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Nucleic Acids Individual unit called a (mono)nucleotidePolymer Individual unit called a (mono)nucleotide DNA is a type of nucleic acid deoxyribonucleic acid
Nucleotide Structure 3 components: Pentose sugar Organic basePhosphate sugar base Stay the same Changes Contains nitrogen & carbon Pentose sugar (5 Carbon atoms) 3 components: Pentose sugar (ribose in DNA) Phosphoric acid Organic base (always contains nitrogen)
4 Bases Purines – Pyrimidines – Double ringed structureSingle ringed structure
Bondings The base and sugar join with a: glycosidic bondThe phosphate and sugar join with an: ester bond Both require a condensation reaction to occur
2 condensation reactions occur in the formation of a nucleotide:Phosphate 2 condensation reactions occur in the formation of a nucleotide: H Ester bond OH Glycosidic bond OH H Base Sugar
Tell me… 4 names of bases in DNA 3 components of a nucleotide1 place where a condensation reaction occurs 2 types of bonds in a nucleotide 1 difference between purine and pyrimidine bases
Phosphodiester Bonds: the sugar-phosphate-backbone
Complementary Base Pairing*Purines always pair with pyrimidines* A joins to T (2 hydrogen bonds) C joins to G (3 hydrogen bonds) see
5’ 3 hydrogen bonds 3’ C G 0.34nm A T 3’ 2 hydrogen bonds 5’ 2nm
Bonding relationshipsType of Base Purine Pyrimidine Structure Bonding relationships Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine = hydrogen bond
Type Purine Pyrimidine Structure Name Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine/ Uracil
For the DNA strand 5'-TACGATCATAT-3' the correct complementary DNA strand is:B 3'-ATGCTAGTATA-5' C 3'-AUGCUAGUAUA-5' D 3'-GCATATACGCG-5' E 3'-TATACTAGCAT-5'
Nucleotide 3 components: Pentose sugar; deoxyribose Phosphate groupNitrogenous base; 4 types: Join by condensation phosphate base Stay the same sugar Changes Contains nitrogen & carbon Ribose sugar in RNA Deoxyribose sugar in DNA Pentose sugar (5 Carbon atoms)
Nucleic Acids Individual unit called a (mono)nucleotide
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