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UNIT 5 CAUSE & EFFECT Vocabulary Heat treatment: annealing, hardening and tempering WORD FORMATION (U 2 – p 28) – N from Vb Grammar and functions Expressing.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 5 CAUSE & EFFECT Vocabulary Heat treatment: annealing, hardening and tempering WORD FORMATION (U 2 – p 28) – N from Vb Grammar and functions Expressing."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 5 CAUSE & EFFECT Vocabulary Heat treatment: annealing, hardening and tempering WORD FORMATION (U 2 – p 28) – N from Vb Grammar and functions Expressing cause & effect ALLOW / CAUSE / AVOID

2 CAUSE & EFFECT CAUSE BECAUSE SINCE+ SENTENCE porque, puesto que, ya que AS Debido a + NOUN DUE TO BECAUSE OF + NOUN OWING TO Debido a QUE+ SENTENCE (S+Vb) DUE TO THE FACT THATC (Sentence) BECAUSE OF THE FACT THATC (Sentence) OWING TO THE FACT THAT C (Sentence) ONE EFFECT / RESULT / CONSEQUENCE OF C IS E

3 CAUSE & EFFECT VERBS C RESULTS INE dar como resultado C BRINGS ABOUTE provocar, C GIVES RISE TOE implicar, suponer C LEADS TOE lleva a … C CAUSES/ALLOWS E hace que BECOMES (+ adj) resulta + ADJ

4 CAUSE & EFFECT EFFECT THEREFORE,por lo tanto THUS,así, HENCE,así pues CONSEQUENTLY, AS A CONSEQUENCE, AS A RESULT, DUE TO THIS,como consecuencia, THEREBYde este modo IN THIS WAY… C, SO THATE de modo que

5 EXERCISE 1.We use copper in wires due to its ductility 2.We mix pure metals with other materials so that we obtain the required properties 3.Aluminium is used in structures as it is corrosion resistant 4.Aluminium is used in structures because of its corrosion resistance 5.Tempering results in a decrease in hardness and... 6.Plastics are insulators, thus they are used to cover wires 7.Annealed steel is more machineable since this process releases internal stresses 8.With hardening, the metal becomes stronger 9.Iron is brittle. As a consequence it is mixed with other Alloying is a way of changing the properties of metals. In this way we can obtain materials with specific characteristics

6 TRUE/FALSE 1.Carbon makes steel harder. T (up to 1.5%) 2.When we want to make steel softer and easier to machine we use annealing. T 3.Annealing increases the internal stresses in the metal. F (Annealing releases stresses) 4.Steel can be hardened by cooling it slowly. F (by cooling it fast) 5.High carbon steel can be easily worked because it is soft. F (it becomes hard)

7 WORD FORMATION PercentAGE hammerING contractION crackING temperING annealiNG cooliNG DistortION treatMENT hardENING

8 EXERCISE CAUSE/ALLOW/PREVENT 1.B 2.C 3.B 4.A 5.A 6.C 7.C 8.B 9.Permits / allows …… prevents 10.Prevent

9 WORD FORMATION (U2) NOUN from VERB -ing -> English (e.g. building) -tion/sion ->Latin (e.g. Explanation/emission) - ment (e.g. management) -er/or (object) (e.g. boiler/conductor) -ure (e.g. mixture) -ent/ant (e.g. content/coolant) -nce (e.g. performance) -age (e.g. drainage) -al (e.g. disposal) -y (e.g. discovery)

10 WORD FORMATION 1.EXPOSURE to GASEOUS fluorine. 2.IMPROVEMENTS … RESISTANCE …FULLY … PITTING 3.DENSITY … its SUBSTITUTION …. WEIGHT …HARMFUL … EMISSIONS 4.its STRENGTH … its ABILITY … DEFORMATION …its RESISTANCE … to DEFLECTION 5.COMPONENTS … CHEMICALLY …. ENVIRONMENTALLY safer COOLANTS … higher PRESSURES

11 WORD FORMATION: Aluminium ACTIVITY ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS TOUGHNESS or DUCTILITY FAILURE. ACCEPTANCE COMPONENTS REFRIGERANTS or COOLANTS and PRESSURES WORKABILITY and corrosion RESISTANCE ABILITY STRENGTH TREATMENT

