaMAIZeing

22 Lab Testing Floor Finish Stripping Testing with dilutions and full strength –Included newly received products Testing process in the laboratory was closely matched with typical stripping process Odor evaluations

23 Field Testing Floor Finish Stripping

24 Top performers should be used on site –Work completed by your staff –Can be witnessed by Lab staff to help with objectivity Survey workers –During stripping with existing solvent –With biobased alternative

25 Evaluation Form For Janitorial Cleaning User Name: Location Used: Square footage cleaned: Name of Product: Product Manufacturer: Section I: Surfaces Cleaned □ Appliances □ Carpets □ Countertops □ Ovens □ Furniture such as desks and chairs (specify type, if possible): □ Fixtures (faucets, etc.) □ Hardwood floors □ Laundry □ Marble or ceramic □ Tiles of any other kind □ Mirrors and glass □ Toilet, sink or tub (porcelain/fiberglass) □ Windows □ Other (describe): Section II: Soils Removed □ Dirt □ Dust □ Food □ Fingerprints □ Grease/grime □ Personal care products such as hair spray, etc. (please specify): □ Scuff marks □ Soap scum □ Stains (please specify): □ Floor coating/wax □ Other (describe):

26 Evaluation Form Section III: Cleaning Methods Application: □ Wipe □ Scrub (manual) □ Soak □ Spray □ Mechanical agitation □ Other (describe): Supplies Used: □ Cloth □ Paper towel □ Mop □ Pad (describe): □ Other (describe): Cleaning Time (in minutes): Cleaning Cycle (daily, weekly, etc.): Performance Comparison: Yes No 1. Does this product perform satisfactorily overall? □ □ 2. Does this product take longer than normal? □ □ 3. Does this product require more effort to achieve needed level of cleaning? □ □ Health Comparison: Yes No 1. Does this product have any unpleasant odor? □ □ 2. Are there any skin problems with this product? □ □ 3. Is there any eye irritation with this product? □ □ 4. Is there any respiratory reaction to this product? □ □ ANY OTHER ADDITIONAL COMMENTS:

27 Evaluate EH&S

28 EH & S Comparisons Current Product Top alternative products evaluated in the lab and on-site –SSL’s Safety Screening –TURI’s Pollution Prevention Options Analysis System (P2OASys)

29 Lab Safety Screening EHS analysis –Based on 5 parameters Volatile Organic Content (VOC) Global Warming Potential (GWP) Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) National Fire Protection Association hazard rating (NFPA) or Hazardous Material Information System ratings (HMIS) pH –Provides quick screening of cleaning alternatives based on SSL’s focus

30 VOCs Source control –Eliminate products that have high levels of VOCs –Purchase new products that contain low or no VOCs (Environmentally Preferable Purchasing) VOC content (g/l) Pts 0-2410 25-499 50-748 75-996 100-1495 150-1994 200-2993 3002 >3000 Screening Values

31 GWPs Some greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere –Include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone Others result from human activities –Very powerful greenhouse gases that are generated in a variety of industrial processes, including cleaning processes GWP ScorePts GWP = 010 GWP = 1 (CO2)5 All others =0

32 ODPs The ratio of the amount of ozone depletion of a chemical compared to the amount of ozone depletion of the same mass of CFC-11 Certain manufactured substances can destroy stratospheric ozone much faster than it is formed ODP PointsPts ODP = 010 All others =0

33 HMIS/NFPA Individual Indicator Scores –Add up HMIS/NFPA for each category –Use table to determine the number of points to assess HMIS/NFPA Point Assessment TotalPtsExamples 010 H-0 F-0 R-0 19 H-0 F-0 R-1, H-0 F-1 R-0 28 H-1 F-1 R-0, H-2 F-0 R-0 37 H-1 F-1 R-1, H-2 F-1 R-0 32 H-3 F-0 R-0 46 H-2 F-2 R-0, H-1 F-2 R-1 41 H-1 F-3 R-0 55 H-2 F-2 R-1 50 H-1 F-3 R-1, H-2 F-3 R-0 64 H-2 F-2 R-2 60 H-3 F-3 R-0 7, 8, 90 H-3 F-3 R-1, H-3 F-3 R-2

34 pH Neutral substances receive the highest Individual Indicator points Both very acidic and very basic are both avoided pHPts 0-1.00 1.1-2.44 2.5-2.96 3.0-4.07 4.1-5.98 6.0-6.49 6.5-7.510 7.6-8.99 9.0-9.98 10-11.47 11.5-11.96 12-12.44 12.5-12.92 13-140

