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Level 5 Diploma in Teaching and Learning ESOL/English 2506/8 John Keenan

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1 Level 5 Diploma in Teaching and Learning ESOL/English 2506/8 John Keenan

2 What do you love?

3 About teaching English/ESOL

4 Freire

5 Andragogik – Alexander Kapp 1833 ‘Adult education’ Self concept – experience – readiness to learn – orientation to learning

6 An Andragogic model (Knowles, 1973) (1)let learners know why something is important to learn (2)show learners how to direct themselves through information (3)relate the topic to the learners' experiences (4)motivate to learn (5)help overcome inhibitions, behaviours, and beliefs about learning

7 MOTIVATION

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10 Antz Demotivation

11 What is their motivation?

12 Why do it?What is their motivation?

13 The Diamond Choir from South Africa Why do it?What is their motivation?

14 Why do it? What is my motivation?

15 Motivation or…Getting the Buggers to Learn 1. Recognise they are demotivated 2. Use external motivators to learning 3. Motivating teaching styles 4. Recognise the motivating power of peers 5. Tap into internal motivators 6. Stroke your students 7. Become Theory Y teachers 8. Vary ways of teaching

16 ‘If we taught children to speak, they’d never learn’ ( William Hull cited in Holt, 1990: preface) ‘Most children in school fail’ (Holt, 1990: foreword) Afraid, bored, confused Recognise they are demotivated

17 ‘Nobody starts off stupid…what happens, as we get older, to this extraordinary capacity for learning and intellectual growth? What happens is that it is destroyed…We destroy this capacity above all by making afraid, afraid of being wrong…afraid to gamble, afraid to experiment, afraid to try the difficult and the unknown …We destroy the … love of learning in children…by encouraging and compelling them to work for petty and contemptible rewards – gold stars or papers marked 100 and tacked to the wall or A’s in report cards…We encourage them to feel that the end and aim of all they do in school is nothing more than to get a good mark on a test’ (Holt, 1990: pp.273-4) Recognise they are demotivated

18 Walls ‘Either learners play it safe and withdraw, feeling crushed and lacking in self-confidence as a result; or they hit out in retaliation, becoming disruptive. Either way pupils, and their learning, are damaged’. (Petty, 2004: p.16) Recognise they are demotivated

19 Poem for Everyman

20 Frederick Herzberg Good feelings ( Motivators ) = achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement and learning. Bad feelings ( Hygiene Factors ) policy and administration, supervision and working conditions. Do not motivate in themselves but failure to meet them causes dissatisfaction External Motivators to Learning

21 Hertzberg’s Hygiene Factors Recognise they have failedExternal Motivators to Learning

22 Teaching Styles er disciplin explainprovidarbit counsell protect organis lead or evaluat Motivating teaching styles postcards

23 Stanley Milgram we do what we’re told agentic state 1. Coercive CJ Glengarry LeadMotivating teaching styles

24 2. Referent LeadMotivating teaching styles

25 3. Expert LeadMotivating teaching styles

26 4. Legitimate LeadMotivating teaching styles

27 5. Reward Management LeadMotivating teaching styles

28 Coercive – motivation = Referent – motivation = Legitimate –motivation = Expert – motivation = Reward – motivation= LeadMotivating teaching styles

29 The Hawthorne Studies People adjust their own motivation to match those of others, - ‘a social event’. ‘Most children in school are at least afraid of the mockery and contempt of their peer group as they are of their teacher’ (Holt, 1990: p.???) Recognise the motivating power of peers

30 Abraham Maslow hierarchy of needs Internal Motivation Tap into internal motivation

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59 Maslow’s Triangle Tap into internal motivation Apply to teaching

60 McClelland’s Theory suggests that people have three needs: Achievement Power Affection personality defines – which one dominates Become Theory Y teachersTap into internal motivation Apply to teaching

61 Tap into internal motivation What motivates you? Apply to teaching

62 Developed by Eric Berne One of the strongest motivating forces is personal recognition from another person: STROKES Strokes = from positive words to full personal commitment. From great job to ‘I love you’ If people don’t get enough strokes they can get difficult and annoying. Negative strokes are better than nothing Transactional Theory Stroke your students

63 ‘Studies show that what we as teachers do is overwhelmingly more influential than what we say…A teacher who talks to, smiles at, encourages and helps students of Asian and European origin equally, is teaching the students to respect everyone regardless of their origins. Such inadvertent teaching is sometimes called the ‘hidden curriculum’ (Petty, 2004: p.19) Stroke your students

64 How do you stroke your students?

65 Become Theory Y teachers

66 Learning Strategy Already know Get attention Relevant Model Teams Goals Visuals Think and talk aloud Mnemonics Note taking Closure strategies – tell your partner what you know Adapted from Fulk 2000 cited in Sousa, 2001: 34 Vary ways of teaching

67 WHICH 3 DO YOU DO MOST OFTEN IN CLASS? MORI POLL COPY FROM A BOOK 6756 LISTEN TO THE TEACHER FOR A LONG TIME 3737 CLASS DISCUSSION 3131 Cited in Grey, 2006: 215 Vary ways of teaching

68 Existing concepts, knowledge and experience New learning Geoff Petty Vary ways of teaching

69 5 % 10 % 20 % 30 % 50 % 75 % 90 % Listening Reading Audio -Visual Demonstration Discussion groups Practice by doing Teach others/immediate use of learning Students Receive information Students Apply their Learning Students are Increasingly active, and challenged. Experience is increasingly practical and multi-sensory Student’s recall rate 25 ways of teaching without telling Vary ways of teaching

70 test role play class practical note taking demonstration explanation discussion question and answer watching a video summarising investigation Petty, 2004: p.22 Vary ways of teaching What do you do? Action planning for the future. explanation doing-detail use - practise check and corrected by peers, by teacher aide-memoir review evaluation tested under realistic conditions queries

71 Exercise: Learn to use apostrophe of possession Learn the ‘magic e’ rule Learn how to label what an adjective is And/or Complain about a pack of broken biscuits Complete a successful job interview Vary ways of teaching

72 How to Learn Process explanation doing-detail use - practise check and corrected by peers, by teacher aide-memoir review evaluation tested under realistic conditions queries Petty, 2004: p.23 Vary ways of teaching What do you do? Action planning for the future.

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