12 LISTENING: STEEL 1.an alloy of IRON and up to 1.7% CARBON, with small amounts of manganese, phosphorous, sulfur, and silicon 2.those with other metals 3. low-alloy steels have LESS THAN 5% of the alloying metal and high-alloy steels MORE THAN 5%. 4. Carbon steels are FAR STRONGER THAN IRON, and their properties can be tailored to their uses by adjusting COMPOSITION AND TREATMENT. 5.STAINLESS STEELS 6.Steel was first mass-produced in the MID-19TH CENTURY 7.The USA, the former Soviet Union, and Japan are the MAJOR PRODUCERS. 8.All steelmaking processes REMOVE THE IMPURITIES in the raw materials …and reduce iron ore BY OXIDIZING them WITH an air or oxygen blast

13 LISTENING: STEEL 9.THUS MOST OF THE CARBON, SILICON, manganese, phosphorus and sulfur ARE CONVERTED TO THEIR OXIDES and, … 10.The main processes are …or basic OXYGEN process, 11.…, used for HIGHEST-QUALITY STEEL; and the open- hearth process. 12.When THE IMPURITIES HAVE BEEN REMOVED, desired elements are added in calculated proportions 13.steel is cast as INGOTS that are shaped while still red-hot in rolling mills, or it may be cast as a continuous bar (strand casting). 14.The PROPERTIES OF CARBON STEELS may be greatly improved by HEAT TREATMENT: ANNEALING, CASE HARDENING and TEMPERING

14 CAUSE/PERMIT/PREVENT CAUSE: TO CAUSE + OBJ + TO INFINITIVE TO MAKE + OBJ + BASE FORM OF THE VERB hacer que + frase PERMIT: TO PERMIT + OBJECT + TO INFINITIVE TO ALLOW + OBJECT + TO INFINITIVE TO ENABLE + OBJECT + TO INFINITIVE TO LET + OBJECT + BASE FORM OF THE VERB permitir que + frase PREVENT: TO PREVENT + OBJECT + FROM + -ING TO AVOID + OBJECT + FROM + -ING TO STOP + OBJECT + FROM + -ING TO KEEP + OBJECT + FROM + -ING impedir que + frase

15 HEAT TREATMENT 1 THE PROPERTIES OF METALS CAN BE CHANGED IN DIFFERENT WAYS. A COMMON METHOD OF IMPROVING THEIR CHARACTERISTICS IS BY ALLOYING SEVERAL METALS. THIS METHOD CONSISTS OF HEATING THE METALS UNTIL THEY MELT IN ORDER TO OBTAIN THE REQUIRED PROPERTIES. FOR EXAMPLE, STEEL CONTAINING LITTLE CARBON WILL be SOFTER than steel with more carbon

16 HEAT TREATMENT 2 ON THE OTHER HAND, THE PROPERTIES OF STEEL CAN ALSO BE IMPROVEDBY HEAT TREATMENT. THIS IS THE NAME GIVEN TO A NUMBER OF PROCEDURES WHICH CONSIST OF HEATING THE METAL UP TO A CERTAIN TEMPERATURE AND THEN ALLOW THE METAL TO COOL AT DIFFERENT RATES

17 HEAT TREATMENT 3 ONE OF SUCH PROCEDURES IS KNOWN AS ANNEALING. IN THIS PROCESS, STEEL IS HEATED ABOVE ITS CRITICAL TEMPERATURE AND THEN IT IS COOLED SLOWLY. 4 AS A RESULT, THE METALBECOMES SOFTER AND MORE EASILY MACHINEABLE DUE TO THE FACT THAT THIS PROCESS PREVENTS INTERNAL STRESSES FROM OCCURRING

18 HEAT TREATMENT 5 AS OPPOSED TO ANNEALING, WE CAN MAKE THE METAL HARDER WITH THE PROCESS OF HARDENING. IN THIS CASE, WE LET THE METAL HEAT ABOVE ITS CRITICAL TEMPERATURE AND THEN WE ALLOW IT TO COOL FAST. 6 ON THE CONTRARY TO WHAT HAPPENED IN THE PROCESS OF ANNEALING,THE METAL OBTAINED WILL BE HARDER; HOWEVER, IT WILL BE BRITTLE SINCE THE RAPID COOLING CAUSES UNEQUAL CONTRACTIONS TO OCCURIN THE METAL, WHICH GIVES RISE TO CRACKING

19 HEAT TREATMENT 7 IN ORDER TO AVOID THIS PROBLEM, THE METALCAN BE HEATED BELOW ITS CRITICAL TEMPERATURE AND INSTEAD OF COOLING IT QUICKLY WE LET IT COOL SLOW LY; IN THIS WAY, DESPITE THE METAL BEING HARD, IT WILL ALSO BE TOUGH THUS ALLOWING US TO SHAPE IT WITHOUT FRACTURING


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