35 Example Safety Screening Results

36 Safety Screening Example of Floor Finish Stripping Safety Screening Values VOCGWPODP HMIS/NFPA pH Total Score Rank ProductsHFR50 max 1 = best ProStripper (non-bio)2500030012.1296 Super Stripper2630010011.8381 EnviroCare Floor Stripper2500012010.6373 Whistle Jet Cleaner1140011012.3373 Super Orange Jel1530010012.2381 Cycle Strip2000010012.4365

37 Safety Screening Should not be concluded from these results alone that all biobased products are safer with respect to EHS A full EHS study should be conducted on the products with better Safety Screening Scores –TURI’s 5 Chemical Assessment –P2OASys

38 Pollution Prevention Options Assessment System P2OASys –Helps companies determine if TUR options being considered have any unforeseen negative environmental, worker or public health impacts –Specific process information used to establish baseline of hazards associated with current system

39 P2OASys Criteria Major CategoryNumber of Criteria Acute human effects10 Chronic human effects8 Physical hazards5 Aquatic hazards5 Persistence/bioaccumulation5 Atmospheric hazard4 Disposal hazard4 Chemical hazard13 Energy & resource use3 Product hazard3 Exposure potential1

40 Standardized Hazard Score Data Base Acute human effectsUnits Inhalation LC50ppm10000.001000.00150.0015.00<15 PEL/TLVppm200.00100.0025.005.00<5 PEL/TLV (dusts/particles)mg/m310.<0.1 IDLHppm1000.00500.0050.0010.00<10 Respiratory irritationL/M/HLL/MMM/HH Oral LD50mg/kg5000.00500.0050.005.00<5 dermal irritationL/M/HLL/MMM/HH skin absorptionL/M/HLL/MMM/HH dermal LD50mg/kg5000.00500.0050.005.00<5 ocular irritationL/M/HLL/MMM/HH Chronic human effects Reference Dose RfDmg/kg/day0.<0.001 carcinogen IARC/EPA Class 4,E3,D2B,C2A,B1,A mutagenL/M/HLL/MMM/HH reproductive effectsL/M/HLL/MMM/HH neurotoxicityL/M/HLL/MMM/HH developmental effectsL/M/HLL/MMM/HH respir. sensistivity/diseaseL/M/HLL/MMM/HH other chronic organ effectsL/M/HLL/MMM/HH P2OASys Criteria

41 Physical hazards heatWBGT, °C25.0027.0030.0032.00>32 noise generationdBA80.0085.00 90.00>90.00 vibrationm/S 2>12.00 ergonomic hazardL/M/HLL/MMM/HH psychosocial hazardL/M/HLL/MMM/HH Aquatic hazards Water Quality Criteria (HWQC)mg/l>106-84-61-4<1 aquatic LC50mg/l1000.0050.001.000.10<0.10 fish NOAECmg/l0.200.020.00200.0002<0.0002 plant EC 50mg/l100.0010.001.000.10<0.1 observed ecological effectsL/M/HLL/MMM/HH Persistence/bioaccumulation persistenceL/M/HLL/MMM/HH BOD half-lifedays4.0010.00100.00500.00>500 hydrolysis half-lifedays4.0010.00100.00500.00>500 bioconcentrationlog kow1.>6 bioconcentration factor (BCF)kg/l10.00100.00200.001000.00>1000 Atmospheric hazard greenhouse gasY/N N Y ozone depletorODP units acid rain formationY/N N Y NESHAPY/N N Y

42 Disposal hazard landfillL/M/HLL/MMM/HH EPCRA reportable quantitylbs5000.001000.00100.0010.001.00 incinerationL/M/HLL/MMM/HH recyclingL/M/HLL/MMM/HH Chemical hazard vapor pressuremm Hg0.101.0010.00100.00>100 solubility in watermg/L specific gravityN/A flammability0,1,2,3, flash point°C100.0075.0025.0010.00<10 reactivity0,1,2,3, pHpH units7.006-7, 7-85-6, 8-93-5, 9-111-3, 11-14 corrosivityL/M/HLL/MMM/HH High pressure systemL/M/HLL/MMM/HH High temperature systemL/M/HLL/MMM/HH mixture/reaction potentialL/M/HLL/MMM/HH odor thresholdL/M/HLL/MMM/HH volatile organic compoundL/M/HLL/MMM/HH

43 Energy & resource use non renewable resourceL/M/HLL/MMM/HH water useL/M/HLL/MMM/HH energy useL/M/HLL/MMM/HH Product hazard upstream effectsL/M/HLL/MMM/HH consumer hazardL/M/HLL/MMM/HH disposal hazardL/M/HLL/MMM/HH Exposure potential L/M/HLL/MMM/HH

