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Lecture 12 IaaS Chapter 3 of the second reference book.

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1 Lecture 12 IaaS Chapter 3 of the second reference book

2 IaaS is the simplest cloud offerings. It is an evolution of virtual private server offerings It provides a mechanism for user to use hardware and other physical resources without capital investment and physical administrative requirements

3 The advantage of IaaS : flexibility. The challenge of IaaS: optimization.

4 Infrastructure Stack

5 Co-location Image from

6 A piece of real estate - re-purposed warehouses / old factories - a barren plot of land with container based data center modules

7 Images from Image from

8 Power and cooling are critical to the functional continuity of the data center - redundant power supplies with backup diesel generators - Advanced cooling technology to reduce the power costs for cooling. -- leverage outside air during colder months -- interior design optimizes inside air flow

9 Network connectivity Data centers will have links to multiple network providers. Environmental considerations - protection against fire, flooding, earthquakes and other natural disarsters Security consideration - electrical fences - surveillance systems

10 Hardware Mount hardwares (servers, storage units, and network appliances) in standard 19-inch rack cabinets. The challenge is to maximize the number of hardware units that can be accommodated in a standard rack cabinet.


12 Virtualization Virtualization is an enabling technology of IaaS. - Network virtualization - Storage virtualization - Memory virtualization - Desktop virtualization - Server virtualization

13 Network virtualization - virtual local area networks (VLANs): segment traffic and provide a degree of isoloation by compartmentalizing the network - virtual private networks (VPNs): create a secure connection between cloud entities and end users. Network virtualization allow applications to operate in a trusted mode whereby they can treat the cloud service an extension of the private network

14 Storage virtualization: redirecting I/O requests from logical or virtual units to physical storage devices - This abstraction of the physical infrastructure can facilitate higher utilization through pooling of units and thin provisioning - It also makes it easy to migrate data without disrupting a service.

15 Memory virtualization: abstract memory space and map it to a set of pooled memory resources Image from

16 Desktop virtualization: can be delivered in different modes - pre-loaded - loaded at boot time - streamed as needed - hosted remotely and simply presented on the desktop

17 The advantages of desktop virtualization inludes - standardized environment - ease of provisioning and managing the desktop

18 Server virtualization: abstracts the underlying servers and presents them as a set of virtual machines. There are two kinds of software layers (hypervisors) that facilitate the abstraction. - Type 1 hyervisor runs on the bare hardware - Type 2 hypervisor runs on an operating system

19 Advantages of server virtualization - Virtual machine provides instruction set that are independent of the physical machine, thereby enabling platforms on hardware for which they were not necessarily designed. - It improves the level of utilization of underlying hardware.

20 - virtual machines can be launched from a virtual disk independent of the hardware. This encapsulation makes it easy to load-balance and to redeploy applications as usage requires - It makes it easy to provision new instances instantly when they are needed.

21 Infrastructure Services IaaS services have three categories: - Server as a Service - Storage as a Service - Connectivity as a Service

22 Server as a Service - Server as a Service can be divided into three allocation options: Physical, Dedicated Virtual, and Shared Virtual -- Physical allocation means specific hardwars are allocated to users -- Dedicated virtual servers offer dedicated hardaware with hypervisor. -- Shared virtual servers are exposed to the customers as pools of virtual machines

23 - Amazon, AppNexus, LayeredTech, Rackspace Cloud, Joyent, GoGrid, ElasticHosts

24 Storage as a Service This service offering is characterized by a location-agnostic, virtualized data store that promotes the illusion of infinite capacity in a resilient manner.

25 Typical applications of Storage as a Service include: - online backup - archiving - Content delivery - disaster recovery - web application development

26 Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) and Elastic Block Storage (EBS) are good examples of Storage as a Service.

27 Network as a Service: provid network capabilities as services - DHCP - Firewall - VPN - VLAN - CDN: Amazon CloudFront

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