44 P2OASys Example Summary Table of Floor Finish Strippers P2OASys Category Pro Stripper Super Stripper EnviroCare Floor Stripper Whistle Jet Cleaner Super Orange Jel Cycle Strip Acute human effects 6668610 Chronic human effects 422222 Physical hazards ND Aquatic hazard 2ND2422 Persistence/ bioaccumulation 556775 Atmospheric hazard 222222 Disposal hazard ND24222 Chemical hazard 888888 Energy/resource use 644444 Product hazard 622222 Exposure potential 666666 Final 453742454143 Weighted Final; 10 worst Ranking; 1 = best 623514 ND = no data

45 Evaluate Economics

46 Product cost –Current solvent from the paper Found to be the cheapest product Operating cost –Initial biobased alternatives required longer times Some needed to be heated –New project identified products that operated under same conditions as current product Environmental cost –Current solvent’s components linked to significant negative health, safety, and environmental impacts

47 Cost Comparisons Example Floor Finish Stripping Purchase Cost $ Cost based on Dilution Ratios Show Place FinishTimesaver Finish Product 4 - 1 gallon bottles Dilutio n ratio Cost / gallon % Increase over current cost Dilutio n ratio Cost / gallon % Increase over current cost ProStripper381:41.90--1:41.90-- Super Stripper451:32.81481:4*2.2518 EnviroCare Floor Stripper107NTNA 1:36.72253 Whistle Jet Cleaner1301:10NENA1:10NENA Super Orange Jel1151:10NENA1:5NENA Cycle Strip57.311:24.781511:33.5889 NT - not tested; NA - not applicable; NE - not effective *Testing not completed on-site, but assumed to be effective at this dilution based on laboratory testing

48 Example Summary Floor Finish Stripping Assessment Criteria Pro Stripper reference Super Stripper EnviroCare Floor Stripper Cycle Strip Technical Biobased content0% +++ Dilution Used1:4 --- Time to clean10-15 minutes === OdorStrong +++ Lab PerformanceEffective === Field PerformanceEffective +-- Economic Costs Direct Cost $38 for 4-1 gallon bottles --- Dilution Cost$1.90/gallon =/--- Environmental SSL Safety Screening29/50 +++ P2OASys5.00/10.00 +++ Purchasing Preferences AbilityOne Program – JWOD or SDVOB / SVO supplied On JWOD list ---

49 Process – Phase II Product Identification Lab Testing Field Testing Evaluate EH&S Evaluate Economics Recommendations for Change

50 Product Identification Hard Surface Cleaning Lab’s website: Internet searches 38 products from 16 vendors –Dilutions used for the products Over 70 cleaning variations

51 Laboratory Testing Hard Surface Cleaning Identified cleaning products –Diluted to the vendor recommended concentrations for all purpose cleaning –Fiberglass and plastic coupons –All Purpose Soil SSL Soil #3: Hucker’s Soil –Manual cleaning process Gardner Straight Line Washability unit

52 Effectiveness Levels Hard Surface Cleaning Efficiency RankingObservation Made 100% Coupon prior to Hucker's application 75% Clean 50% Slightly dirty 25% Dirty 0% Very dirty

53 Results of Laboratory Testing Hard Surface Cleaning 34 combinations had an average cleaning level at or above the 50% mark There were seven products with an average of 67 or greater Products were selected for piloting based on –Average value –Whether or not there were multiple products available from a particular vendor Prior to going on-site, these products were evaluated for odor

54 Odor Ranking for Products selected for Piloting Hard Surface Cleaning Manufacturer ProductOdor Rank Wex-Pro Neutral Cleaner Concentrate - non-bio10 Wex-Pro Wex-Cide 128 - non-bio 12 Bio-Kleen BKP 130 10 Clean Environment CoSuper Citrus Clean 13 Gemtek ProductsSC Bathroom Cleaner 7 Gemtek ProductsSC Floor and Tile Cleaner 6 Gemtek ProductsSC Multi-Surface Cleaner 3 Gemtek ProductsSC Odor-Ex Cleaning Deodorizer 14 Rochester Midland CorpEnviroCare Low Foam All Purpose 8 Rochester Midland CorpEnviroCare Neutral Disinfectant9 Rochester Midland CorpEnviroCare Tough Job Cleaner2 Rochester Midland CorpEnviroCare Washroom Cleaner5 Spartan Restroom Cleaner1 Spartan Tribase3

55 Field Testing Floor Finish Stripping Products delivered to the facility –Each product provided in the proper dilution ratio –Used the products over a two to three day period –At the conclusion of the trial period Provid feedback on performance using survey

56 Field Testing Example Results Hard Surface Cleaning VendorProductPerformance Bio-Kleen BKP 130 Better than current Clean Environment CoSuper Citrus Clean Better than current Rochester Midland CorpEnviroCare Low Foam All Purpose Less than current Rochester Midland CorpEnviroCare Neutral Disinfectant Less than current Rochester Midland CorpEnviroCare Tough Job Cleaner Close to current Rochester Midland CorpEnviroCare Washroom Cleaner Less than current Spartan Restroom Cleaner Close to current Spartan Tribase Less than current

57 Safety Screening Hard Surface Cleaning Safety Screening Values VOCGWPODPHMIS/NFPApHTotalRank Products HFR 50 max1 best Wex-cide 128120002012.53813 Wexpro Neutral Cleanerlow001007482 Bio Kleen 130low001006.44476 Enviro Care Neutral Disinfectant 45350001007.7482 Enviro Care Tough Job 453925002009.754510 Low foam all purpose50001007476 Washroom cleaner30001003.54510 Restroom Cleaner1500010023714 Tribase150002008.54112 Natural Super Citrus Cleaner N-4610000007.6491 SC MultiSurface0000009.7482 SC Bathroom0000009.5482 SC FloorTile00000010.3476 Odor Ex0000019.5476 Values were not available but stated as being low by vendor: low ~<50 g/l

58 P2OASys Summary Table Hard Surface Cleaning P2OASys Category Acute human effects 74662666664444 Chronic human effects 22222222642222 Physical hazards ND 6666 Aquatic hazard 5ND 2 2 Persistence/ bioaccumulation 5ND 3 4 2222 Atmospheric hazard 22222222222222 Disposal hazard ND2222222222222 Chemical hazard 84557478635556 Energy/resource use 66444444444444 Product hazard 62262222222222 Exposure potential 66666666666666 Final 4728293827283138342935 36 Weighted Final 10=worst 5.223.503.633.803.383.503.883.804.253.633.50 3.60 Relative Rank 14 2 810 1 2 1210139 222 7 ND = no data Wexcide 128 Wexpro Neutral Cleaner Bio Kleen 130 EC Neutral Disinfectant EC Tough Job 4539 Low foam all purpose Washroom cleaner Restroom Cleaner TribaseSuper Citrus Cleaner N-46 SC Multi Surface SC Bathroom SC Floor TileOdor Ex

59 Evaluate Economics Hard Surface Cleaning ProductCost Rank $/Gallon% Increase Wexpro Neutral Cleaner620.000.00 Bio Kleen 130112.50-37.50 Enviro Care Neutral Disinfectant 4535516.03-19.85 Enviro Care Tough Job 4539722.9514.75 Low foam all purpose212.87-35.65 Washroom cleaner823.3516.75 Restroom Cleaner314.92-25.40 Tribase927.537.50 Nat Super Citrus Cleaner N-46415.48-22.60 SC MultiSurface1040.68103.40 SC Bathroom1249.74148.70 SC FloorTile1349.74148.70 Odor Ex1149.39146.95

60 Overall Summary Hard Surface Cleaning Assessment Criteria Current Products Technical Biobased content0% ++++++++++++ Dilution Used1:12.8N/A ++-++++----- Time to clean5 minutes ============ OdorStrong =-+++-++++++ Lab PerformanceEffective =-+-==++ +/= +- NT Field PerformanceEffective +-=--=-+=/-- - Economic Costs Direct Cost $20/ga l N/A ++ =/- + +-+---- Environmental SSL Safety Screening 48/50- -=-----+==-- +38/50 +++++-++++++ P2OASys 3.5/10- --+=----===- +5.22/10 ++++++++++++ Purchasing Preferences AbilityOne Program – JWOD or SDVOB / SVO supplied Available -====------- Wexcide 128 Wexpro Neutral Cleaner Bio Kleen 130 EC Neutral Disinfectant EC Tough Job 4539 Low foam all purpose Washroom cleaner Restroom Cleaner Tribase Super Citrus Cleaner N-46 SC Multi Surface SC Bathroom SC Floor Tile Odor Ex

61 Next Steps TURI’s Plan –Work with facility to implement biobased floor stripping and hard surface cleaning products Facility –Identify next focus area and repeat process

62 Future Work Several projects that could be conducted to increase the amount of biobased products being purchased –Evaluation of biobased floor finish or other “green” finish can be tested So that lower dilutions of biobased floor strippers could be used effectively thus reducing operating costs further –The expansion of biobased cleaning products beyond the floor finish stripping and hard surface cleaners would be a logical next step Glass cleaning Bathroom cleaning All purpose cleaning activities Cleaning of equipment and transport vehicles during maintenance and repairs

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